8 views

Uploaded by parsa90p

Elimination with Matrices

- Precalculus Textbook
- Num Methods in CM Cor 2012-01-23
- 15 Deteminants & Matrices Part 4 of 6
- RCA Vol 1 Math Apr2014
- A New Method for Determining Multiple Harmonic Source Locations in a Power Distribution System
- Mat Lab Tutorial
- Linear Algebra
- Basic Matrix Operations
- Tutorial_02&03_MA1020_2009_0
- m
- CPU_SET
- Syllabus MAM
- hw9
- Machine Problem No. 5
- bcom syllabus
- Icp
- Slides of Introductory Lecture, 2015-2016
- fem1lho
- Linear Algebra Exam
- The relative gain for non-square multivariable systems - chang1990.pdf

You are on page 1of 4

Method of Elimination

Elimination is the technique most commonly used by computer software to

solve systems of linear equations. It nds a solution x to Ax = b whenever

the matrix A is invertible. In the example used in class,

1 2 1

2

A = 3 8 1 and b = 12 .

0 4 1

2

The number 1 in the upper left corner of A is called the rst pivot. We recopy

the rst row, then multiply the numbers in it by an appropriate value (in this

case 3) and subtract those values from the numbers in the second row. The rst

number in the second row becomes 0. We have thus eliminated the 3 in row 2

column 1.

The next step is to perform another elimination to get a 0 in row 3 column

1; here this is already the case.

The second pivot is the value 2 which now appears in row 2 column 2. We

nd a multiplier (in this case 2) by which we multiply the second row to elimi

nate the 4 in row 3 column 2. The third pivot is then the 5 now in row 3 column

3.

We started with an invertible matrix A and ended with an upper triangular

matrix U; the lower left portion of U is lled with zeros. Pivots 1, 2, 5 are on

the diagonal of U.

1 2

A= 3 8

0 4

1

1 2

1 0 2

1

0 4

1

1 2

2 U = 0 2

1

0 0

1

2

5

2

12

2

For example, we multiply the 2 in the rst position by 3 and subtract from

12 to get 6 in the second position. When calculating by hand we can do this

efciently by augmenting the matrix A, appending the vector b as a fourth or

nal column. The method of elimination transforms the equation Ax = b into

A and c =

2

6

10

1

0

0

2

2

0

1

2

5

comes from

comes from b.

z = 2, y = 1 and x = 2. This is also a solution to the original system Ax = b.

The determinant of U is the product of the pivots. We will see this again.

Pivots may not be 0. If there is a zero in the pivot position, we must ex

change that row with one below to get a non-zero value in the pivot position.

If there is a zero in the pivot position and no non-zero value below it, then

the matrix A is not invertible. Elimination can not be used to nd a unique

solution to the system of equations it doesnt exist.

Elimination Matrices

The product of a matrix (3x3) and a column vector (3x1) is a column vector

(3x1) that is a linear combination of the columns of the matrix.

The product of a row (1x3) and a matrix (3x3) is a row (1x3) that is a linear

combination of the rows of the matrix.

We can subtract 3 times row 1 of matrix A from row 2 of A by calculating

the matrix product:

1 0 0

1 2 1

1 2

1

3 1 0 3 8 1 = 0 2 2 .

0 0 1

0 4 1

0 4

1

The elimination matrix used to eliminate the entry in row m column n is denoted

Emn . The calculation above took us from A to E21 A. The three elimination steps

leading to U were: E32 ( E31 ( E21 A)) = U, where E31 = I. Thus E32 ( E21 A) = U.

Matrix multiplication is associative, so we can also write ( E32 E21 ) A = U.

The product E32 E21 tells us how to get from A to U. The inverse of the matrix

E32 E21 tells us how to get from U to A.

If we solve Ux = EAx = Eb, then it is also true that Ax = b. This is why

the method of elimination works: all steps can be reversed.

A permutation matrix exchanges two rows of a matrix; for example,

0 1 0

P = 1 0 0 .

0 0 1

The rst and second rows of the matrix PA are the second and rst rows of

the matrix A. The matrix P is constructed by exchanging rows of the identity

matrix.

To exchange the columns of a matrix, multiply on the right (as in AP) by a

permutation matrix.

Note that matrix multiplication is not commutative: PA = AP.

Inverses

We have a matrix:

E21

1

= 3

0

2

0

1

0

0

0

1

which subtracts 3 times row 1 from row 2. To undo this operation we must

add 3 times row 1 to row 2 using the inverse matrix:

1 0 0

1

E21

= 3 1 0 .

0 0 1

1

In fact, E21

E21 = I.

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2011

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

- Precalculus TextbookUploaded byMario J. Kafati
- Num Methods in CM Cor 2012-01-23Uploaded byJoseAlfredoCarneiroDosSantos
- 15 Deteminants & Matrices Part 4 of 6Uploaded byMathematics
- RCA Vol 1 Math Apr2014Uploaded byPradyumna Nahak
- A New Method for Determining Multiple Harmonic Source Locations in a Power Distribution SystemUploaded bylordcx
- Mat Lab TutorialUploaded bymrusdih
- Linear AlgebraUploaded byemmfric313ffw
- Basic Matrix OperationsUploaded byAgusPrianto
- Tutorial_02&03_MA1020_2009_0Uploaded byNuwan Bandara
- mUploaded byapi-444439435
- CPU_SETUploaded bysaifz2010
- Syllabus MAMUploaded bytrustme77
- hw9Uploaded byLinda Hlophe
- Machine Problem No. 5Uploaded byCedric Dela Cruz
- bcom syllabusUploaded byRam Singh Kamboj
- IcpUploaded byRamesh Bishwas
- Slides of Introductory Lecture, 2015-2016Uploaded byRobbie van Leeuwen
- fem1lhoUploaded by080808n
- Linear Algebra ExamUploaded byKarina Sanders
- The relative gain for non-square multivariable systems - chang1990.pdfUploaded byHesam Ahmadian
- syllabusICA1314newUploaded byAakash Jain
- Finite Element Method Mod-2 Lec-4.docUploaded byPSINGH02
- msccst102Uploaded byapi-3782519
- lec30Uploaded byNikhil natani
- EF PseudocodeUploaded bynuwan samera
- PMA EXAMUploaded byRoger murillo
- GAIT BASED PERSON RECOGNITION USING PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES SELECTION SCHEMEUploaded byJames Moreno
- APS 04 Azimuth and ElevationUploaded byadd313199
- 6bis MathcadUploaded byBekele Aman
- c Bo 9780511624117 a 070Uploaded bystefan

- Tax Return Document Checklist ENG 17 RevUploaded byparsa90p
- qg3371_16_dfu_engUploaded byparsa90p
- Daily PCA PLS ComponentsUploaded byparsa90p
- Deep LearningUploaded byparsa90p
- Academic Cv HandoutUploaded bygolapkantidey
- Nonlinear Dynamical SystemUploaded byparsa90p
- ReadmeUploaded bySimoKas
- Helpful Abbreviations for Speedy Note TakingUploaded byAlessandro De Giorgio
- French Learning FarsiUploaded byparsa90p
- ex6Uploaded byparsa90p
- Mit18 06scf11 Ses1.1sumUploaded byArshed Nabeel
- Optimization problemUploaded byparsa90p
- Walkman Digital Media Players - Quick Start GuideUploaded byparsa90p
- Control RahmaniUploaded byparsa90p
- Lec. 2 - Metric and Normed SpacesUploaded byparsa90p
- Lecture 01 Functional Analysis Slides Week01Uploaded byKofi Appiah-Danquah
- Inverse Z Transform (Useful)Uploaded byparsa90p
- mes80369_ch02Uploaded byparsa90p
- productFlyer_978-1-85233-594-6Uploaded byparsa90p
- SamplingUploaded byparsa90p
- Frequency ResposneUploaded byparsa90p
- 1Uploaded byVenkat Chakravarthi
- Feature ExtractionUploaded byparsa90p
- Yechout_TableOfContentsUploaded byparsa90p
- Notes on FIR Filter DesignUploaded byparsa90p
- Front MatterUploaded byparsa90p

- Alsina, Nelsen - Charming ProofsUploaded byAbecedario
- DS360 DatasheetUploaded byQuinn Rocker
- moxa-mgate-mb3180-mb3280-mb3480-series-datasheet-v1.0Uploaded bycristian
- IEEE White Paper Capacitor Application IssuesUploaded byVenkat Dega
- AHRI Standard 431 SI 2014 With Addendum 1Uploaded byFaheem Mushtaq
- 3D Seismic InterpretationUploaded byZaki R. Fajri
- 2114 sramUploaded byKarloz Ibarra
- Chapter 8_Part B_Head Losses.pdfUploaded byShubham Choudhary
- Manuel Atelier Zj 1996Uploaded byJuan José Montano Quintanilla
- FL-NH - FUSIBLES ETI.pdfUploaded byGustavo Zavala
- Boiler Inspection Guidance.pdfUploaded byAnonymous yCpjZF1rF
- Response Spectrum Analysis Using Femap and Nx NastranUploaded byGana C Rover
- CHEM 100 - General Inorganic Chemistry (Laboratory)(2)Uploaded byPau Zaballero
- Chapter 2 Analysing DataUploaded byLinda Wirianty
- 3. Classification of Elements and Periodicity in PropertiesUploaded bymunuvv123
- ccf-2015Uploaded byHongyi Frank Liang
- 1) Introduction to Computer ProgrammingUploaded byMaizie Planillo
- Statistical Process Control for Level 4Uploaded byDavid Carter
- Introduction to Complex Analysis Lecture Notes - W. ChenUploaded byMarcel Bezerra
- 3.DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY OF METAPROLOL TARTRATEUploaded byiajps
- An Integral Associated With the Modified Saigo Operators Involving Two I-Functions and Generalized PolynomialsUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- C18_FIRE_PUMP_597_BKW_800_BHP_1750_RPM.pdfUploaded byDenis Jimenez
- Coefficitent of Friction LabUploaded byMelissa Danowski
- [22] Water Repellency [ Spray Test ]Uploaded bysadia
- RF Magnetic Field InteractionUploaded byClaudiu Anton Vitan
- Electromechanical Materials Testing Machines EM1 MICROTESTUploaded bymla6090
- Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Erosion and Surface Evolution of TungstenUploaded byimdad_buet
- BendingUploaded byAfutu Nikoi Christian
- Offshore Oil Production PlatformsUploaded byPuppy Ayu Jatmiko
- Mechanics Of MaterialsUploaded byHaseeb Riaz