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# Copyright by Dr.

Zheyan Jin

Aerodynamics

Zheyan Jin
School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics
Tongji University
Shanghai, China, 200092

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.1 Introduction
Ludwig Prandtl and Gttingen (1912-1918):
The aerodynamic consideration of
wings could be split into two parts:
(1). The study of the section of
a wing- an airfoil.
(2). The modification of such
airfoil properties to account
for the complete, finite wing.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature

Mean camber line: is the locus of the points midway between upper and
lower surfaces of an airfoil as measured perpendicular to the mean camber
line.
Leading and trailing edges: the most forward and rearward points of the
man camber line.
Chord line: the straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature

Thickness: is the height of profile measured normal to the mean camber line.
Camber: is the maximum distance between the mean camber line and the
chord measured normal to the chord.
Leading-edge radius: is the radius of a circle, tangent to the upper and
lower surface, with its center located on a tangent to the mean camber line
drawn through the leading edge of this line.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature
NACA airfoils (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics):
Four-digit series: (for example, NACA 2412)
1. The first digit is the maximum camber in hundredths of chord.
2. The second digit is the location of maximum camber along the chord from the
leading edge in tenths of chord.
3. The last two digits give the maximum thickness in hundredths of chord.

## Five-digit series: (for example, NACA 23012)

1. The first digit when multiplied by 3/2 gives the design lift coefficient in tenths.
2. The next two digit when divided by 2 give the location of maximum camber along
the chord from the leading edge in hundredths of chord.
3. The final two digits give the maximum thickness in hundredths of chord.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature
NACA airfoils:
6-series: (for example, NACA 65-218)
1. The first digit simply identifies the series.
2. The second gives the location of minimum pressure in tenths of chord from the
3. The third digit is the design lift coefficient in tenths.
4. The last two digits give the maximum thickness in hundredths of chord.
Many of the large aircraft companies today design their own special purpose
airfoil; for example the Boeing 727,737,747, 757, 767, and 777 all have specially
designed Boeing airfoils.
Such capability is made possible by modern airfoil design computer programs
utilizing either panel techniques or direct numerical finite-difference solutions
of the governing partial differential equations for the flow field.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.3 Airfoil Characteristics
Lift coefficient:

## Stall due to flow

separation

cl

cl ,max

dcl
a0
d
At low-to-moderate angles of attack,
cl varies linearly with .
The slope of this straight line is
denoted by a0 and is called lift slope.
The value of when lift equals zero
is called the zero-lift angle of attack.

L 0

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.3 Airfoil Characteristics
Drag coefficient:

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.3 Airfoil Characteristics
At low to moderate angles of attack Cl- curve is linear. The flow moves
slowly over the airfoil and is attached over most of the surface. At high
angles of attack, the flow trends to separate from the top surface.

## Cm,c/4 is independent of Re except for large

Cd is dependent on Re

## The linear portion of the Cl- curve is independent of Re and can be

predicted using analytical methods.

Aerodynamic center. There is one point on the airfoil about which the
moment is independent of angle of attack.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.4 Vortex Filament
Consider 2-D/point vortices of same strength duplicated in every plane
parallel to z-x plane along the y-axis from to .
The flow is 2-D and is irrotational everywhere except the y-axis.
Y-axis is the straight vortex filament and may be defined as a line.
z
Definition: A vortex filament is a straight or
curved line in a fluid which coincides with the
axis of rotation of successive fluid elements.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.4 Vortex Filament

## Helmholts vortex theorems:

1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length.
Proof: A vortex filament induces a velocity field that
is irrotational at every point excluding the filament.
Enclose a vortex filament with a sheath from which
a slit has been removed. The vorticity at every point
on the surface=0. Evaluate the circulation for the
sheath.

Circulation V ds V dA
C

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.4 Vortex Filament

## Helmholts vortex theorems:

1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length.
Sheath is irrotational. Thus

V 0
- V d s 0 or V d s 0
C

c d a
V ds V ds V ds V ds 0
b

or

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.4 Vortex Filament

## Helmholts vortex theorems:

1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length.
However,

a
V ds V ds 0
c

Thus,

d
V ds V ds 0
a

d

c
V ds V ds V ds
a

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.4 Vortex Filament

## Helmholts vortex theorems:

1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length.
2. A vortex filament cannot end in a fluid; it must extend to the
boundaries of the fluid or form a closed path.
3. In the absence of rotational external flow, a fluid that is irrotational
remains irrotational.
4. In the absence of rotational external force, if the circulation
around a path enclosing a definite group of particles is initially zero,
it will remain zero.
5. In the absence of rotational external force, the circulation around
a path that encloses a tagged group of elements is invariant.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.5 Vortex Sheet
An infinite number of straight vortex filament
placed side by side from a vortex sheet. Each
vortex filament has an infinitesimal strength
(s):

## (s) is the strength of vortex

sheet per unit length along s.

v
2r

4.5 Vortex Sheet

## A small portion of the vortex sheet of strength

ds induces an infinitesimally small velocity dV
at a field point P(r, ).
so

v vortexfilament
Thus

dvP

ds
2r

ds
2r

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.5 Vortex Sheet
Circulation around a point vortex
is equal to the strength of the vortex.
Similarly, the circulation around the
vortex sheet is the sum of the
strengths of the elemental vortices.
Therefore, the circulation for a
finite length from point a to point b
on the vortex sheet is given by:
b

( s )ds
a

## Across a vortex sheet, there is a discontinuous change in the tangential

component of velocity and the normal component of velocity is preserved.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.5 Vortex Sheet

v dl

v dl [ w2 n u1s w1n u2 s ]
Box

s (u1 u2 )s ( w1 w2n
As n0, we get

s (u1 u2 )s
(u1 u2 )
=(u1-u2) states that the local jump in tangential velocity across
the vortex sheet is equal to the local sheet strength.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.6 Kutta Conditions:
Finite angle
a

Cusp

V2

V1
At point a: V1 V2 0

V1

V2
At point a: V1 V2 0

## 1. For a given airfoil at a given angle of attack, the value of

around the airfoil is such that the flow leaves the trailing edge
smoothly.
2. If the trailing-edge angle is finite, then the trailing edge is a
stagnation point.
3. If the trailing edge is cusped, then the velocities leaving the top
and bottom surfaces at the trailing edge are finite and equal in
magnitude and direction.

(TE ) Vu Vl 0

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.7 Bound Vortex and Starting Vortex:

The question might arise: Does a real airfoil flying in a real fluid
give rise to a circulation about itself?
The answer is yes.
When a wing section with a sharp T.E is put into motion, the fluid
has a tendency to go around the sharp T.E from the lower to the
upper surface. As the airfoil moves along vortices are shed from
the T.E which from a vortex sheet.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.7 Bound Vortex and Starting Vortex:

Helmholts theorem:

Kelvins theorem:

## Circulation around a closed curve

formed by a set of continuous fluid
elements remains constant as the fluid
elements move through the flow,
D/Dt=0.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.7 Bound Vortex and Starting Vortex:

## Both the theorems are satisfied by the

starting vortex and bound vortex
system.
In the beginning, 1 =0 when the flow
is started within the contour C1.
When the flow over the airfoil is
developed, 2 within C2 is still zero
includes the starting vortex 3 and the
bound vortex 4 which are equal and
opposite.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory
Thin airfoil theory is based on the assumption that under certain conditions
an airfoil section may be replaced by its mean camber line (mcl).
Experimental observation:
If airfoil sections of the same mcl but different thickness functions are tested
experimentally at the same angle of attack, it is found that the lift L and the
point application of the lift for the different airfoil sections are practically the
same provided that
(1) maximum airfoil thickness (t/c) is small;
(2) Camber distribution (z/c)max = m is small;
(3) Angle of attack () is small.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory
This observation permitted the formulation of thin airfoil theory because it
allowed the airfoil to be replaced by the mcl.
mcl

mcl
Thin airfoil theory

The problem now is to find, theoretically the flow of an ideal fluid around
this infinitely thin sheet (mcl) flying through the air at the velocity V at an
angle of attack .

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory
Any solution must satisfy:
(1) Equation of continuity
(2) Irrotational condition
(3) Outer b.c.- Flow at infinity must be undisturbed
(4) Inner b.c. mcl must be a streamline
(5) In addition, since the thin airfoil is being supported in level flight there
must be a lift L acting on the airfoil.
(6) Since L= V (Kutta-Joukowski Theorem), any theoretical
analysis must introduce a circulation around the airfoil section of
sufficient magnitude to satisfy the Kutta condition that the flow leave
the TE smoothly.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory
Therefore in thin airfoil theory the mcl is replaced by a vortex sheet
of varying strength (s) such that the above conditions are
satisfied and our aim is to determine this distribution.

Summary:
Thin airfoil theory stated as a problem says for a vortex sheet
placed on the mcl in a uniform flow of V determine (s) such that
the mcl is a streamline subject to the condition (TE)=0.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory
Principle: Mean camber line is a streamline of the flow.

V v e
e
Velocity induced by a 2-D vortex is
2r

where is the
strength of the 2-D vortex. Similarly the velocity induced by the vortex
sheet of infinitesimal length ds is given by

( s )ds
e
dVP
2r

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory
To force the mean camber line to be a streamline, the sum of all
velocity components normal to the mcl must be equal to zero.
Consider the flow induced by an elemental vortex sheet ds at point
P on the vortex sheet.

( s )ds
dVP
e
2r
Thus, the velocity normal to the mcl is
dwP' dv P cos

( s ) cos ds
2r

## where is the angle made by dvp to the normal at P, and r is the

distance from the center of ds to the point P.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory
The induced velocity due to the vortex sheet representing the entire
mcl is given by.

wP'

1
2

TE

( s ) cos ds

LE

## Now determine the component

of the free stream velocity
normal to the mcl.

V ,n V sin( )
where is the angle of attack and is the angle made by the tangent
at point P to the x-axis.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory
The slope of the tangent line at point P is given by:
dz
tan( ) tan
dx

or
1
tan

dz
)
dx

1
V ,n V (sin tan

dz
))
dx

'
In order that the mcl is a streamline. wP ( s ) V ,n 0 or

dz
r ( s ) cos
1

(sin

tan
(

)) 0
ds
V

LE r
dx
TE

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.8 Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory

## within thin airfoil theory

approximation sx,
dsdx,cos =1 and
r(x0-x), where x
varies from 0 to c, and
x0 refers to the point P.

After changing these variables and making the small angle approximation
for sin and tan, and upon rearrangement we get:
1
2

( x)

x0 x

dx V (

dz
)
dx

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.9 Flat Plate at an Angle of Attack
The following analysis is an exact solution to the flat plate or an
approximate solution to the symmetric airfoil. The mean camber line
becomes the chord and hence:

dz
0
dx
1 c ( x)
dx V

0
2 x0 x
In order to facilitate analytic solution, we do a variable transformation
such that:
c
x (1 cos )
2
c
x0 (1 cos 0 )
2

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.9 Flat Plate at an Angle of Attack
=0 at LE and = at TE and increases in CW,
dx=(sind)c/2
1
2

1
2

c
2

( ) sin

c
(1 cos 0 ) (1 cos )
2

d V

( ) sin
d V
(cos cos 0 )

( ) 2V

1 cos
sin

1
2

( ) sin
V
d
(cos cos 0 )

(1 cos )
d
(cos cos 0 )

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.9 Flat Plate at an Angle of Attack
We now use the following result to evaluate the above integral.

sin n 0
cos n
d
(cos cos 0 )
sin 0

V
V
(1 cos )
1
cos
d
d
d (0 ) V
0 (cos cos )
(cos cos 0 )
0 (cos cos 0 )

1
2

( ) sin
d V
(cos cos 0 )

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.9 Flat Plate at an Angle of Attack
In addition, the solution for also satisfies the Kutta condition.

When =,

( ) 2V 101

( ) 2V

sin
0
cos

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.10 2-D lift coefficient for a thin/symmetrical airfoil
TE

L V V ( s )ds
'

LE

## Where s is along the mcl.

By using thin airfoil approximation:
TE

LE

L V ( x)dx V ( x)dx
'

## Using the transformation x= (1-cos) c/2

1
L V ( x)dx V c ( ) sin d
0
0
2
'

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.10 2-D lift coefficient for a thin/symmetrical airfoil
Substituting the solution:

( )

2V (1 cos )
sin

1
L V c 2V (1 cos )d
2
0
'

L V c (1 cos )d
'

L' c V2
V2
(c 1)
L 2
2
'

L' 2q S
dC
L'
2 , and l 2
orCl
d
q S

dCl
2
shows that lift curve is linearly proportional to the angle of attack.
d

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.10 2-D lift coefficient for a thin/symmetrical airfoil
Calculation of Moment Coefficient:
c

'
LE

x(dL' )
0

'
LE

x( V d)
0

'
M LE
V ( x) xdx
0

'
LE

x( V ( x)dx)
0

'
LE

V
0

2V (1 cos ) c
c
(1 cos ) sin d
sin
2
2

'
LE

2
c2

2
2 c
2
V
(
1

cos
)
d

V
(
)

q
c
( )

2 0
2 2
2
2

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.10 2-D lift coefficient for a thin/symmetrical airfoil
Calculation of Moment Coefficient:

c m , LE

'
'

M LE
M LE

q Sc q c 2
2

c l 2

c m , LE

Cl

'
M LE
M c' / 4 L'c / 4

c m , LE c m ,c / 4 cl / 4

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.10 2-D lift coefficient for a thin/symmetrical airfoil
Calculation of Moment Coefficient:

c m , LE c l / 4
c m, c / 4 0

c m ,c / 4

## c/4 is the aerodynamic center.

Aerodynamic center is that point on an airfoil where moments
are independent of angle of attack.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

1
2

( x)

x0 x

dx V (

dz
)
dx

(A)

## where dz/dx is the slope of mcl at x0.

For symmetrical airfoil, mcl is a straight line and hence dz/dx=0 everywhere.
On the other hand, for a cambered airfoil dz/dx varies from point to point.
As before, we do a variable transformation given by:

c
(1 cos )
2
c
dx sin d
2
x

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
Equation (A) becomes

1
2

( ) sin
dz
d V ( )
dx
cos cos 0

(B)

## Such a solution for () will make the camber line a

streamline of the flow.
However, as before a rigorous solution of Equation (B) for ()
is beyond the scope of this course:

1 cos

( ) 2V A0 (
) An sin n
sin
n 1

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
Substitute this solution in equation (B)

A0 (1 cos )
1 An sin n sin
dz

d
d

0 (cos cos 0 )
n 1 0 (cos cos 0 )
dx
x0

The first integral can be evaluated from the standard from given in
equation

sin n 0
cos n
d
(cos cos 0 )
sin 0

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
The first term becomes:

A0 (

1 cos
)d
cos cos 0

A0
1
)d
cos cos 0

A0 cos
)d
cos cos 0

A0
The remaining integrals can be obtained from another standard form,
which is given below:

sin n sin
0 (cos cos 0 )d cos n 0

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
The second term becomes:

n 1

An sin n sin
d An cos n 0
cos cos 0
n 1

A0 An cos n 0
n 1

dz
dx x 0

## Upon rearrangement the slope at a point P on the mcl is given by:

dz
( A0 ) An cos n 0
dx
n 1

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

## From Fourier series:

f ( ) B0 Bn cos n
n 1

Where,

B0
Bn

f ( )d
f ( ) cos nd

n 1,2, ,
( A0 ) B0
An Bn

dz
)d
dz

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
Evaluation of Circulation :

c c
( x)dx ( ) sin d
0
2 0
c

## From thin airfoil theory:

A0 (1 cos )
( ) 2V
An sin n
sin
n 1

c c
c
c
( ) sin d 2V A0 (1 cos )d 2V An sin n sin d
2 0
2 0
2 0
n 1

n 1

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

Using:

A
n 1

sin n sin d

(n 1)

2
0(n 1)

cV [ A0 A1

L' V V2 c[ A0 A1

L'
L'
cl

2[ A0 A1 ]
q s q c
2
Cl is normalized by the as seen by the chord connecting the LE and
TE of the mcl. c is the chord connecting the LE and TE of the mcl.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

c l 2A0 A1
dz
2 dz
)
d
)
( ) cosd

0
0
dx
dx

1 dz

c l 2 ( )(cos 1)d
0 dx

c l 2 (

Note that as in the case of symmetric airfoil, the theoretical lift slope
for a cambered airfoil is 2 . It is a general result from thin airfoil
theory that dcl/d=2 for any shape airfoil.

dc l
( L 0 ) 2 ( L 0 )
d
1
dz
L 0 (cos 1) d
0
dx
cl

Also,

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
Determination of moment coefficient:
c

M 'LE V x ( x)dx
0

c m, LE

'
M LE
2

q sc V c 2

x ( x)dx

Thus
c
x (1 cos )
2
c
dx sin d
2
A0 (1 cos)
( ) 2V [
An sin n ]
sin
n 1

0

n 1

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
Using the following definite integrals:

cos 2 d
sin 2 d

sin sin nd

(n 1)

2
0(n 2, , )

0(n 1)

(n 2)

4
0(n 3, , )

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

c m, LE A0 d
c m , LE A0 A0
c m , LE A0

A1

0
0

n 1

A1

A2

A2

cl 2A0 A1
c m , LE

2 A0 2 A1 A2
2

cl

(
)

A
A
2

4 4 1

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
'
M LE
M c' L'
4

c m , LE c
c

m,

c
4

m,

c
4

c
4

cl
c

l ( A1 A2 )
4
4 4

A1 A2

## The location of center of pressure:

c m , LE xcp

cl
c

1 c
c c
xcp
( A1 A2 ) c ( A1 A2 )
cl

4
4 4c l

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil

1 c
xcp c ( A1 A2 )
4
cl

## As the angle of attack changes, the center of pressure also changes.

Indeed, as the lift approaches zero, xcp moves toward infinity; that is, it
leaves the airfoil.

## For this reason, the center of pressure is not always a convenient

point at which to draw the force system on an airfoil.

## Rather, the force-and-moment system on an airfoil is more

conveniently considered at the aerodynamic center.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
Relationship between pressure on mcl and :

## dL' ( pl pu ) cos (ds 1)

TE

L' ( pl pu ) cosds
LE

TE

L V ( s )ds
'

LE

(A)
(B)

## Equating (A) and (B) and setting cos 1, we get

TE

TE

LE

LE

( pl pu )ds V ( s )ds

or

( pl pu ) V ( s )

(1)

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
Using Bernoullis equation:

1
1
2
2
pl (ul w ) pu (uu2 w2 )
2
2
pl pu

(uu ul )(uu ul )

(2)

## From vortex sheet theory:

u u ul ( s )
From (1), (2) and (3)

uu ul
2

(3)

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.11 Thin Airfoil Theory for Cambered Airfoil
i.e., within thin airfoil approximation, the average of top and bottom
surface velocities at any point on the mcl is equal to the freestream
velocity.
Pressure coefficient difference between lower surface and upper surface:

c p ,l c p ,u

pl p pu p

q
q

c p ,l c p ,u

pl pu

c p ,l c p ,u

1
(ul uu )(uu ul )
2
q

c p ,l c p ,u

( s)2V
V2

2 ( s )
V

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.12 Summary
Vortex Sheet:
A vortex sheet can be used to synthesize the inviscid, incompressible
flow over an airfoil. If the distance along the sheet is given by s and
the strength of the sheet per unit length is (s), then the velocity
potential induced at point (x,y) by a vortex sheet that extends from
point a to point b is

1
( x, y )
2

(s)ds
a

b

( s)ds
a

u1 u2

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.12 Summary
Kutta Condition:
The Kutta condition is an observation that for a airfoil of given shape
at a given angle of attack, nature adopts that particular value of
circulation around the airfoil which results in the flow leaving smoothly
at the trailing edge.
If the trailing-edge angle is finite, then the trailing edge is a stagnation
point.
If the trailing edge is cusped, then the velocities leaving the top and
bottom surfaces at the trailing edge are finite and equal in magnitude
and direction.
In either case:

(TE ) 0

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.12 Summary
Thin airfoil theory:
Thin airfoil theory is predicated on the replacement of the airfoil by the
mean camber line.
A vortex sheet is placed along the chord line, and its strength adjusted
such that, in conjunction with the uniform freestream, the camber line
becomes a streamline of the flow while at the same time satisfying the
Kutta condition.
The strength of such a vortex sheet is obtained from the fundamental
equation of thin airfoil theory:

1
2

( )d
dz
(

0 x dx )
c

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.12 Summary
Results of thin airfoil theory:
Symmetrical airfoil
1. cl=2.
2. Lift slope = dcl /d=2.
3. The center of pressure and the aerodynamic center are
both at the quarter-chord point.
4. cm,c/4=cm,ac=0.

## Chapter 4 Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils

4.12 Summary
Results of thin airfoil theory:
Cambered airfoil
1.

cl 2

dz

(cos 0 1)d 0
dx

## 2. Lift slope = dcl /d=2.

3. The aerodynamic center is at the quarter-chord pint.
4. The center of pressure varies with the lift coefficient.