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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Food=Fuel=Energy

Metabolism and Energy Metabolism


Chemical reactions that take place in the body.
Derived from the word Metaballein=change

Without consumption
of food, the
transformation of the
energy contained in the
food into biologically
useful fuel, life would
not be possible.

Metabolism and Energy Metabolism


Chemical reactions that enable cells to obtain and use energy
from nutrients
Breakdown, synthesis, and transformation of energyyielding nutrients
Store and use energy

Catabolism_Anabolism

Catabolism:
Pathways that
break down
compounds

Glucagon, Cortisol,
Epinephrine

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Level 2 Section 1

Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

Anabolism:
Pathways that
build
compounds

Insulin

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Level 2 Section 1

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP):


Where is the
Action?
IN THE CELL
Cytoplasm
Mitochondria

Hydrolysis of ATP

Rephosphorylation of ATP from ADP

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is split chemically


Creating adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic
phosphate (Pi)

Energy in released in an exergonic reaction.

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An inorganic phosphate (Pi) is joined to adenosine


diphosphate (ADP)
Re-forms, or rephosphorylate ATP
Endergonic process (requires energy input)

Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

ATP Levels Regulate Energy Metabolism

Level 2 Section 1

ATP Levels Regulate Energy Metabolism

LOW ATP

ADEQUATE ATP
Increases catabolic
activity

Increases anabolic activity

Three Major Energy Systems that

Replenish ATP
Purpose of these three
energy systems is to
use chemical energy to
re-form ATP

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Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Level 2 Section 1

Three Energy Systems Work in Concert


Glucose excess stored as
glycogen or stored as fat

One energy system usually


predominates

Glucose synthesized in plant

Plant stores glucose as


STARCH

Glucose released into


bloodstream

Insulin release and glucose


enters the cell.

STARCH digested to
glucose, absorbed and
carried to liver.
Disaccharides
digested and
absorbed.
Carried to liver where
galactose & fructose
converted to glucose.

Three Major Energy Systems that

Replenish ATP
Anaerobic
Glycolysis
Fast speed of action
Small amount ATP
replenished
Short duration of
action

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Creatine
Phosphate

Oxidative
Phosphorylation

Very fast speed of


action,
Very Small amount
ATP replenished
Very short duration
of action

Very slow speed of


action
Large amount ATP
replenished
Very long duration of
action

Glycolysis: Splitting of Sugar


Major anaerobic pathway of carbohydrate metabolism
taking place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
Splits 6-carbon
glucose molecule into
CCCCCC
Glucose

Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

two 3-carbon pyruvate


molecules.
CCC
CCC

(2) Pyruvate

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Cori Cycle Involves glycolysis in the muscle &


gluconeogenesis in the liver

Level 2 Section 1

Cori Cycle
Used under anaerobic conditions
Provides small amounts of ATP that
can be produced in muscle

Three Major Energy Systems that

Replenish ATP
Anaerobic
Glycolysis

The anaerobic breakdown of glucose-to- pyruvate-to-lactate


acid is the major source of energy for short, intense
exercise.

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Fast speed of action


Small amount ATP
replenished
Short duration of
action

Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

Creatine
Phosphate

Oxidative
Phosphorylation

Very fast speed of


action,
Very Small amount
ATP replenished
Very short duration
of action

Very slow speed of


action
Large amount ATP
replenished
Very long duration of
action

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

What is Creatine

Two Sources of Creatine


1) Diet: Meat, fish, supplements

Helps supply energy to the cells


95% of skeletal muscle

Since dietary creatine is only


provided in animal products,
vegetarians creatine must
provided by endogenous
synthesis.

Because of its ability to supply energy, used by athletes to


Produce energy rapidly
Improved performance
Allow longer training

Two Sources of Creatine


2) Endogenous
Synthesis:
Hepatic (liver synthesis)

Requires adequate amounts


of the amino acids arginine,
glycine and
methionine

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Level 2 Section 1

What Happens to Creatine?


Distributed throughout the body in the
blood
Taken up by tissues such as skeletal
muscle.

Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Level 2 Section 1

What Happens to Creatine?


In muscle, approximately two-thirds is phosphorylated as creatine
phosphate

What Happens to Creatine?


One-third remains as creatine.
Approximately 2 g/d is excreted in the
urine as creatinine.

Creatine Phosphate Energy System

Creatine Phosphate System is the Preferred


Energy System During High Intensity Exercise
ATP being used rapidly during high intensity exercise.
Short fast sprints (100- meter sprint)
Short burst of activity (dunking the basketball)
Large amounts of force (weight lifting, bench press)

Creatine Kinase

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Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Level 2 Section 1

Three Major Energy Systems that

Replenish ATP
Anaerobic
Glycolysis
Fast speed of action
Small amount ATP
replenished
Short duration of
action

Citric Acid Cycle

Creatine
Phosphate

Oxidative
Phosphorylation

Very fast speed of


action,
Very Small amount
ATP replenished
Very short duration
of action

Very slow speed of


action
Large amount ATP
replenished
Very long duration of
action

Discovered in 1937 in animal tissue.


AKA: Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, Krebs cycle
Is the central metabolic pathway for all aerobic
processes.
Citric Acid Cycle

Energy From Triglycerides

What is the Fate of Glycerol?


Remember that
Glucose to
Pyruvate is a
reversible reaction
(

2) Pyruvate
CCC
CCC

CCCCCC
Glucose

Glucose can be converted to pyruvate


OR

Pyruvate can be converted to Glucose in the liver if needed


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Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Two Fates for Glycerol

Ketones
Organic compounds produced from fatty acids and

1) Glycerol can be converted to pyruvate


Metabolized for energy (ATP) via the citric acid cycle

2) Glycerol can be converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis.

Level 2 Section 1

Glycerol

Pyruvate
Acetyl CoA

ketogenic amino acids.


Serve as a major source of energy for some tissues
during times of glucose insufficiency:
Starvation, fasting, low-carb diets, or uncontrolled
diabetes.

Citric acid
cycle

Importance of Ketogenesis

Ketones
Serve as a major source of energy for some tissues
during times of glucose insufficiency:
Starvation, fasting, low-carb diets, or uncontrolled
diabetes.

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Muscles, brain & kidneys have enzymes that allow them to


use ketones for ATP production
Serve as a major source of energy during times of glucose
insufficiency
Spares use of amino acids

Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Physiological Impact of Ketogenesis

Gluconeogenesis
Non-carbohydrate molecules (amino acids, pyruvate, lactate, glycerol)
are transformed into glucose by various anabolic pathways

Ketosis
High levels of ketones in blood

Occurs primarily in liver & kidneys


Liver is the primary gluconeogenic organ

Ketoacidosis
Severe ketosis
Lowered blood pH, nausea, coma, death

Provides glucose to cells during starvation

Stimulated by glucagon & cortisol

Alcohol

Energy from Protein


The body prefers using carbohydrates and fat for energy

Provides 7 kcal/g

Protein is reserved for metabolic functions that cannot be performed by


others

Excess can be toxic

Protein is used for fuel primarily during low total energy or carbohydrate
intake

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Level 2 Section 1

Is recommended in moderation
No more than one drink a day for females or two drinks for males of
average build
One drink = 1.5 oz. distilled spirits, 4-5 oz. wine, 10 oz. wine cooler, or
12 oz. beer

Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Level 2 Section 1

Fermentation
Alcohol Oxidation Begins in Stomach
Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) oxidizes small percentage
of alcohol in stomach.
Reducing the amount of alcohol absorbed into bloodstream as much as
20%
Enzyme less active in women thus do not oxidize as much alcohol in
stomach: increased absorption
(30-35 % more intact alcohol absorbed by women)
Gastric ADH decreases with age in men
Fasting lowers ADH activity

Alcohol Absorption
Absorbed in stomach and jejunum
Rate of absorption depends on
Amount and speed of alcohol consumption
Presence or absence of food
Gender, health status, genetics

Majority of Alcohol Oxidation Occurs in


the Liver
Liver Enzymes:
Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)

Transported to the liver to be metabolized

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Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

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NUTRITION NOTES

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Alcohol Depresses Brain Activity

Level 2 Section 1

Chronic Alcohol Abuse


Risk factor in traumatic injury and death

Alcohol crosses the blood-brain barrier


Act as a sedative and depressant
Can interfere with brain function, sleep
Elevated blood alcohol concentration
(BAC) can impair gross and fine motor
skills

Liver damage
Leads to malnutrition when alcohol
Displaces food
Induce maldigestion and malabsorption
Alters in nutrient metabolism

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Side Bar Topic : Alcohol-Induced Liver


Damage
Acetyl-CoA-driven increase in livers synthesis
of fatty acids
Alcohol-induced decrease in the livers rate of
fatty acid oxidation

Chronic Alcohol Abuse


Risk factor in traumatic injury and death
Liver damage

Alcohol-induced impairment in protein


synthesis: leads to decrease transport of fatty
acids out of liver as VLDLs

Leads to malnutrition when alcohol


Displaces food
Induces mal-digestion and malabsorption
Alters in nutrient metabolism

Increased uptake of fatty acids

Fetal alcohol syndrome

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Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

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NUTRITION NOTES

Chronic Alcohol Abuse


Risk factor in traumatic injury and death

2nd Semester Sy 2015-2016

Level 2 Section 1

Side Bar: Fetal


Alcohol
Syndrome

Liver damage
Leads to malnutrition when alcohol
Displaces food
Induce maldigestion and malabsorption
Alters in nutrient metabolism

Fetal alcohol syndrome

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Pattern of physical
and mental defects
that can develops as
a result of high
levels of alcohol
consumption during
pregnancy

Prepared By: Ms. April Anne D. Balanon-Bocato

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