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Challenges, ques-ons, and

opportuni-es in wild bee


conserva-on
Dan Cariveau
UMN Bee Lab &
Department of Entomology
University of Minnesota

Heather Holm

Heather Holm

Photos: Sam Droege

How many species in Minnesota?

How many species in Minnesota?


Apidae

Heather Holm

Andrenidae

Heather Holm

ColleCdae

Heather Holm

Megachilidae

Heather Holm

HalicCdae

Heather Holm

Nest loca-ons
NesCng Sites

Nest loca-ons

Nest loca-ons

Nest loca-ons

S. Cameron

Solitary to Social

Parasi-c

Heather Holm

John Ascher

All bee rely on oral resources

Stressors

Stressors: Disease

Stressors: Disease
Emerging pathogens
e.g. Nosema bombi

Johanna James-Heinz

Stressors: Disease
Emerging pathogens
e.g. Nosema bombi

Johanna James-Heinz

Diseases brought from commercial hives



Bumble bee hives: Graystock et al. 2013. Journal of Applied Ecology

Stressors: Pes-cides

Stressors: Pes-cides
NeonicoCnoids: NegaCve eects on reproducCon, behavior, and
homing ability
Landscape-level studies are lacking

Stressors: Pes-cides
NeonicoCnoids: NegaCve eects on reproducCon, behavior, and
homing ability
Landscape-level studies are lacking
Rundlf et al. 2015 Nature
DECLINE: Wild bee density
DECLINE: Bumble bee producCon
NO EFFECT: Honey bees

Stressors: Pes-cides
Other pesCcides could be problemaCc
E.g. Pyrethroids/organophosphates for soy bean aphid

Stressors: Habitat Loss

Stressors: Habitat Loss


Loss of CRP, increase in crops not benecial to pollinators

Heather Holm

Koh et al. 2016. Proceedings of the NaConal Academy of the Sciences

Stressors: Habitat Loss


Loss of CRP, increase in crops not benecial to pollinators

Habitat must include nesCng and oral resources

Heather Holm

Heather Holm

Habitat
Increasing calls for more habitat
White House Strategy on pollinators calls for 7 million acres

Habitat
Programs and calls to increase habitat

White House Strategy on pollinators calls for 7 million acres
USDA Farm Bill Programs

Habitat
Programs and calls to increase habitat
White House Strategy on pollinators calls for 7 million acres
USDA Farm Bill Programs
BWSR

Habitat: Key ques-ons


What are the goals?

Habitat: Key ques-ons


What are the goals?
Honey bee health and honey producCon

Crop pollinaCon

PollinaCon of naCve plants

Biodiversity

Habitat: Key ques-ons


How do we best implement pollinator habitat?

Best and most cost-eecCve seed mixes?



Where on the landscape?

How large do these patches need to be?

Habitat: Key ques-ons


How does habitat and pesCcide use interact?
Can habitat reduce eect of pesCcides?

How do we minimize potenCal negaCve eects of pesCcides in new habitat?

Habitat: Key ques-ons


CompaCbiliCes, synergies, trade-os?



Habitat: Key ques-ons


CompaCbiliCes, synergies, trade-os?

Bee-centric
Honey bee health and honey producCon
Crop pollinaCon
PollinaCon of naCve plants
Biodiversity

Habitat: Key ques-ons


CompaCbiliCes, synergies, trade-os?

Bee-centric
Honey bee health and honey producCon
Crop pollinaCon
PollinaCon of naCve plants
Biodiversity

Mul-ple other goals


Food producCon
Ecosystem integrity
Habitat conservaCon
Wildlife benets

Habitat: A Way Forward


Understanding of how to opCmize
habitat planCngs/restoraCons

Habitat: A Way Forward


Understanding of how to opCmize
habitat planCngs/restoraCons
Think in terms of the landscape

Habitat: A Way Forward


Understanding of how to opCmize
habitat planCngs/restoraCons
Think in terms of the landscape
ImplementaCon and research need
to co-occur

Photo: B Rosenthal

Thanks!
Dan Cariveau: dcarivea@umn.edu