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Data Communication: - Data Communication is the exchange of data between

two devices via some form of transmission medium such as a wire cable. For data communication to occur the communicating device must be part of a communication system made up of a combination of hardware and software. The effectiveness of a data communication system depends on three fundamental characteristics. 1. Delivery: - The system must deliver data to the correct destination. Data must be received by the intended device or user and only by that device or user. 2. Accuracy: - The system must deliver the data accurately. Data that have been altered in transmission and left uncorrected are unusable. 3. Timeliness: - The system must deliver data in a timely manner. Data delivered late are useless. In the case of video and audio, timely delivery means delivering data as they are produced in the same order, that they are produced and without significant delay. This kind of delivery is called real-time transmission. Components: - A data communication system has 5 components. 1. Message: - The message is the information to be communicated. It can consist of text, numbers, pictures, sounds or video or any combination of these. 2. Sender: - The sender is the device that sends the data message. It can be a computer, workstation, telephone handset, video camera and so on. 3. Receiver: - The receiver is the device that receives that message. It can be a computer, workstation, telephone handset etc. 4. Medium: - The Transmission medium is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver. It could be twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable or radio waves. 5. Protocol: - A protocol is a set of rules that governs data communication. It represents an agreement between the communicating devices. Without a protocol, two device may be connected but not communicating.

Transmission Mode: A given transmission on a communications channel between two machines can occur in several different ways. The transmission is characterised by: y The direction of the exchanges. y The transmission mode: the number of bits sent simultaneously.
There are 3 different transmission modes characterised according to the direction of the exchanges: 1. Simplex: - In simplex mode, the communication is unidirectional, as on a one-way street. Only one of the two devices on a link can transmit, the other can only receive. This type of connection is useful if the data do not need to flow in both directions. (for example, from your computer to the printer or from the mouse to your computer...).

2. Half Duplex: - In half-duplex mode, each station can both transmit and receive, but not at the same time. When one device is sending the other can only receive and vice-versa. The half duplex mode is like a one-lane road with two-directional traffic. Example can be alkie-Talkie.

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3. Full Duplex: - In full-duplex (also called duplex) both station can transmit and received simultaneously. The full duplex is like a two way street with traffic flowing in both directions at the same time. Full-Duplex can be done by 2 way. Either the link must contain two physical separate transmission paths, one for sending and the other for receiving or the capacity of the channel is divided between signals traveling in both directions. Example is Telephone Network.

There are 2 different transmission modes characterised according to the number of bits sent simultaneously Serial and parallel transmission The transmission mode refers to the number of elementary units of information (bits) that can be simultaneously translated by the communications channel. In fact, processors (and therefore computers in general) never process (in the case of recent processors) a single bit at a time; generally they are able to process several (most of the time it is 8: one byte), and for this reason the basic connections on a computer are parallel connections.

Parallel connection
Parallel connection means simultaneous transmission of N bits. These bits are sent simultaneously over N different channels (a channel being, for example, a wire, a cable or any other physical medium). The parallel connection on PC-type computers generally requires 10 wires.

These channels may be: y N physical lines: in which case each bit is sent on a physical line (which is why parallel cables are made up of several wires in a ribbon cable) y one physical line divided into several sub-channels by dividing up the bandwidth. In this case, each bit is sent at a different frequency...

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Serial connection
In a serial connection, the data are sent one bit at a time over the transmission channel. However, since most processors process data in parallel, the transmitter needs to transform incoming parallel data into serial data and the receiver needs to do the opposite.

Networks
A network is a set of devices (also called nodes) connected by communication links. A node can be a computer, printer or any other device capable of sending and / or receiving data generated by other nodes on the networks. Network Criteria : A network must be able to meet a certain number of criteria. 1. Performance: Performance can be measured in many ways, including transit time and response time. Transit Time is the amount of Time required for a message to travel from one device to another. Response time is the elapsed time between an inquiry and a response. The performance of a network depends on a number of factors, including the number of users, the type of transmission medium, the capabilities of the connected hardware and the efficiency of the software. 2. Reliability: In addition to accuracy of delivery, network reliability is measured by the frequency of failure, the time it takes a link to recover from a failure. 3. Security: Network security issues include protecting data from unauthorized access.

TYPE OF CONNECTION :
A network is two or more device connected together through links. A link is a communication pathway that transfer data from one device to another. For communication to occur, two devices must be connected in some way to the same link. There are two possible type of connection: 1) Point-to-Point: - A point-to-point connection provides a dedicated link between two devices. The entire capacity of the link is reserved for transmission between those two devices. Most point-to-point connections use an actual length of wire or cable to connect the two ends, but other options, such as microwave or satellite links are also possible. When you change television channels by infrared remote control, you are establishing a point-to-point connection between the remote control and the television¶s control system. 2) Multipoint (broadcast): -Broadcast systems have a single communication channel that is shared by all the machines on the networks. Data or say packets of data sent by any machine are received by all the others. An address fields within the packets specifies for whom it is intended. Upon receiving a packet a machine checks the address field. If the packets is intended for some other machine, it is just ignored. Broadcast systems generally also allow the possibility of addressing a packet to all destinations by using a special code in the address fields. When a packet with this code is transmitted, it is received and processed by every machine on the network. This technique is called ³Multicasting´. Broadcast system can be further divided into static and dynamic, depending on ³how the channel is allocated´. 3

A typical Static Allocation would be to divide up time into discrete intervals, and run a round robin, allowing each machine to broadcast only when its time slot comes up. Static allocation wastes channel capacity when a machine has nothing to say during its allocated slot, so some systems attempt to allocate the channel dynamically. Dynamic allocation methods for a common channel are centralized or decentralized. In the centralized channel allocation method, there is a single entity, which determines who goes next. It might do this by accepting requests and making a decision according to some internal algorithm. In the decentralized channel allocation method, there is no central entity; each machine must decide for itself whether or not to transmit.

³Computer Network´
Computer Network to mean an interconnected collection of autonomous computer. Two computers are said to be interconnected if they are able to exchange information. The connection need not be via a copper wire; lasers, microwaves and communication satellites can also be used. If one computer are forcibly start, stop or control another one the computer are not autonomous

³Distributed System´
A distributed system consists of a collection of autonomous computers, connected through a network and distribution middleware, which enables computer to coordinate their activities and to share the resource of the system, so that users perceive the system as a single integrated computing facility. Distinction between Computer Network and Distributed System The key distinction is that in a distributed system, the existence of multiple autonomous computers is transparent (i.e. not visible) to the user. You can type a command to run a program and it runs. It is up to the operating system to select the best processor, find and transport all the input files to that processor and put the result in the appropriate place. In other words, the user of a distributed system is no aware that there are t multiple processors; it looks like a virtual uniprocessor. Allocation of jobs to processors and files to disks movement of files between where they are stored and where they are needed and all other system functions must be automatic. With a network, a user must explicitly log on to one machine, explicitly submit jobs remotely, explicitly move files around and generally handle all the network management personally. With a distributed system nothing has to be done explicitly; it is all automatically done by the system without the user¶s knowledge. A distributed system is a special case of a network, one whose software gives it a high degree of transparency. Thus the distinction between a network and a distributed system lies with the software rather than with the hardware.

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