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Masonry

Introduction to masonry
structures

MASONRY means an arrangement of masonry units which may be brick, rectangularised stone,
ashlar or cement blocks laid to a bond and joined together with mortar.
I.

the basic component of masonry are block, brick and mortar

II.

Mortar is a composite of cement, lime and sand and sometimes of other constituents

MASONRY UNIT means an individual unit which is bonded to similar units with the help of
mortar to form a masonry element such as a wall, column, pier, buttress, etc., and conforming to
the Nepal Standard Brick Masonry NS: 1/2035.

CHAPTER 7

Composition of masonry units


I.

Choice of masonry units are generally made from the consideration of local availability,
compressive strength, age and ease of construction.

Advantages of
masonry structures

Disadvantages of
masonry structures

Most types of masonry typically will not


Extreme weather causes degradation of
require painting and so can provide a structure masonry wall surfaces due to frost damage
with reduced life cycle costs.
Masonry tends to be heavy and must be built
Masonry structures are heat resistance and
upon a strong foundation
thus provide good fire protection
Requires more skilled labour than steel
Masonry structures built in compression
framing .
preferably with lime mortar can have a useful
life of more than 500 years as compared to 30
to 100 for structures of steel or reinforced
concrete.

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MORTAR

Some definitions
Stretcher : this is a brick laid with its length parallel to the face or front or direction of wall. The
course containing stretcher is called a stretcher course
Header : this is a brick laid with its breath or width parallel to the face or front direction. The
course containing headers is called head course
Bed : The lower surface of brick when laid flat is known as the bed.

Mortars are usually named according to the


binding material used in their preparation.
They are essentially required for masonry work,
plastering and pointing etc.
FUNCTIONS OF MORTAR:
To bind together the bricks or stones properly so as
to provide strength to the structure.
To form a homogenous mass of the structure so as
to resist all the loads coming over it without
disintegration.

To provide a weather resisting i.e., a durable


layer between the different courses of masonry
in the structure.
To hold coarse aggregate together in any
concrete so as to form a solid mass. The mortar
used in a concrete is termed as matrix.
To do pointing and plastering to the structure.
The mortar used for plastering is known as
plaster.
To fill up empty joints in brick and stone
masonry. The mortar used for such purposes is a
thin liquid mortar which is termed as grout and
the process is known as grouting.

Cement mortar
Cement mortar:
The paste is prepared by mixing cement and sand in suitable proportions in addition to water.
The general proportion is 1 part of cement to 2-8 parts clean sand.
These mortars must be use within half an hour, i.e.; before initial setting time of the cement.
This type is used for all engineering works where high strength is desired such as load bearing
walls, deep foundations, flooring etc.

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Types of Masonry walls

Load bearing masonry walls

Based on load bearing


Load bearing masonry walls.
Non-load bearing masonry walls.
Based on construction
Reinforced masonry walls
Unreinforced masonry walls

Application Of Load Bearing Wall


Depending on the type of building and the number of stories, load-bearing walls are gauged to
the appropriate thickness to carry the weight above them. Without doing so, it is possible that
an outer wall could become unstable if the load exceeds the strength of the material used,
potentially leading to the collapse of the structure.
HOUSING
TALL BUILDINGS

A load-bearing wall (or bearing wall) is


a wall that bears a load resting upon it
by conducting its weight to
a foundation structure.
The materials most often used to
construct load-bearing walls in large
buildings are concrete, block, or brick.

Non-Load Bearing Wall


Walls that are only intended to support
themselves and the weight of the
cladding or sheathings attached.
Non load bearing walls provide no
structural support and may be interior
or exterior walls.

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Reinforced Masonry Walls

Reinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry is a construction system where steel reinforcement in the form of
reinforcing bars or mesh is embedded in the mortar or placed in the holes and filled with
concrete.
Reinforcement increases the tensile and compressive strength of wall
After reinforcement the resistance to seismic loads and energy dissipation capacity may be
improved significantly.
Reinforcement should be integrated with masonry so that all materials of reinforced masonry
system acts monolithically when resisting gravity and seismic loading.

There are various ways in which in which


steel reinforcement can be done
Reinforced hollow unit masonry
Reinforced grouted cavity masonry
Reinforced pocket type walls

Reinforced hollow unit masonry


The units are special shaped with vertical holes where vertical reinforcement is placed and
filled with infill concrete or grout.
Before laying the masonry units , the vertical reinforcement is placed in position . Then the first
course of units is laid in the mortar and horizontal bars or bed joint reinforcement are placed in
the grooves or in the mortar joints.
The hole containing vertical bars are filled with either concrete or grout and the grooves
containing the horizontal steels are filled with either grout or mortar as the construction of the
wall progress.

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A SINGLE LAYER OF MASONRY WALL IS CALLED A WYTHE

Reinforced grouted cavity masonry


This differs by technology of construction
It consists of two leaves (wythes) of masonry units, separated by a cavity into which the vertical
and horizontal reinforcement is placed and grouted with either concrete infill or grout
The grout can be pressured either as the work progresses or after the masonry units in the
whole storey have been laid.
In the first case, vertical reinforcing bars are placed first into position, then the horizontal bars
and wall ties are placed and grouted as laying of courses of masonry progresses.
In the second case , the mesh of vertical and horizontal is placed first in position . Then ,
masonry units are laid on each side of the mesh , connected together with wall ties. After the
masonry is build to full storey height, the cavity is filled with grout.
The two leaves of cavity wall are tied together with either wall ties or connectors which should
be designed to carry lateral loads , induced by earthquake.

Cell Reinforcing vertical steel


Bars installed @ 2-0 oc, then
Cells filled with concrete.

Reinforced pocket type walls


Sometimes vertical reinforcement is placed in the pockets formed in the wall by special bonding
arrangement as in the case of reinforced hollow unit masonry walls.
Vertical reinforcing bars are placed into position before laying of masonry units
Depending on the units used horizontal bed joint reinforcement is placed in the mortar joints at
vertical spacing not exceeding 600 mm.
The pockets containing vertical bars are filled with either concrete or grout as the construction
of the wall progresses

Unreinforced masonry
An unreinforced masonry is a construction system where load bearing walls , non load bearing
walls or other structures such as dam retaining walls fall.
These are made of brick, tiles or other masonry unit that is not braced by reinforced bars or
beams .
Such structures are vulnerable to collapse in earthquake.
Mortar is not stronger enough.

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CAVITY WALLS

RULES FOR GOOD BRICK BONDING


DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF BONDING

The following are the principal forms of bonding :


English
Double Flemish

Uniform in size.
Bricks arranged uniformly throughout the wall.
Bats are used as little as possible.

Single Flemish

The bricks in the interiors of wall laid as headers, that is,


across the wall.

Heading

The lap not more than 2 and one-fourth inches.

Stretching

The vertical joints in every other course should be vertically


over one another.

Rat trap bond


Garden Wall

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ENGLISH BOND

The facing bricks are laid in alternate courses of headers and

stretchers.
Queen-closer inserted next to quoin-headers to produce
overlap.
English bond is the strongest.
a.

Avoids continuous vertical joints.

DISADVANTAGE:
Penetration of damp through transverse joints.
Appearance not as good as Flemish bond.

FLEMISH BOND

1. Double Flemish bond


2. Single Flemish bond
Double Flemish is shown in the
figure.
The headers and stretchers
alternate in each course.
The lap is produced by placing a
queen-closer next to the quoinheader in every course.
Flemish bond is weaker than
English bond.

Fig.3

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HEADING OR HEADER BOND

Single Flemish Bond: is a species of bond in which


Placement of double Flemish bond on the face of the walls.
The rest of the wall is built in English bond.
Used for walls requiring a good appearance and strength.

Heading or Header Bond is laid on headers.


Used for round quick sweeps, as in Fig. 4.
Should never be used in straight work, as it is very weak
Fig.4

Not employed for wall less than 1 and a half bricks thick.
ADVANTAGES OF FLEMISH BOND:
It is highly economical.
Walls one brick in thickness are easier to produce a fair face on both
sides in Flemish than in English bond.
The appearance of Flemish bond is more appealing to eye than that of
English bond.

STRETCHING OR STRETCHER BOND

Bricks are laid in stretchers, as in the figure below.


Used in walls of half-brick in thickness.
Due to its constant occurrence in the last position it is also called
Chimney Bond.

RAT TRAP BOND


It is made by placing the bricks on their sides having a cavity of 4 (100

mm)
Alternate course of stretchers and headers.
becoming use ful in these days

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THE ADVANTAGES OF RAT TRAP BOND:

It is highly economical because:


Can make a wall of one brick thickness with fewer bricks than a solid
bond.
Strength is equal to the standard brick wall, but consumes 20% less
bricks.
Cost saving on material is more as compared to the traditional brick
wall.
Maintains thermal comfort inside the building due to air medium.
Bricks aligned on both sides, plastering not required.
It is quite strong as building constructed about 40 years ago still does
not show any signs of distress.