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Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Learning Objectives

Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3 1 Describing Variation
3.1
Stem-and-Leaf Display

Easy to find percentiles of the data; see page 65

Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Plot of Data in Time Order


Marginal plot
produced by
MINITAB

Also called a run chart


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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Histograms Useful for large data sets

Group values of the variable into bins, then count the number of
observations that fall into each bin
Plot frequency (or relative frequency) versus the values of the
variable
Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Numerical Summary of Data


Sample average:

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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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The Box Plot


(or Box-and-Whisker Plot)

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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Comparative Box Plots

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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Probability Distributions

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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Sometimes called a
probability mass function

Sometimes called a
probability density function

Will see many examples in the text

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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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The mean is not necessarily the 50th percentile of the distribution (thats
(that s
the median)
The mean is not necessarily the most likely value of the random variable
(thatss the mode)
(that
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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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3.2 Important Discrete Distributions


The Hypergeometric Distribution

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Discrete distributions are used frequently in designing acceptance


sampling plans see Chapter 15

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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Chapter 3

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The Binomial Distribution


Basis is in Bernoulli trials

The random variable x is the number of successes out of n


Bernoulli trials with constant probability of success p on each trial
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Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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The Poisson Distribution

Frequently used as a model for count data

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The Pascal Distribution

The random variable x is the number of Bernoulli trials upon


p
which the rth success occurs
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When r = 1 the Pascal distribution is known as


the geometric distribution

The geometric distribution has many useful


applications in SQC

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3.3 Important Continuous Distributions


The Normal Distribution

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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Practical interpretation the sum of independent random


variables is approximately normally distributed regardless of
the distribution of each individual random variable in the sum

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The Lognormal Distribution

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The Exponential Distribution

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Relationship between the Poisson and exponential distributions

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The Gamma Distribution

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When r is an integer, the gamma distribution is the result of summing r


independently and identically exponential random variables each with
parameter .
The gamma distribution has many applications in reliability engineering.

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The Weibull Distribution


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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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When = 1,
Wh
1 th
the
Weibull reduces to
the exponential

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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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3 4 Probability Plots
3.4
Determining if a sample of data might reasonably be
assumed to come from a specific distribution
Probabilityy plots
p
are available for various
distributions
p
software
Easyy to construct with computer
(MINITAB)
Subjective interpretation

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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Normal Probability Plot

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Other Probability Plots


What is a reasonable choice as a probability model
for these data?

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3.6 Some Useful Approximations


pp

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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


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Learning Objectives

Chapter 3

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.


Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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