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Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Unit 1

Unit 1

Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Structure:
1.1 Introduction
Objectives
1.2 Factors Affecting Manpower Planning
1.3 Need for Manpower Planning
1.4 Five Steps in Manpower Planning
Evaluate Present Manpower Inventory
Manpower Forecasting
Develop a Manpower Sourcing Plan or Retrenchment Plan
Manpower Allocation & Retention
Building Requisite Competencies
1.5 Importance of Manpower Planning
1.6 Obstacles in Manpower Planning
1.7 Advantages of Manpower Planning
1.8 Successful Manpower Planning
1.9 Consolidated Demand Forecast Development
1.10 Effective Decision Making
1.11 Gaining Senior Management Support
1.12 Meeting the Organization's Goals and Objectives
1.13 Summary
1.14 Glossary
1.15 Case Study
1.16 Terminal Questions
1.17 Answers

1.1 Introduction
Human resource planning is very essential for continued existence of the
business. It is a process in which the HR department tries to understand
their strength of current manpower and prepares for the future.
Effectiveness of Manpower planning is to hiring the right number of people
at the right place and at the right time for doing the right things. Effective
manpower planning helps in achieving the goals and objectives of the
organization.

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This is all with respect to the most vital resource of an organization-its


employee. The HR department sees whether all departments in the
organization are an appropriate size or not and also prepares for future job
openings and vacancies. Human resource management by comparison, is
the process of anticipating and making provision for the movement of people
into, within, and out of the organization. In order to accomplish the
organizations goal the managers try to deploy human resources as per
requirement and as effectively as possible.
According to Eric W. Vetter, manpower planning is a vital process where the
management determines how the organization should move from its present
manpower position to a desired manpower position. According to Stainer,
manpower planning may be defined as a strategy for the procurement,
development, allocation and utilization of an enterprises human resources.
Human Resource Planning consists of a series of activities:
1. Forecasting future manpower requirements
2. Making an inventory of present manpower resources.
3. Anticipating manpower problems by projecting present resources into the
future.
4. Planning the necessary programs of requirement, selection, training &
development to ensure that future manpower requirements are properly
met.
Organizations are made up of people. Manufacturing industries need people
to operate machines, maintain machines and ensure desired output quality.
Service industries need people to serve customers. Human resource is the
most important asset of any organization. It is the people, who play a crucial
role in achieving business objectives. One cannot ever deny the importance
of human resources to make an organization successful.
Manpower planning managers need to estimate the total number of
manpower required for each position or job role correctly. This is no easy
task. If you are the manpower planning manager, you may not have clarity
about many things that will unfold over the course of the year.
How many people will get promoted?
How many people will attrite?
How many people are additionally required to expand the business?
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Which part of the business will grow and by what percentage?


Which part of the business will decline and by what percentage?
Which specific skills sets are going to be in high demand in the market?
Will the manpower budget be adequate?
Manpower planning managers need to estimate the requirement as close to
reality as possible and also ensure hiring for the job role requirements in the
shortest possible time so that the business is not impacted negatively due to
the shortage or absence of resources. And this is what makes manpower
planning an interesting subject.
Definitions
According to K. F. Turkman manpower planning can be defined as an
attempt to match the supply of people with the jobs available in an
organization. Statistical techniques have been used to ascertain the supply
of people with the jobs available.
Bruce Coleman has defined manpower planning as the process of
determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those
requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization.
The website http://www.businessdictionary.com defines manpower planning
as: Estimating or projecting the number of personnel with different skills
required over time or for a project, and detailing how and when they will be
acquired.
A business definition according to http://www.bnet.com for manpower
planning is The development of strategies to match the supply of workers,
and the availability of jobs at organizational, regional or national level.
Objectives:
After studying this unit you will be able to:
Describe the need for manpower planning
State the steps in manpower planning
Summarize the obstacles of manpower planning
Recognize a consolidated demand forecast for manpower

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1.2 Factors Affecting Manpower Planning


The Type of organization determines the production process, type of staff
(supervisor and manager) and the strategy plan of the organization defines
its HR needs
Organizational growth cycle and planning-start up, growth, maturity, decline
Environmental uncertainty- political, social and economical change affect all
organizations.
Outsourcing- the process by which employees transfer routine or peripheral
work to the another organizations.
Nature of job: job vacancies, promotions and expansion strategies.
Time horizons- long term plans and short term plans, the greater the
uncertainty the shorter the plan
Activity 1:
Consider yourself as the HR manager of a newly opened Textile Industry
located in rural Bangalore. Now list out the factors you would like to
consider for human resource planning?
Self Assessment Questions
1. ________ which determines the overall level of operations or activities
of the organization.
2. Employees add ___________ in an organization.
3. Employees are the sources for employers also known as
___________.

1.3 Need for Manpower Planning


The shortage of certain categories of employees and/or variety of skills
despite the problem of unemployment. The rapid change in technology,
marketing, management etc. and the consequent need for new skills and
new categories of employees. The changes in organization design and
structure affecting manpower demand. The demographic changes like the
changing profile of the workforce in terms of age, sex education etc.
The Govt. policies in respect to reservation, child labor, working conditions
etc.
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Every business requires investments of funds. The art of maximizing returns


from such investments within the framework of law and ethics requires that
the right numbers of people are available for the open positions at the right
time, at the right place with the right competencies, attitude and values for
doing the right things.
Imagine, your business needs 1000 people, and your business always has
300 less resources than required in most of the months. Will your
organization be able to achieve the goals and objectives it set out at the
beginning of the year? If it does not achieve the goals and objectives
planned, it will not be able to generate the returns promised by the
management of the company to be given away to its shareholders or
directors or investors. If the business is not able to build and maintain its
credibility with various stakeholders, the business starts to fail.
Similarly if your business needs 1000 people and your business is always
overstaffed by 300 people then the cost of the additional manpower, the
infrastructure cost for the additional manpower and management costs for
the additional manpower eats away into the profitability of the business,
hence the need for manpower planning.
Self Assessment Questions
4. Manpower planning may be defined as a ____________ for the
procurement, development, allocation and utilization of an enterprises
human resources.
5. Effective manpower planning is hiring the right __________ of people
and the right kind of people at the right place and at the right time for
doing the right things.

1.4 Five stages in Manpower Planning


Manpower planning requires that an estimate of the present and future
needs of the organization should be compared with the available manpower
and future predicted manpower. Appropriate steps are then taken to bring
demand and supply into balance. The outcome of this planning is a well
'thought out' and logical manpower demand plan for varying dates in the
future which can then be compared with the crude manpower supply
schedules. The comparisons will then indicate what steps should be taken
to achieve a balance. The 5 steps in the manpower planning process are:
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Evaluate present manpower inventory


Manpower forecasting
Develop a manpower sourcing plan or retrenchment plan
Manpower allocation
Building requisite competencies

1.4.1 Evaluate Present Manpower Inventory


It is very important to evaluate the present manpower status before making
a forecast for future manpower planning. To evaluate the present manpower
status a department level analysis and a job-role analysis is conducted to
arrive at the required manpower versus the available manpower. This is
accumulated across the organization at different levels and departments.
The final report is then consolidated and the required manpower versus the
available manpower is stated in terms of the quantitative analysis. Another
analysis on the qualitative side similarly shows the competencies required
versus competencies available for each of the job roles. This provides the
present manpower inventory. There may be excess or deficit or in extremely
few cases just the right number quantitatively. The report on the qualitative
front may rarely have a 100% match between required competencies versus
available competencies.
1.4.2 Manpower Forecasting
Manpower planning is done based on the manpower forecasts. The
common manpower forecasting techniques are:
(i) Expert Forecasts: This includes formal expert surveys, informal
decisions and the Delphi technique.
(ii) Trend Analysis: Manpower needs can be seen through the past
practice of the firm or organization keeping the principle year as a basis
and a central tendency of measure
(iii) Work Load Evaluation: This depends on the nature of the work load in
a branch, department, or a division in a firm or organization.
(iv) Work Force Evaluation: As production and the time duration are to be
kept in mind, allotments have to be made for getting the total
manpower requirements.
(v) Other Methods: A few mathematical models with the help of computers
are also used to forecast manpower needs.
You will learn more about forecasting in unit 2.
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1.4.3 Develop a Manpower Sourcing Plan or Retrenchment Plan


Once the current inventory is compared with the future manpower forecasts
then the manpower sourcing or retrenchment plan is drawn.
The sourcing plan includes recruitment, selection, placement, hiring
temporary staff and outsourcing. You will learn more about the sourcing plan
in unit 6.
The retrenchment plan involves sending show-cause notices to bottom
performers called bottom scraping, asking people to leave the organization
by providing the requisite severance allowance, allowing employees to go
on a sabbatical and finally out-placing employees in other organizations to
reduce the manpower. It is harder to retrench manpower. The need for
retrenchment could also be minimized by very objectively approving any
additional manpower.
1.4.4 Manpower Allocation & Retention
Manpower allocation helps in managing the impact of deficits and excess in
manpower supply through promotions, transfers and job-rotations.
Enhancing manpower utilization requires managing the dynamics of
leadership and motivation.
Manpower retention would mean taking necessary steps to ensure that the
organization provides a conducive-atmosphere to the employees to perform
and keep each employee engaged.
1.4.5 Building Requisite Competencies
Once the future manpower forecasts are compared to the current inventory,
there may be some gaps in competencies amongst the available internal
resources for them to qualify for the future manpower forecasts. In such
cases organizations may choose to develop resources through training
programs. A training calendar is designed to ensure that the competencies
of existing staff are enhanced to meet the future manpower forecasts.
Additional training programs may be designed when organizations are
diversifying or expanding. Training programs may be designed to train
existing resources on the latest improvements and advancements in
technology or the related business subject. Training is provided to improve
the knowledge, skill and capability of the employee.

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The following case will acquaint you well with the Human Resource
Planning Process:
CASE:
FENMORE CHILDREN CLOTHING COMPANY: PLANNING FOR CHANGE
Two years ago, Janet had five employees. She now has 10 employees yet
business has only increased by 10 per cent. She has a feeling that some
employees are not as busy as they could be. She now has two choices:
quickly hire a replacement to do the same work as the departing employee
or do an assessment of her business needs, shift other employees and look
for a person who will fill a new position that truly fits her business needs.
Step 1: Identify Business Strategy and Needs
Janet has identified both external and internal pressures and opportunities.
To remain competitive, Janet must use new technologies in the
manufacturing process. This means purchasing new equipment, as well as
hiring a qualified technician to operate the new equipment. Her sewers and
cutters are busy all the time but the packers are only busy when enough
product is available to be shipped. The two order clerks are also not
consistently busy because orders come in sporadically. Janets strategy is to
continue to grow revenues at 10 percent each year by introducing more
innovative and efficient processes.
Step 2: Conduct a Job Analysis and Write a Job Description
Janet believes that if she automates the current manual manufacturing
process, she will need one less employee within the year. She decides to
shuffle Johns duties to the other order clerk and one of the packers, who
have the necessary skills and are able to absorb the additional duties. She
quickly identifies that even with this shift she still needs a technician since
no one internally has the necessary skills. In addition, she feels it is not
likely her existing staff could acquire these skills in the short term to medium
term.
Since the technician position is new, she does not have an existing job
description. She begins to draft one, identifying what she requires of all her
employees (customer-service orientation, ability to work independently,
team players, previous industry-related experience). She gathers
information on the position by networking with others in the industry and
talking with the equipment supplier regarding requirements of an operator.
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She also speaks to her employees. She makes calls to people she knows in
the industry to determine the appropriate salary level.
Step 3: Determine the Feasibility of Hiring
Janet is able to provide a strong business case for her hiring decision. She
will not incur any additional salary expenses since the new position will
replace Johns. She will incur an additional expense with the purchase of the
new equipment and some training of employees, but these expenses will be
paid for with additional revenues by the end of the first year. Her revenues in
the years following implementation of the new equipment are expected to
double. Janet believes she is ready to hire.
Self Assessment Questions
6. Manpower allocation is a step in the __________ planning process.
7. Expert forecasts and trend analysis are two types of _____________
techniques.
8. ________ and ________ can be identified and quick action can be
taken in planning.
9. Manpower planning reduces ______ costs as excess staff can be
identified thereby avoid _______.

1.5 Importance of Manpower Planning


The main purpose of manpower planning is to increase the productivity of
the organization and the total value created by the organization in a given
unit of time. It could be a month, quarter, half year or the year. This enables
the business to become profitable and accomplish organizational goals. All
the business plans can be achieved only by effective manpower planning.
Else business plans will never turn into a reality. Manpower planning is done
for:
Successful execution of plans
Efficient utilization of resources
Motivating employees
Better human relations
Higher productivity

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1.6 Obstacles in Manpower Planning


The major obstacles in manpower planning are as follows:
Non Optimal Utilization of Manpower
The biggest obstacle for manpower planning is the fact that organizations
cannot optimally use their manpower once manpower planning begins.
During manpower planning, the number of resources required for a job is
decided based on the total work load, the processes to be followed and the
criticality of the job. Once the analysis is done, it is decided that one person
can only handle a certain portion of the workload and hence for any
additional workload, additional resources need to be hired proportionately.
Over a period of time, the total workload may change, the processes may
change, the criticality of the job may change and new technological
innovations may make the job far easier to accomplish. However when the
same employees are asked to step up the productivity, they resist accepting
any additional workload and resist even deployment of new technology,
hence making it hard for the management to maximize the use of their
manpower.
Activity 2:
Meet 2-3 employees of 3 BPOs. Ask these employees how many times,
they have been asked to work overtime. Are employees frequently on
leave ?
Absenteeism
Every organization has witnessed an increase in absenteeism. This has
lead to errors creeping in the manpower planning exercise. If the plan stated
that 4 employees are required to manage the total workload, increased
degree of absenteeism leads to the partial failure of the manpower planning
exercise.
Lack of Employable Labor
People are not employable. The slow pace of acquiring business required
competencies by people at large also result in low employee productivity. All
manpower planning is done by keeping a certain productivity level as the
benchmark. And low productivity has negative implications for manpower
planning.

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1.7 Advantages of Manpower Planning


Manpower planning has gained wide recognition as a reliable tool for
effective human resource management
Manpower planning helps the organizations in utilizing human resources
better through effective planning and timely execution.
it assists the organization in anticipating the future trends in the demand for
and supply of labour. It replaces haphazard and thumb rule approaches
towards human resource management with a well-planned, systematic and
scientific approach.
HR plans are capable of serving both the long-term and short term HR
requirements of the organization.
It helps the organization in determining the career growth of each employee
in a systematic manner.
It helps the organization in creating and maintaining a satisfied , well-trained
and skillful workforce.

1.8 Successful Manpower Planning


Successful manpower planning involves only two critical steps:
1. Estimating the demand forecast for manpower accurately
2. Ensuring the supply forecast for manpower meets the demand forecast
Effective implementation of the five steps in manpower planning which is
mentioned in the beginning of the unit ensures the success of manpower
planning.
Sometimes department managers or leaders wish to increase their span of
control and hence they project a higher requirement for resources than
required. They also undertake one time assignments that would require a
higher requirement for resources. But on completion of the one-time
assignment they do not let go of these additional resources. The personal
benefit to the leader in the short term is that their CV becomes impressive
due to the huge span of control they exercise but over the long term the
organization needs to bear the consequences of living beyond its means.
That means, the organization has a manpower bill which may be as high as
82% of its overall revenue. This is acceptable in any business because
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there are other costs apart from manpower costs and this would mean the
business is making losses as the expenditure far exceeds revenues.
Successful manpower planning is when the manpower costs are closely
following industry benchmarks if not beating them. The outcome of
successful manpower planning is all positions are filled as per the
requirement plan.
Self Assessment Questions
10. The main purpose of manpower planning is to increase the _________
of the organization and the total value created by the organization in a
given unit of time.
11. Non Optimal Utilization of Manpower is one of the ______________ in
manpower planning.
12. Optimum use of human resources currently employed is one of the
major ______________ of manpower planning.

1.9 Consolidated Demand Forecast Development


The manpower planning function conducts an orientation program for the
representatives of all the departments including the HR department. As per
the guidelines issued, the representatives of the different departments
develop the manpower demand forecast. This demand forecast is then sent
by the representatives of each of the departments to the department head
for approval. The department approves the demand forecast based on the
business needs and the budgets available. The department head may
consult the compensation and benefits team to understand the salaries or
the cost to the company for employees at different levels. Once the
department head approves the demand forecast which can be met from a
budgetary perspective, then the demand forecasts are forwarded to the
manpower planning function. The manpower planning functions
consolidates the demand forecast for manpower received from different
departments. Figure 1.1 illustrates the consolidated demand forecast
development.

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Fig. 1.1: Consolidated Demand Forecast Development


Sources: http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/9-12-2004-59200.asp

1.10 Effective Decision Making


The manpower planning exercise facilitates effective decision making to
take place. All decision making becomes relatively easy when the relevant
data is available. Analysis of the data itself provides inferences and guides
the decision making process. The historical demand forecast and the supply
forecast is reviewed apart from the forecast for the current period and the
future.
Learning from the past manpower demand, forecasting exercises are
incorporated in generating the demand forecast for the current period and
the future.
Department representatives are sometimes asked to come back with a
revised manpower demand forecast which needs to be about 20% lower
than the provided demand forecast. This forces the representatives to think
out of the box to cut down the demand forecast. Usually this happens by
departments identifying the non value-added tasks that were being
performed by different people in the department. The processes are
redrafted to eliminate non value-added tasks; this reduces the total workload
across the department and hence allows for reduction of manpower demand
forecast.
Additionally some companies insist that the demand forecast should be
provided month wise. Should the manpower not be recruited within that
month or the quarter even when additional workload has been created, then
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those manpower requirements lapse. This is because the department has


possibly found a way to work without the resource requirement forecasted
earlier. In this manner, organizations ensure the actual manpower level
remains lesser than the demand forecast levels if there is no negative
impact to the business.
We all would have heard that work stretches itself to fit into the available
time frame. If a person is provided 20 minutes to send an email with some
information, it is usually sent within 20 minutes. If a person is provided 1 day
to send an email with some information, it usually is sent just 20 minutes
before the 1 day ends.
Therefore manpower planning exercises engage employees in some
effective decision making for generating demand forecasts.

1.11 Gaining Senior Management Support


Sometimes the department representatives generate a demand forecast but
do not have the underlying assumptions ready for discussion or have not
generated the demand forecast by calculating the workload and hence the
estimated time and resources required. When they seek an approval from
the senior management to forward such a demand forecast to the
manpower planning function, the department heads ask many questions.
If the questions of the department head are not answered satisfactorily then
the department head does not approve the demand forecast. In some other
cases, the number of questions asked is so many and so fundamental that
the representative along with the department managers may withdraw a part
of the demand made initially.
Hence when generating a demand forecast each manpower requirement
must be generated after due consideration to all possible questions that
maybe asked. Proper justification can be kept ready for gaining the senior
management support. Once the representatives undergo this exercise two
or three times then it becomes easy to gain the support of the senior
management because they understand the preparation required for
generating the demand forecast for manpower.

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1.12 Meeting the organizations Goal and Objectives


All the checks and balances are built into the manpower planning process
such that it enables the organization to meet its goals and objectives. The
biggest enemy of a business is cost. However, every business needs to
convert this enemy cost into their friend by being frugal, intelligent in
designing processes with only value added activities, carefully in accepting
responsibilities that fall outside the scope of their defined work.
Self Assessment Questions
13. __________ generates the demand forecast based on the business
need and the guidelines provided.

1.13 Summary
Manpower planning is a very vital process where the management
determines how the organization should move from its present manpower
position to a desired manpower position. Manpower planning may be
defined as a strategy for the procurement, development, allocation and
utilization of an enterprises human resources. Human beings alone have
the ability to think, grow, feel, show pleasure at achievements, show
displeasure or dissatisfaction etc.
There are five steps in the manpower planning process. They are:
Evaluate present manpower inventory
Manpower forecasting
Develop a manpower sourcing plan or retrenchment plan
Manpower allocation
Building requisite competencies
The main purpose of the manpower planning is to increase the productivity
of the organization and the total value created by the organization in a given
unit of time.
The major obstacles in manpower planning are non optimal utilization of
manpower; absenteeism; lack of employable labor; and modern manpower
control and review processes.
Successful manpower planning involves only two critical steps. Estimating
the demand forecast for manpower accurately and ensuring that the supply
forecast for manpower meets the demand forecast.
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1.14 Glossary
Manpower: Refers to the number of people working or available for work in
an organization.
Manpower Inventory: It involves the classification of characteristics of
personnel in an organization, in terms of their knowledge, skills and abilities,
in addition to counting their number.
Manpower forecasting: The process of calculating how many employees will
be needed for the organization in the future, and how many will actually be
available.

1.15 Case Study


Keeping Good People: Staffing
Given the current labor market, the costs of recruiting and hiring are
becoming more apparent than ever to organizations. After going through the
difficulty of attracting and hiring talented people, businesses do not want to
lose them to competitions. Difficulty is staffing has created an emphasis on
retaining human resources.
Applied Industries Technologies, a Cleveland-based business, has taken
steps to reduce turnover. Specifically, they have made self-fulfillment - the
process of helping each person reach their full potential - a central value in
the organization. According to CEO John Dannemiller, the company views
its self-fulfillment mission as important as salary and benefits in motivating
talented employees. He attributes a doubling in revenues over the past eight
years and a turnover rate below the industry average to self-fulfillment
programs. Here is a summary of Applied Industrials self-fulfillment strategy:
The company commits to 40 hours of training each year-a significant
amount.
Applied Industrial conducts regular leadership and personality testing. The
test results are used to identify areas of personal improvement and to
measure growth.
The company offers reading lists of management books.
Employees are reimbursed for education expenses.
(Source: Dannemiller, J. C. (1998). How we keep good people. Across the Board,
35, 21.)
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Case Study Questions


1. Assume that you are Applied Industrial Technologies manager working
to orient and hire new employees.
a) How would you orient an employee who accepts a position at Applied
but does not care about the self improvement program? So far, the
employee has met job requirements but does not exceed higher than
the job requirements.
b) What steps could you take in selection to assess whether prospects
would respond effectively to the self-fulfillment program? (Hint: As a
start, consider individual characteristics that might affect a prospects
response to this type of program).
2. Applied Industrial views its self-fulfillment programs as a retention effort.
It is also a recruitment tool? What, if any, do you think are the differences
between tactics designed to improve retention versus those designed to
improve attraction and recruitment?
Hint:
1. a) By genuinely questioning how much am I interested in my personal
and professional growth in terms of competencies, position and most
of all the respect I get from all stakeholders.
b) Hire people who are keen to learn. Their goal for learning should
supersede their other goals.
2. Retention is attracting at an internal level, recruitment is attracting at an
external level.

1.16 Terminal Questions


1. Explain manpower planning and what all factors effecting Manpower
planning?
2. Describe the 5 steps in manpower planning.
3. List the obstacles in manpower planning.
4. Highlight 5 key advantages of manpower planning

1.17 Answers
Self Assessment Questions
1. Organizational plan
2. Economic value
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Unit 1

Human capital
Strategy
Number
Manpower
Forecasting
Shortages, Surpluses
Labor, Overstaffing
Productivity
Obstacles
Advantages
Department representatives

Terminal Questions
1. Human resource planning is a process in which the HR department
takes a look of its current scenario and prepares for the future.
Effectiveness of Manpower planning is to hiring the right number of
people and the right kind of people at the right place and at the right time
for doing the right things.
Human resource planning is influenced by many factors both within and
outside the organization like internal and external factors (refer 1.1, 1.2)
2. The 5 steps in the manpower planning process are:
Evaluate present manpower inventory. Manpower forecasting, Develop
manpower sourcing plan or retrenchment plan ,Manpower allocation,
Building requisite competencies. (refer 1.4)
3. The major obstacles in manpower planning are as follows:
Non Optimal Utilization of Manpower, Absenteeism, Lack of employable
labour, Modern manpower control and review process. (refer: 1.6)
4. Manpower planning ensures maximum utilization of available resources.
a) Human resource planning is necessary of all organization b) It offsets
uncertainty and change c) It provides scope for advancement and
development of employees through training, development etc. d) It helps
to satisfy the individual needs of the employees for the promotions
transfers, salary enhancement, better benefits etc. e) It helps in
anticipating the cost of salary, benefits and all the cost of human
resources facilitating the formulation of budgets in a society. (refer 1.7)

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Recommended Reading
Prakash A. V. (2000). Manpower Planning and Development. India: ABD
Publishers.
Details of these books are available at www.sapnaonline.com and
www.infibeam.com.
References:
Books

Rao S. P. (2010). Personnel and Human Resource Management.


Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House

Tripathi P. C. (2009). Human Resource Development. New Delhi:


Sultan Chand and Sons

Mahapatro B. B. (2010). Human Resource Management. New Delhi:


New Age International Publishers

Aggarwala D. V., (2008) Manpower: Planning, Selection, Training and


Development. India: Deep and Deep.

Pravin Durai, Human Resource Management, Pearson Publication, New


Delhi .2010.

E-references:

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http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/9-12-2004-59200.asp
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http://www.chrmglobal.com/Replies/1680/1/Manpower-planning.html
(Retrieved on 13 May 2010)

http://www.ehow.com/about_6551930_introduction-human-resourceplanning.html

http://www.articlesbase.com/college-and-university-articles/introductionto-human-resource-hr-class-notes-human-resource-planning828440.html

http://datapole.hubpages.com/hub/advantages-of-human-resourceplanning

Sikkim Manipal University

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