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27.10.

2014

Outline

Prototyping

Engineering

Design Process

Prototyping

Asst. Prof. Dr. Onursal nen


Asst. Prof. Dr. M. I. Can Dede

Testing

Phone: 750-6772
e-mail: onursalonen@iyte.edu.tr

Engineering Design Process

Engineering Design Process

Identify

the Problem

What problem are you trying to


solve? => Mouse Trap
The design
The design
The design
The design
The design
effort.
The design
The design
mouse.

must be low cost.


should be safe, particularly with small children
should be detrimental to the environment.
should be aesthetically pleasing.
should be simple to operate, with minimum human
must be disposable.
should not cause undue pain and suffering for the

Engineering Design Process

Engineering Design Process

Research

Develop

the Problem

Collect all information relevant to


the problem:

Possible Solutions

Brainstorm
Be creative think outside the box
Multiple solutions to the same
problem

Is the problem real and its statement accurate?


Is there really a need for a new solution or has the problem already
been solved?
What are the existing solutions to the problem?
What is wrong with the way the problem is currently being solved?
What companies manufacture the existing solution to the problem?
What are the economic factors governing the solution?
How much will people pay for a solution to the problem?
What other factors are important to the problem solution (such as
safety, aesthetics and environmental issues?
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Engineering Design Process

Engineering Design Process

Choose

Construct

Best Solution
design solutions based on the following

Analyze

factors:

Prototype

Prototypes may not be fully tested or may not


work or operate as intended
Purpose: Test the design solution under real
conditions

Functional analysis will it function the way it should?


Ergonomics/ease of use how easy/hard is it for humans
to interactions with design?

Test

Safety is this a safe design?


Mechanical/Strength Analysis will the mechanical
components hold up during operation?

and Evaluate Solution

Design tests to tell you the following:


What works?
What doesnt work?
What can be fixed?
What has to be redesigned?

Electrical System Analysis how about the electrical


components?
Manufacturability/Testability Can the design be made
and tested with resources at hand?
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Engineering Design Process

Prototype

Communicate/Document

The word prototype derives from the Greek: "primitive form" from
protos, "first" and typos, "impression".

Performance

Solution

A prototype is a physical instantiation of a product, meant to be used


to help resolve one or more issues during the product development

Record:
Details of design
Manufacturing methods
Testing results

Reasons for using physical prototypes


Minimize risk during product development process
2.
Communication/Demonstration(show design form to get
feedback)
3.
Check Feasibility(uncover unpredicted phenomena)
4.
Parametric modeling(run a matrix of tests to select design
variables to optimize performance)
5.
Manufacturing/production(test component manufacturing
processes, and compatibility and assembly of components)
1.

Redesign

Design is an iterative process!


Redesign solution based on results
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Prototype

Prototype

Types of Prototypes

Guidelines for prototyping

1. Proof of Concept Model

1.
2.

2. Industrial design
Prototypes

3.
4.

3. Experimental Prototypes

5.

Use off-the-shelf components when possible


Know the catalogs
Hardware stores and product catalogs are great sources
for ideas and parts
Use parts from similar or analogous products
Rapid prototyping is not always rapid and is not always
cheaper

4. Alpha - Beta Gamma


etc. Prototypes
5. Pre-Production Prototypes

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Advanced Prototyping Technologies

Advanced Prototyping Technologies

Prototyping technologies and their base


materials

Advantages:

Creation of prototypes that closely emulate the


mechanical properties of the target design
Some technologies allow the combination of
black and white rigid materials in order to create
a range of grayscales suitable for consumer
electronics and other applications
Save time and cost by removing the need to
design, print and glue together separate model
parts made with different materials in order to
create a complete model.

Selective laser sintering (SLS): Thermoplastics,


metals, sand
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM):
Thermoplastics
Stereolithography (SL): Photopolymer
Lamination systems: Paper and plastic
Electron Beam Melting (EBM): Titanium alloys
3D Printing (3DP): Various materials
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Prototyping: Testing

Levels of Prototypes

The mock-ups are not the same as the


alpha prototype
Trial and error is not design-all tests must
have an analytical basis to be correctly
implemented
Testing should always supplement
calculations or manufacturer supplied data,
not substitute for it

Can

be manufactured for several purposes


level prototypes
Assembly level prototypes
Test Level
Product Level
Component

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Levels of Prototypes

Levels of Prototypes

Consider you are at North Korea,


given the task to design a new car
from scratch. If you fail, the
supreme leader will feed his
glorious dogs with your flesh.

Investigate
Whats been done?
How they are done?
What do you need to have it done?

All parts and components should


be designed, developed to form the
car assembly and then should be
tested for several different
performance criteria that the
supreme leader decided.
What would you start with?
How do you plan the protoyping?

After gathering information


Break the design into smaller parts into a branch
like structuce
Define assemblies with several levels of sub
assemblies
Design starting from the most basic parts and verify
design by prototypes when necessary starting from
sub-level assemblies
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Levels of Prototypes

Levels of Prototypes

Start with the heart: We need an engine. What is the first


thing to design?
Combustion chamber

After component level design and prototype is


complete, proceed to engine assembly
Engine prototype to verify:

Make the design: heat transfer, fluid dynamics, chemical


dynamics
Verify design: prototype of the combustion chamber to
investigage:

Performance
Durability
Developed

Power output How close to the design?


Combustion efficiency?

the engine!!

Steering

Piston

assembly
block
Triggering mechanism
Cooling system
Exhaust

Chasis

Engine

Sub systems: belts, alternator, water pump,


electronics, AC, etc.

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Levels of Prototypes

Testing

System

Goes hand-in-hand with prototyping most of the


time
Powerful design and simulation tools
Tests for various purposes

Level Prototypes

System Assemblies
Engine + Cooling system
Engine + Gearbox
Chasis + Engine
Product Level
Car Assembly

Development tests: New technology, new material, new process


Verification tests

Prototype

Part or component level: Covers a wide range from static,


dynamic, fatigue, crack propagation safety
Assembly level tests
Product level tests

Test Level Prototype


Static Test Prototype
Dynamic Test Prototype
Fatigue/Durability Prototype

Performance
Certification

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Testing Development Tests

Testing Verification Tests

New

Done

technology, new material, new process

Composites,

laser machining, MEMS and NEMS


done by big and leading companies (or
countries) who are able to invest in fundemental
development
CMOS (integrated circuits): Bell Labs
Composites in aviation: Boeing & Airbus
Mannhattan Project
Usually

to verify a design,
because most technological
developments are based on
ideas that are being designed
and investigated
Can be anything ranging
from strain gauge tests to
dynamic tests to verify
A

concept
design
A simulation or optimization
A

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Testing Component Level Tests

Testing Component Level Tests

Tests being done on prototypes of components or


actual components for quality assurance
Static Tests

Static

Tests

Loading,

bending
Instrumentation: Humans(?), load cells, strain
gauges, hydraulic or mechanic loading, data acquisition
Typical

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Testing Component Level Tests

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Testing Assembly Level Tests

Dynamic Tests
Inertial forces, body forces, impact
forces, suspension and drive comfort
Typical Instrumentation: Accelerometers,
gyroscopes, pressure sensors, data
acquisition

Components

assembled for the final product


well the system behaves
Could be the end product or close to end (vehicle
tests without cushions or windshield vipers)
Post-assembly tests
How

Metrology, quality control


Static and dynamic testing
Tolerances

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Testing Product Level Tests

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Testing Certification Tests

Performance!!!!
How

well the end products perform with respect to


important design criteria: force, power, cooling,
noise, temperature, efficiency, fuel consumption,
speed, maneuverability
The most important outcomes for high-tech products
Determine how well the products will compete with similar
products

Marketing
Durability,

relaibility during service life


last step to decide whether the design is ready
to be released or not

The

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In order to sell a critical product in a certain


region, you have to certify your product for safety
and performance
Local or global
Aircrafts of any size or type (FAA and EASA)
Military devices and vehicles of any size or type
(MIL spec for NATO affiliated militaries)
CE certification for EU Zone
ISO Quality Documents
Compulsory or optional

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Testing Certification Tests

Testing Certification Tests

Aircrafts of any size or type (FAA and EASA)


Design and manufacturing takes 4 to 6 years in average for a
turbo-prop aircraft
Certification takes usually 2 years
Each step of your design, manufacturing, facilities, material,
processes, every single component and system you
manufacture or buy should be in accordance with the
certification
Either you show proof or have to convince the authority that
what you did was in accordance with the rules
You have to meet all the safety requirements in all prescribed
safety scenarios: emergency landing, pilot ejection, running
out of fuel, etc.

CE certification
A quality and safety assurance that the product meets EU
standards
Documents you have to follow from noise level allowance for
any machinary to hardness of a bike part, from hazardous
chemicals to pens
Certified laboratory testing or approval. Either:

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Have the tests done at certifies laboratory (more feasible for small
number of products).
The lab is responsible
Have your certificate by prooving you are capable of conducting and
reporting the test with respect to specified documents.
You are the responsible.

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