chap-03

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chap-03

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Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 3

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Learning Objectives

Chapter 3

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3 1 Describing Variation

3.1

Stem-and-Leaf Display

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Marginal plot

produced by

MINITAB

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Group values of the variable into bins, then count the number of

observations that fall into each bin

Plot frequency (or relative frequency) versus the values of the

variable

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Sample average:

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(or Box-and-Whisker Plot)

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Probability Distributions

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Sometimes called a

probability mass function

Sometimes called a

probability density function

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The mean is not necessarily the 50th percentile of the distribution (thats

(that s

the median)

The mean is not necessarily the most likely value of the random variable

(thatss the mode)

(that

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The Hypergeometric Distribution

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sampling plans see Chapter 15

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Basis is in Bernoulli trials

Bernoulli trials with constant probability of success p on each trial

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p

which the rth success occurs

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the geometric distribution

applications in SQC

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The Normal Distribution

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variables is approximately normally distributed regardless of

the distribution of each individual random variable in the sum

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independently and identically exponential random variables each with

parameter .

The gamma distribution has many applications in reliability engineering.

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The image cannot be display ed. Your computer may not hav e enough memory to open the image, or the image may hav e been corrupted. Restart y our computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, y ou may hav e to delete the image and then insert it again.

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When = 1,

Wh

1 th

the

Weibull reduces to

the exponential

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3 4 Probability Plots

3.4

Determining if a sample of data might reasonably be

assumed to come from a specific distribution

Probabilityy plots

p

are available for various

distributions

p

software

Easyy to construct with computer

(MINITAB)

Subjective interpretation

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What is a reasonable choice as a probability model

for these data?

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pp

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Learning Objectives

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