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Industrial Wastewater

Environmental Management
Dr Muhammad Ali

Aims and Objective




To introduce Industrial Wastewater

Difference between domestic and Industrial


Wastewater
Importance of Industrial Wastewater treatment
Effects of Industrial Wastewater on
streams/rivers
Treatment Methods





Domestic Wastewater ?


Domestic sewage is wastewater discharged from sanitary


conveniences in residential, office, commercial, factories and
various institutional properties.

It is a complex mixture containing primarily water (approximately


99%) together with organic and inorganic constituents. These
constituents or contaminants comprised suspended, colloidal and
dissolved materials. Domestic sewage, since it contains human
wastes, also contains large numbers of micro-organisms and some
of these can be pathogenic.

What is Industrial Wastewater (IWW) ?




Industrial (including agro-industrial) wastewaters have very varied


compositions depending on the type of industry and materials
processed. Some of these wastewaters can be organically very
strong, easily biodegradable, largely inorganic, or potentially
inhibitory. This means TSS, BOD and COD values may be in the
tens of thousands mg l1.

With very high organic concentrations, industrial wastewaters may


also be severely nutrients deficient. Unlike sewage, pH values could
be well beyond the range of 69.
Wastewaters may also be associated with high concentrations of
dissolved metals.




The flow pattern of industrial wastewater streams can be very


different from that of domestic sewage.
A significant factor influencing the flow pattern would be the shift
nature of work at factories.

What is Industrial Wastewater (IWW) ?




Industrial wastewaters (including agro industrial wastewaters) are


effluents that result from human activities which are associated with
raw-material processing and manufacturing.

These wastewater streams arise from washing, cooking, cooling,


heating, extraction, reaction by-products, separation, conveyance,
and quality control resulting in product rejection.

Water pollution occurs when potential pollutants in these streams


reach certain amounts causing undesired alterations to a receiving
water body.

What is Industrial Wastewater (IWW) ?




Examples of industrial wastewaters include those arising from chemical,


pharmaceutical, electrochemical, electronics, petrochemical, and food
processing industries.

Examples of agro-industrial wastewaters include those arising from


industrial-scale animal husbandry, slaughterhouses, fisheries, and seed oil
processing.

Agro-industrial wastewaters can be very strong in terms of pollutant


concentrations and hence can contribute significantly to the overall
pollution load imposed on the environment.

Why is it Necessary to Treat Industrial


Wastewater ?


All major terrestrial biota, ecosystems, and humans depend on


freshwater (i.e. water with less than 100 mg L1 salts) for their
survival.

The earths water is primarily saline in nature (about 97%). Of the


remaining (3%) water, 87% of it is locked in the polar caps and
glaciers. This would mean only 0.4% of all water on earth is
accessible freshwater.

Freshwater is a continually renewable resource, although natural


supplies are limited by the amounts that move through the natural
water cycle. Therefore, treatment of wastewater is necessary.

To conserve and protect aquatic life and maintain biodiversity.

Effects of IWW on the Streams/Rivers


Stream or river can be used for
 Drinking purpose
 Swimming
 Industrial use
 Agricultural use


All industrial wastes effects the normal life of stream when the effect
is sufficient to render the unacceptable for its best usage, it is said
to be polluted. The best use means, use of water for drinking,
bathing, fishing etc.

Stream can assimilate a certain quantity of waste before reaching a


polluted state. A stream is said to be polluted that if it contains an
excessive amount of pollutants.

The following materials can cause pollution:

Inorganic Salts










Inorganic salts are present is most industrial waster, cause water to hard
and make stream unfit for industrial, municipal and agricultural usage.
Salty water causes scales in water distribution systems, resistance to flow
and lowering overall capacity of pipes.
Hard water interferes with the dyeing and textile industry, brewing and beer
industry and quality of products in canning industry.
MgSO4 constituent in hard water causes cathartic effect.
Chloride ion increases electrical conductivity.
Iron causes stains and spots (e.g paper, textile mills).
Carbonates produces scales in cans.
Nitrogen and phosphorus causes eutrophication in stream.

Acids and Alkalis




These discharged by industrial plants makes stream unsuitable not


only for recreational uses, such as swimming and boating but also for
propagation of fish and other aquatic life.

High concentration of H2SO4 lower the pH of stream and can cause


eye irritation to swimmers, rapid corrosion to ships hull and
deteriorate of fishermens nets.

It is generally agreed that pH of stream must stay between 4.5 and


9.5 for survival of fish.

NaOH an alkali which is highly soluble in water and effects the


alkalinity and pH of the stream. It appears in water from many
industrial plants such as soap manufacturing, textile, rubber
reclaiming and leather tanning.
Stream containing as little as 12 ppm of NaOH have been reported
deadly to fish.

Organic Matter


It depletes the dissolved oxygen of the


streams and creates unpleasant taste,
odours and general septic condition.

Fish and most aquatics die due to lack of


dissolved oxygen.

The critical range of D.O for fish survival


is 3-4 ppm.

Oxygen shortage caused by organic


matter is often considered to be the most
objectionable single factor in a stream
pollution.

Phenols effects the taste of domestic


water supply.

Suspended Solids


They settled to the bottom sometime or


wash-up on the banks and decompose
causing odours and depleting DO in river
water.

Fish often die because of sudden lowering


of DO of stream and solids that settled at
the bottom can cover their spawning
grounds and inhibits propagation.

Visible sludge create poor aesthetic


condition, making the river unsuitable for
recreational purposes.

Increase in turbidity of water and enhance


flooding changes by diminishing the stream
bed volumes.

Floating Solids and Liquids


These includes, Oils, grease and other materials
which floats on the surface. They make the river
unsighty and obstruct passage of light through
water, thus retarding the growth of vital plant
flood (photosynthesis).
Some specific objections to oils in stream are:
1.
Interferes with natural re-aeration
2.
It is toxic to certain species of fish and aquatic
life
3.
It creates a fire hazard when present on water
surface in sufficient amount
4.
Destroys vegetation along shoreline, which
consequently causes erosion.
5.
Render boiler feed and cooling water un-usable
6.
Causes trouble in water treatment processes by
imparting taste and odours to water and coating
sand filters with a film.
7.
Creates layer on the surface of water
8.
Lower recreational options e.g. boating potential

Colour


It is contributed by textile, tanniers, slaughter houses, paper and


other industries.

It is indicator of pollution compounds present in waste water,


absorbs certain wavelength of the light and reflects the remainder.
This causes the colour development of stream.

Photosynthesis

Recreation

Toxic Chemicals


Organic and inorganic chemicals of even extremely low concentration


are poisonous to fresh water fish and other micro-organisms. They
have accumulative effects on biological systems such as insecticides
as Toxaphenes & Dichlorobenzene have killed fishes in farm ponds.

Organic compounds (acrylonitrile) produced by the chemical industries


for textile company has also proved extremely toxic to the fish life.
Chlorides (400 ppm) and hexa-valent chromium (5 ppm) are toxic to
fish. Copper (0.1-0.5 ppm) is toxic to microorganisms.

Complex inorganic phosphate such as P2O5 (0.5 ppm) interfere with


normal coagulation and sedimentation process in water treatment
plant. They increase the coagulant dosage and settling time.

Phenols reacts with residual chlorine in water & causes medicinal


taste.

Typical Heavy Metals in IWW

Micro-organisms


A few industries such as Tannier and Slaughter house wastes


contains bacteria.

Vegetable and fruit canneries may also add bacterial


contamination to stream. These bacterias are of two types.
Bacteria which assists in biodegradation of organic matter in
wastewater.
Bacteria which are pathogenic not only to other bacteria but also
to humans.

1.

2.

For example, Anthrax Bacillus, originating from tanniers where hides


(skins) from anthrax infected animals have been processed.

Radioactive Materials



Manufacturer of nuclear fusionable materials


Nuclear power plant
The problem of radioactive waste is unique, since the effects of
radioactive material are immediate or delayed and radiation can
cause accumulative damaging effects on living cells.
Certain high radioactive isotopes such as Stortium Sr90 & Caesium
Cs 137 continue to release energy over long period of time.

EFFLUENT DIAGNOSIS FLOW CHART (1)

Have all minimisation options been examined


Yes
Can Effluent streams be kept separate
Yes
Characterise Effluent

How ?

Is the effluent biologically treatable, i.e. does it have:


constant flow
constant COD, BOD
pH between 2-10
N + P
fats, oils, grease
low metals
no colour
no other toxic compounds

Yes

Physical
Treatment
Chemical
Treatment
No

Move to next sheet

Measure
Flow
COD, BOD
solids
pH
N+P
Fats, oils, grease
heavy metals
Other contaminants
colour

EFFLUENT DIAGNOSIS FLOW CHART (2)


Information needed to
select a biological solution

Site area/layout

Sludge Disposal

Discharge Consent

Constant flow + organic load


Yes

No
Equalisation

Adjust biochemical
characteristics
High BOD

Yes
Anaerobic Treatment

Post-Treatment
(if required)

No
Aerobic Treatment
Discharge (sewer, river
or land)

Treatment of Industrial Wastewater





The different types of contamination of wastewater require a variety of


strategies to remove the contamination.
Solids removal
Most solids can be removed using simple sedimentation techniques with
the solids recovered as slurry or sludge. Very fine solids and solids with
densities close to one pose special problems. In such case filtration or
ultra-filtration may be required. Alternatively, flocculation may be used
using alum salts or the addition of poly-electrolytes.

Dissolved Air Floatation


 Small particulates
Air Stripping
 Volatile Organics
Membrane Filtration

Fawley : 2 DAFs 11 metres long x 3.50 metres wide treating


oil emulsions

Air Stripping

Oils and Greases




Many oils can be recovered from open water surfaces by


skimming devices. However, hydraulic oils and the majority of
oils that have degraded to any extent will also have a soluble
or emulsified component that will require further treatment to
eliminate.

Dissolving or emulsifying oil using surfactants or solvents


usually aggravates the problem rather than solving it,
producing a very difficult to treat wastewater.

Organics


Organic material of plant or animal origin is usually possible to treat


using extended conventional Wastewater treatment processes.

Whereas, Synthetic organic materials including solvents, paints,


pharmaceuticals, pesticides, coking products etc can be very difficult
to treat .

Treatment methods are often specific to the material being treated.


Methods include distillation, adsorption, vitrification, incineration,
chemical immobilisation or landfill disposal.

Acids and Alkalis




Acids and alkalis can usually be neutralised under controlled


conditions. Neutralisation frequently produces a precipitate
that will require treatment as a solid residue that may also
be toxic. In some cases, gasses may be evolved requiring
treatment for the gas stream. Some other forms of
treatment are usually required following neutralisation.

e.g. Dissolved calcium and


magnesium
(hardness) reacts with lime (or
NaOH) and soda ash to precipitate
calcium carbonate and magnesium
hydroxide

Toxic materials


Toxic materials including many organic materials, metals (such as


zinc, silver, cadmium, thallium etc.) acids, alkalis, non-metallic
elements (such as arsenic or selenium) are generally resistant to
biological processes unless very dilute. Metals can often be
precipitated out by changing the pH or by treatment with other
chemicals. Many, however, are resistant to treatment or mitigation
and may require concentration followed by landfilling or recycling.
Solids Contact Clarifier

Metals Removal
Pipe Mill

Reverse Osmosis


Reverse osmosis is the process of forcing a solvent from a region


of high solute concentration through a semipermeable membrane
to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in
excess of the osmotic pressure.
Typical limit on waste brine is 70 to 80,000 ppm at 1000 psi feed
pressure.

Ion Exchange


Whenever an ion is removed out of an aqueous solution and is


replaced by another ionic species, this is what we generally refer
to as ion exchange.
Removes a wide range of cations and anions which make up TDS
in water.

Physico-Chemical: GAC

Bibliography









Wang & Howard. "Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment USA
2004.
Activated Sludge Treatment of Industrial Wastewater by Wesley Eckenfelder and Jack
Musterman. 1998
The Industrial Wastewater Handbook by Ralph L. Stephenson and James B.
Blackburn Jr. (1997)
Heavy Metals Effects on Biological Wastewater Treatment: Toxic Effects of Heavy
Metals Presence in Industrial Wastewater on Biological Treatment microorganisms by
Majid Saidi (2011).
Industrial Wastewater Treatment: A Guidebook by J.D. Edwards (1995)
Industrial Wastewater Treatment by Wun Jern Ng (Nanyang Technological University,
Singapore.
Southern Waters
http://www.southernwater.co.uk/microsites/WasteServices/Default.asp (accessed
20/11/11).
Dissolved Air Flotation
http://www.wpl.co.uk/?page=IndustrialWastewaterTreatmentPlants