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Introduction

Purpose of the course


The purpose of the course is to assist maritime training institutes and their teaching staff
in organizing and introducing new training courses or in enhancing, updating or
supplementing existing training material where the quality and effectiveness of the
training courses may thereby be improved.
It is not the intention of the course programme to present instructors with a rigid
teaching package which they are expected to follow blindly. Nor is it the intention to
substitute audiovisual or programmed material for the instructors presence. As in all
training endeavors, the knowledge, skills and dedication of the instructor are the key
components in the transfer of knowledge and skills to those being trained through
course material.
Because educational systems and the cultural backgrounds of trainees in maritime
subjects vary considerably from country to country, the course material has been
designed to identify the basic entry requirements and trainee target group for each
course in universally applicable terms, and the skill necessary to meet the technical
intent of IMO conventions and related recommendations.
Use of the course
To use the course, the instructor should review the course plan and detailed syllabus,
taking into account the information provided under the entry standards specified in the
course framework. The actual level of knowledge and skills and prior technical
education of the trainees should be kept in mind during this review, and any areas within
the detailed syllabus which may cause difficulties because of differences between the
actual trainee entry level and that assumed by the course designer should be identified.
To compensate for such differences, the instructor is expected to delete from the
course, or reduce the emphasis on, items dealing with knowledge or skills already
attained by the trainees. He should also identify any academic knowledge, skills or
technical training which they may not have acquired.
By analyzing the detailed syllabus and the academic knowledge required to allow
training in the technical area to proceed, the instructor can design an appropriate preentry course or, alternatively, insert the elements of academic knowledge required to
support the technical training elements concerned at appropriate points within the
technical course.
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Adjustment of the course objectives, scope and content may also be necessary if in
your maritime industry the trainees completing the course are to undertake duties which
differ from the course objectives specified in the course.
Within the course plan the course designers have indicated their assessment of the time
which should be allotted to each learning area. However, it must be appreciated that
these allocations are arbitrary and assume that the trainees have fully met all the entry
requirements of the course. The instructor should therefore review these assessments
and may need to reallocate the time required to achieve each specific learning
objective.
Lesson plans
Having adjusted the course content to suit the trainee intake and any revision of the
course objectives, the instructor should draw up lesson plans based on the detailed
syllabus. The detailed syllabus contains specific references to the textbooks or teaching
material proposed to be used in the course. Where no adjustment has been found
necessary in the learning objectives of the detailed syllabus, the lesson plans may
simply consist of the detailed syllabus with keywords or other reminders added to assist
the instructor in making his presentation of the material.
Presentation
The presentation of concepts and methodologies must be repeated in various ways until
the instructor is satisfied, by testing and evaluating the trainees performance and
achievements, that the trainee has attained each specific learning objective or training
outcome. The syllabus is laid out in learning objective format and each objective
specifies a required performance or, what the trainee must be able to do as the learning
or training outcome. Taken as a whole, these objectives aim to meet the knowledge,
understanding and proficiency specified in the appropriate tables of the STCW Code.
Implementation
For the course to run smoothly and to be effective, considerable attention must be paid
to the availability and use of:

properly qualified instructors


support staff
rooms and other spaces
equipment
textbooks, technical papers
other reference material
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Part A: Course Framework

Course Framework
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Aims
This course aims to provide the training for Maritime leaders and managers. This is to
enhance their leadership and managerial skill.
Objective
Differentiate leaders and managers
Match the types of situational leadership with maturity level of subordinates in the
organization
Identify the activities to be undertaken in planning
Enumerate the four (4) activities required in organizing
Identify what is controlling
Differentiate the activities of controlling
Describe the importance of prioritization in the work area
Enumerate the factors that increase complexity in prioritization.
Entry standards
The course is open to all Maritime leaders and managers who are to serve on any
Maritime organization such as shipping companies, Maritime schools, training centers
or to any personnel who will serve onboard sea going merchant ships as senior officers
Course certificate
On successful completion of the course and demonstration of competence, a document
may be issued certifying that the holder has met the standard of competence.
A certificate maybe issued only by centres approved by the administration.
Course intake limitations
The maximum number of trainees attending each session will depend on the availability
of the instructors, equipment and facilities available for conducting the training. It should
not exceed 24 trainees per instructor.
Staff requirements
The course should preferably be under the control of a qualified instructor assisted by
other appropriate trained staff.
Training facilities and equipment
Ordinary classroom facilities and an overhead projector are required for the lectures.
Whiteboard and marker should be readily available when it is needed.
Teaching aids
Instructor manual
.
References

1. Managerial Enhancement Program - A Training Program for TORM Shipping


Philippines Inc.
2. Managerial Enhancement Program (Track 2 Honing Skills in Managing Tasks
and Leading People) for TORM Shipping Philippines Inc.
3. Ryan Hale Author of Prioritization means agreeing what not to do, yet

Part B: Course Outline and Timetable

Course Outline and Timetable


Lectures

As far as possible lectures should be presented within a familiar context and should
make use of practical examples. They should be well illustrated with diagrams,
photographs and charts where appropriate, and be related to life at sea.
An effective manner of presentation is to develop a technique of giving information and
then reinforcing it. For example, first tell the trainees briefly what you are going to
present to them, then cover the topic in detail; and, finally summarize what you have
told them. The use of an overhead projector and the distribution of copies of the
transparencies as trainees handouts contribute to the learning process.
Course Outline
The tables that follow list the competencies and areas of knowledge, understanding and
proficiency, together with the estimated total hours required for lectures and practical
exercises. Teaching staff should note the timings are suggestions only and should be
adopted to suit individual groups of trainees depending on their experience, ability,
equipment and staff available for training.

Course Outline
Competence:

Use of leadership and managerial skills


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Course Outline
Knowledge, understanding and proficiency
1. Introduction
a. Distinguishing Leaders and Managers
b. Situational Leadership
c. Task Maturity Level of Subordinates
2. Planning
2.1 Forecasting
2.2 Objective Setting
2.3 Action Planning
2.4 Scheduling
2.5 Budgeting
2.6 Contingency Planning
2.7 Developing Policies
2.8 Formulating Procedures
3. Organizing
3.1 Developing the Organizational Structure
3.2 Defining Jobs
3.3 Delegating
3.4 Establishing Work Unit Linkages
4. Controlling
4.1 Establishing of Standards
4.2 Performance Measuring Time
4.3 Performance Evaluating
4.4 Performance Correcting
5. Prioritization
5.1 Definition
5.2 Opportunity Radar
5.3 Factors that Increase Complexity
Total
6. Review and Assessment

Approximate time
(hours)
Lectures

8.0

8.0

8.0

8.0

8.0
40.0

Note: Teaching staff should note that outlines are suggestions only as regards
sequence and length of time allocated to each objective. These factors may be adapted
by lecturers to suit individual groups of trainees depending on their experience, ability,
equipment and staff available for training.

Part C: Detailed Teaching Syllabus

Detailed Teaching Syllabus


The teaching syllabus has been written in learning-objective format in which objective
describes what the trainee must do to demonstrate that knowledge has been
transferred.
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All objectives are understood to be prefixed by the words At the end of the course, the
trainees will be able to

Competence
Use leadership and managerial skills
Knowledge, understanding, and proficiency
Knowledge of leadership and management
Learning Objectives
Differentiate leaders and managers
Match the types of situational leadership with maturity level of subordinates in the
organization
Identify the activities to be undertaken in planning
Enumerate the four (4) activities required in organizing
Identify what is controlling
Differentiate the activities of controlling
Describe the importance of prioritization in the work area
Enumerate the factors that increase complexity in prioritization.

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency


1. Introduction
Required performance:
a. Distinguishing Leaders and Managers (2 hours)
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b. Situational leadership (1 hour)


c. Types of Situational Leadership and Maturity Level (1 hour)
2. Planning
Required performance:
a. Forecasting (2 hours)
b. Objective Setting (2 hours)
c. Action Planning (1.5 hours)
d. Scheduling (1 hour)
e. Budgeting (1.5 hours)
f. Contingency Planning (1.5 hours)
g. Developing Policies (1 hours)
h. Formulating Procedures (1.5 hours)
3. Organizing
Required performance:
a. Developing the Organizational Structure (2 hours)
b. Defining Jobs (2 hours)
c. Delegating (2 hours)
d. Establishing Work Unit Linkages (2 hours)

4. Controlling
Required performance:
a. Establishing of Standards (2 hours)
b. Performance Measuring Time (2 hours)
c. Performance Evaluating (2 hours)
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d. Performance Correcting (2 hours)


5. Prioritization
Required performance:
a. Definition (3 hours)
b. Prioritization tools and opportunity radar (3 hours)
c. Factors that increase complexity (2 hours)

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Part D: Instructor Manual

Instructor Manual
The instruction manual provides guidance on the material that is to be presented during
the course.
The detailed teaching syllabus is arranged in four main sections with corresponding
subsections. The times allocated for each section are suggested values, and the
instructor should adjust them as necessary. In particular, it may be found necessary to
increase the times allocated for practical applications to ensure that the trainees can be
demonstrate their competence to carry out the procedures and measures effectively.

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Maritime Leadership and Managerial Skills Enhancement

I. Introduction
A. Distinguishing Managing and Leading
Two important distinctions separate leadership and management. You manage things,
but you lead people. Managers work with processes, models and systems -- things.
Leaders, however, must work with people and their emotions.
A manager is:

one selected by those higher up (superiors at work) to perform the processes of


administration,
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tasked with combining people and resources in ways that will achieve the objectives
of the group

one with the assigned role of perfecting the system and making sure it continues to
perform as wanted and needed

A leader, on the other hand, is:

not necessarily part of the formal organizational authority system

accepted by others for his objectives, values, ideas, enthusiasm, and wisdom

identified by his followership, by the fact that others voluntarily accept his influence

chosen by those who follow his example, good or bad, because for whatever reason,
they approve it.

The table below reflects some differences between management and leadership:
MANAGEMENT
maintains the status quo
maintenance-oriented
does things right
asks how and when
control-oriented
systems and structures
short-term view
Controlling and problem
solving
Planning and budgeting

LEADERSHIP
challenges status quo
change-oriented
does right thing
asks what and why
empowers others to act
people-oriented
long-range perspective
Motivates and inspire
Big picture

The basic difference between managing and leading is that managing produces orderly
results while leading creates useful change. Managers do things right (efficiency), but
leaders do the right things (effectiveness). When you think about doing things right,
then, you think about control mechanisms and the how-to of accomplishing things.
This process is management. When you think about doing the right things, on the other
hand, your mind immediately goes toward thinking about the future, thinking about
dreams, missions, strategic intent, and purpose. This approach is leadership.
Management relies heavily on tangible measurable competence such as: effective
planning, the use of organizational systems, and the use of appropriate control
methods. Leadership relies strongly on less tangible and measurable things like
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attitude, trust, inspiration, decision-making, enabled mainly by the leader's character


and especially his emotional reserves.

Situational Leadership
The Situational Leadership model for the classification of leadership styles was
developed by Dr. Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hershey. The gist is " different strokes
for different folks" which emphasizes that leader behavior should be adapted to the kind
or maturity level of subordinates being supervised and the situation at hand. It
recognizes that "the more managers adapt their style of leader behavior to meet the
particular situation and the needs of their followers, the more effective they will tend to
be in reaching personal and organizational goals." Effective leaders are able to adjust
their styles to accommodate their followers need for guidance and direction (task

behavior) as well as their need for emotional support (relationship


behavior).
The four different leadership styles under this model are :
Style 1 (S1): DIRECTING

providing specific instructions and


closely supervising task
accomplishment of subordinates

a high-task, low-relationship style

Style 2 (S2): COACHING

continuing to direct and closely


supervise task accomplishment;
explaining task directions in a
supportive and persuasive way

explaining decisions to solicit


suggestions from subordinates and
supporting progress of subordinates

a high-task, high-relationship style

Style 3 (S3): SUPPORTING

facilitating and supporting


subordinate's efforts towards task
accomplishment

sharing responsibility for decision


making and emphasizing shared ideas
and participative decisions on task
directions

Style 4 (S4): DELEGATING

turning over responsibility for decision


making and problem-solving

allowing the subordinate to make and


take responsibility for task decisions

a low-task, low-relationship style

a low-task, high-relationship style


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Task Maturity Level of Subordinates


Task maturity is defined as the capacity to set challenging but attainable goals, the
willingness and motivation to take responsibility, and the display of knowledge and skills
derived from education and experience in the work setting.
A subordinates task maturity is determined by references to specific development
levels on these two critical areas:
Ability person's skills
or capability to
do the job
competence

Motivation person's
willingness or
desire to do the
job
commitment

Knowledge derived from education


and/or experience

Skills and competence derived from


experience

Understanding of ones functions

Role perception and understanding of


others expectations

Feeling of security in ones job

Level of self-confidence in ones


capacity to do the job

Willingness to take responsibility for


job functions

Anticipation of potential incentives


such as rewards and recognition

On the basis of different interplays of these two references of development levels, there are four
classifications of the maturity level of subordinate employees / followers in the organization,
namely:

M1 - Subordinates with Low Motivation and Low Ability


(unable and unwilling or insecure)
M2 - Subordinates with High Motivation and Low (some) Ability
(unable but willing or confident)
M3 - Subordinates with Low (or variable) Motivation and High
Ability (able but willing or insecure)
M4 - Subordinates with High Motivation and High Ability
(able and willing or confident)

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Summary
Maturity Level

Situational Leadership Style

Motivation

Ability

S1

Directing

M1

Low

Low

S2

Coaching

M2

High

Low

S3

Support

M3

Low

High

S4

Delegating

M4

High

High

II. Planning

Planning involves the processes by which managers look into the future by setting
objectives, determining the steps to be undertaken to achieve these objectives, and
identifying who are to be involved in the various action steps, when these would be
done, and the resources required to attain the objectives.
Planning involves the undertaking of the following activities:
a. Forecasting
This involves the projection of results and outcomes and future trends for the
organization using systematic approaches.
Statistical projections based on
empirical data such as historical trends of organizational and industry group
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performance and information about the social, technological, economic, and political
(STEP) considerations prevailing in the external environment are among the key
information needed for forecasting.
b. Objective Setting
This entails the determination of the results and outputs to be accomplished. There
are several levels of objective setting, from the determination of long-range strategic
objectives affecting the entire organization to the formulation of short-range goals
for departmental or work unit operations.
c. Action Planning
Also called programming, this involves the determination of the action steps or
activities that need to be undertaken to be able to meet the objectives thus set.
d. Scheduling
As all objectives need to be time-bound in terms of completion date, this planning
activity involves the establishment of time lines for the accomplishment of each of
the action steps leading to a deadline for goals achievement.
e. Budgeting
This involves the systematic programming of organizational activities based on their
costs and the amount of resources available. This involves the allocation of
resources, mainly but not limited to financial, that will be required for the attainment
of the objectives. The concept of budgeting is not limited only to the projection of
required resource utilization but also covers an estimate of expected income to be
generated.
f. Contingency Planning
As not all plans and the corresponding program steps are fool-proof, part of the
planning process would be the development of preventive action to forestall
problems and hurdles that could be encountered in the course of plan execution. At
the same time, there is a need for contingency planning or the development of a
plan B which will be put to effect when actual problems are encountered.
g. Developing Policies
Policies are guides or basic rules developed by management to govern action at all
levels in the organization and serve as the basis for action on repetitive concerns,
issues, and problems related to organizational operations. They are developed on
the basis of the philosophical orientation of an organization and are meant to
contribute to operational efficiency and effectiveness.
h. Formulating Procedures
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Considering that many organizational activities are recurrent or repetitive in nature,


this planning activity of formulating procedures becomes helpful as it covers the
development and application of standardized procedures and guidelines for and
methods of performing specified work.
These procedures take off from policies and are explicit guidelines of how policies
are to be translated to decisions and actions within the organization. In effect, the
procedures serve as guides for current and future work activities of organizational
members in pursuance of their work activities.

III. Organizing

Organizing is the management process that involves the assignment of tasks, grouping
of tasks and work activities to be performed into meaningful and manageable units,
allocation of resources, arrangement of work activities, identification of relationships
within a cooperative group of people in an organization, and the assignment of authority
and responsibility to people towards work accomplishment.
Organizing requires that the following activities be undertaken:
1. Developing the Organizational Structure
This involves the development of the most responsive and appropriate
organizational structure (inclusive of the functional and organizational charts) that
will support organizational mission, vision, and strategies.
2. Defining Jobs
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This activity covers the assignment of functions into specific jobs or positions and
grouping of tasks into departments or defined work units.
3. Delegating
This activity involves the devolution of functions, accountability, and responsibility to
others for the performance of specific tasks or activities and the determination of
responsibility for results. Delegation is done not only to unload managers with less
critical functions, but also to motivate and train subordinate employees.
4. Establishing Work Unit Linkages
Essentially involving coordination, this activity ensures that different departments
and work units within an organization recognize their linkages and inter-dependence
as internal suppliers and customers to each other. Coordinating activities cover the
authority structure, information systems, and both formal coordination structure and
informal mechanism intended to promote collaborative efforts in the attainment of
shared objectives. Expectation planning sessions between and among work units
in an organization are activities related to establishing work linkages.

IV. Controlling
This function involves the monitoring and evaluation of organizational activities to
ensure that the objectives that have earlier been set are being met. It also involves
taking preventive and contingent action in relation to problems encountered and
situations marked by deviations between how organizational performance and
results are and how they are expected to be.
The activities associated with the controlling function of management are the
following:
1. Establishing Performance Standards
This activity is tied up with the planning function in the sense that it involves the
determination of the criteria and indicators for judging successful performance.
2. Performance Measuring
This activity entails the comparison of results versus objectives for a particular time
frame at organizational or departmental levels. Thus, it covers the review of both in23

progress as well as completed work to measure the degree by which goals are
achieved and performance standards are met.
3. Performance Evaluating
This involves the appraisal of individuals in the organization as to how they are able
to achieve their respective work goals and to exhibit the various job dimensions and
factors contributory to being a valued employee in the organization. Concurrent
feedback on how individual employees are doing, regular progress review meetings,
and the annual performance appraisal interview constitute activities related to
performance evaluating.
4. Performance Correcting
Performance correcting means regulating and improving methods and systems and
results by taking action on collective and individual performance that do not meet
pre-determined standards for acceptable performance.

V. Prioritization

Prioritization means agreeing what not to do, yet


While many leadership teams focus almost exclusively on effective execution of
projects, their role in allocating resources through effective prioritization can have an
equal or greater effect on the magnitude of results an organization can achieve. This
article will review two common pitfalls leadership teams encounter and introduce a
straightforward tool to help your team achieve alignment on priorities quickly.
Written by Ryan Hale
Prioritization in a leadership team is like the water heater supplying your shower: barely
noticed when working well, but frustrating, de-motivating, and impossible to ignore when
broken. Although water heaters rarely go more than a few days before receiving needed
repairs, many teams will suffer for long periods before investing time to improve their
alignment of priorities. If the problem of misaligned priorities is so easy to spot, why is it
seemingly difficult to correct? Most businesses have adopted flatter organizational
structures requiring frequent cross-functional interaction and decision-making. We seek
input and approval from our counterparts in neighboring functions because our goals
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and personal incentives are interdependent. Regardless, in times of urgency or


pressure, the me-first survival instinct often appears in the form of silo thinking among
cross-functional teams. Prioritization lights the fuse that leads to an explosion of results
by controlling resource allocation.
In a world of scarce resources (time, money, talent) deciding which opportunities to
pursue largely dictates the rate of improvement, and therefore performance against
goals. For cross-functional and interdependent organizations, alignment and
cooperation when setting priorities is critical to success. Ineffective prioritization will
prevent organizations from achieving goals for two main reasons:
1. Resourcing too many opportunities at the same time
2. Pursuing opportunities that do not provide the maximum rate of improvement. Many
people are familiar with the signs of the first problem: long hours, juggling many
projects, overlapping deadlinesyet nothing seems to be closer to conclusion, the
performance trends are flat at best, and communications from/among leaders are chock
full of number one priorities. The second problem is harder to notice because it is only
apparent after the fact10% ROI for an 18-month project seems great until we achieve
300% ROI by addressing a different opportunity, and the group wishes it had started the
second project 18 months earlier.
The first way to improve prioritization in a leadership team is to reach explicit agreement
on the order in which to pursue potential opportunities. More specifically, this means
understanding which opportunities the group is not going to pursue presently. This
prevents diluting resources on too many projects at once, and reverses the effects of
the first problem described above. For some groups, a straightforward conversation is
enough cut off the list of resourced projects at a fixed number. One team described this
conversation as taking the courage to say no and hold each other to pulling resources
from certain commitments, even if they are already underway. Balancing the leadership
demand with the true resource supply in the organization immediately creates focus
and enables a higher rate of improvement for the active opportunities. This approach
sounds straightforward enough for the open, trusting team whose members are willing
to park personal projects for the sake of the groups success. But what if the group cant
reach consensus on the basis of opinion alone? And how does the team have the
confidence that their gut feel on a given day matches the underlying economics of the
business? The answer to both these question is: set priorities based on facts.
To employ fact-based prioritization, a team should agree the relative priority of
improvement areas by comparing the value and complexity of each. Find a common
unit to measure value that is relevant to the leadership teamstart with annualized
dollars and simplify if needed. Complexity is more subjective, and because none of the
opportunities on the list has been realized yet, the team should adopt the attitude that
complexity is low until the facts prove otherwise. The sidebar contains a list of factors
that can increase complexitythe goal of the discussion is to agree the relative
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complexity of each using facts wherever possible. Graphically, the group can plot the
opportunities on the list using value and complexity as axes. The Opportunity Radar
chart below depicts this.

Although it may sound like an arts & crafts projects, many leadership teams have
commented how hanging this chart on the meeting room wall (sticky notes make this
simple) improves agreement, prevents miscommunication, and
provides a quick reference tool when reassigning resources. This discussion to agree
priorities is not a one-time eventas new information and opportunities come to light,
and as currently resourced projects achieve results, the list of opportunities changes as
does each opportunitys relative priority (and therefore its position on the Radar). If this
topic of actively reviewing priorities is not already on the standing agenda for your
leadership team, plan for a regular prioritization discussion. For most businesses,
quarterly is the minimum frequency, otherwise the playing field shifts too far in between.
Monthly is the maximum frequency, otherwise the group can risk entering firefighting
mode without addressing longer-term opportunities. Prioritization tools, like the process
described here and the Opportunity Radar, do not replace leadership thinking and
direct, open conversations among a teamthey are just tools to help reach conclusions
faster. By first making sure that the organization is working on the right amount of
things, and then checking the facts to ensure people are working on the right things to
maximize results, a leadership team can increase the organizations rate of
improvement, allowing everyone to reap the rewards.
Factors that increase complexity:

Time to implement solutions


Cost of solutions
Regulatory risk
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Man hours required


Assumptions about the technical difficulty
Previous failed attempts
Cross

Part E. Assessment

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Questions
I. Multiple choice questions: Encircle the correct answer.
1. This involves the development of the most responsive and appropriate
organizational structure (inclusive of the functional and organizational charts) that
will support organizational mission, vision, and strategies.
A. Developing the Organizational Structure
B. Defining Jobs
C. Delegating
D. Establishing Work Unit Linkages
2. This activity covers the assignment of functions into specific jobs or positions and
grouping of tasks into departments or defined work units.
A. Developing the Organizational Structure
B. Defining Jobs
C. Delegating
D. Establishing Work Unit Linkages
3. Is done not only to unload managers with less critical functions, but also to
motivate and train subordinate employees.
A. Developing the Organizational Structure
B. Defining Jobs
C. Delegating
D. Establishing Work Unit Linkages
4. Planning involves
A.
Budgeting
B.
Forecasting
C.
Scheduling
D. All of the Above
5. ________ is a low task, low relationship style
A.
Directing
B.
Coaching
C.
Supporting
D. Delegating

6. There are ________ types of Situational Leadership style


A.
2
B.
6
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C.
4
D.
8
7. What activity entails the comparison of results versus objectives for a particular
time frame at organizational or departmental levels?
A. Establishing standards
B. Performance measuring
C. Performance Evaluating
D. Performance Correcting
8. What involves the appraisal of individuals in the organization as to how they are
able to achieve their respective work goals and to exhibit the various job
dimensions and factors contributory to being a valued employee in the
organization?
A. Establishing standards
B. Performance measuring
C. Performance Evaluating
D. D. Performance Correcting
9. What means regulating and improving methods and systems and results by
taking action on collective and individual performance that do not meet predetermined standards for acceptable performance?
A. Establishing standards
B. Performance measuring
C. Performance Evaluating
D. D. Performance Correcting
10. The various job dimensions and factors contributory to being a valued employees
is called
A. Exhibit
B. Feedback
C. Performance
D. Evaluating
11. The grouping of task into department or defined work units
A. Delegating
B. Organizing
C. Activity
D. Jobs
12. The situation marked by deviations between how organizational performance and
result are expected to be is
A. Standard
B. Measuring
C. Controlling
D. Evaluating
13. The indicator for judging successful performance that involves the determination
of the criteria is
A. Performance measuring
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B. Performance evaluating
C. Establishing performance standard
D. Performance Result
14. What is the first way to improve prioritization in a leadership team?
a. to reach explicit agreement on the order in which to pursue potential
opportunities
b. to research explicit agreement on the order in which to pursue potential
opportunities
c. to relay on explicit agreement on the order in which to pursue potential
opportunities
d. to teach explicit agreement on the order in which to pursue potential
opportunities
15. In pursuing opportunities that do not provide the maximum rate of improvement,
what are the signs of the first problem?
a. long hours, juggling many projects, overlapping deadlines
b. short hours, juggling many projects, overlapping deadlines
c. long hours of jogging and exercise, overlapping deadlines
d. short hours of jogging and exercise, overlapping deadlines

II. Identification
Identify the following. Write your answers on the space provided.
__________16. Identify one activity that requires planning.
__________17. What involves the systematic programming of organizational activities
based on their costs and amount of resources available?
__________18. Coordinating activities cover the authority structure, information
systems, and both formal coordination structure and informal mechanism intended to
promote collaborative efforts in the attainment of shared objectives.
__________19. It is the management process that involves the assignment of tasks,
grouping of tasks and work activities to be performed into meaningful and manageable
units, allocation of resources, arrangement of work activities, identification of
relationships within a cooperative group of people in an organization, and the
assignment of authority and responsibility to people towards work accomplishment.
__________20. Which covers the review of both in-progress as well as completed work
to measure the degree by which goals are achieved and performance standards are
met?
__________21. What involves taking preventive and contingent action in relation to
problems encountered and situations marked by deviations between how organizational
performance and results are and how they are expected to be?
__________22. Scheduling of all objectives in terms of completion is needed to be __________23. This activity also motivates and train subordinate employees.
__________24. Lights the fuse that leads to an explosion of results by controlling
resource allocation.
31

__________25. What are the three (3) resources needed in deciding which
opportunities to pursue largely that dictates the rate of improvement?
III. Enumeration
26-30. Enumerate the 4 maturity levels according to their motivation and ability.
31-32. Enumerate at least 3 planning activities
33-36. Enumerate the 4 activities requires to be done in Organizing
37-38. Enumerate at least 2 activities in Controlling
39-40. Enumerate at least 2 activities in Prioritization that increase complexity
Write your answers below:
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
IV. Matching Type
Match Column A with Column B. Write your answer on the blank.
Column A

Column B

______41. Essentially involving coordination

a. Delegating

______42. Assignment of tasks, grouping of


tasks and work activities

b. Establishing work unit linkages

_____ 43. Coaching

c. Organizing

______44. Support

d. Develop on the basis of the


philosophical orientation of an
organization.

______45. Scheduling

e. Factors that increases complexity


32

______46. Developing Policies

f. Low motivation, high ability

______47. Regulatory Risk

g. Action Planning

______48. Forecasting

i. High motivation, low ability

______49. Defining jobs

j. Involves the establishment of time


lines leading to a deadline.

______50.Also called programming; this


involves the determination of the action steps
or activities.

k. This activity covers the assignment of


functions into specific jobs or positions
and grouping of tasks into departments
or defined work units.
l. Development of preventive action to
forestall problems and hurdles
m. This involves the projection of results
and outcomes and future trends for the
organization using systematic
approaches

V. Essay. (5pts each)


1. Why is prioritization important in an organization?
2. Why do we need to use directing leadership style on subordinates with low
motivation and low ability subordinates?

Answer Keys
I. Multiple Choice Questions
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. D
6. C
7. B
33

8. C
9. D
10. A
11. D
12. C
13. C
14. A
15. A
II. Identification
16. Any of the following:
Forecasting
Objective Setting
Action Planning
Scheduling
Budgeting
Contingency Planning
Developing Policies
Formulating Procedures
17. Budgeting
18. Establishing work unit linkages
19. Organizing
20. Performance measuring
21. Controlling
22. Time-bound
23. Delegating
24. Prioritization
25. time, money, and talent
III. Enumeration
34

26-30
Directing
Coaching
Support
Delegating
31-33 - Any 3 from the following
Forecasting
Objective Setting
Action Planning
Scheduling
Budgeting
Contingency Planning
Developing Policies
Formulating Procedures
33-36
Developing the organization structure
Structure
Delegating
Establishing work unit linkages

35

37-38 - Any 2 of the following in any order


Establishing standards
Performance Evaluating
Performance measuring
Performance Correcting
39-40 - Any 2 of the following in any order
Time to implement solutions
Cost of solutions
Regulatory risk
Man hours required
Assumptions about the technical difficulty
Previous failed attempts
Cross
IV. Matching Type
41. b

46. d

42. a

47. e

43. i

48. m

44. f

49. k

45. j.

50. g

V. Essay (5pts each)


1. Prioritization lights the fuse that leads to an explosion of results by controlling
resource allocation. More specifically, this means understanding which opportunities the
group is not going to pursue presently. This prevents diluting resources on too many
projects at once.
2. Low innovation and low ability subordinates require specific instructions and close
supervision for task accomplishment until their motivation and ability changes before
using another leadership style.