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? Third Class in Indian Railways .

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THIRD CLASS IN INDIAN RAILWAYS BY M. K. GANDHI GANDHI PUBLICATIONS BHADARKALI - LEAGUE LAHORE -161- .

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as third for reasons. as and years passed on the Indian I have by choice. Bombay at passengers carriage before we bolder kept ones After I think redress of passengers. all the became the all time. passed not had defects against booked I train 22 carry seating degree instant mail in this carriage my long is capable it 12th by the labelled If the remained too of a ment manage- invite crusade then difficulty. tions observa- Now with railways when come which the this period. among of the studying purpose during systems class this naturally entered I have the which I could. my passengers critical as correspondence under has of fairly covered different of the into up Calcutta. un- . only lie with their was bunks no were found reached the could could before for It were There train 13-9. Lahore. without in than of exception to find or this 22 two There sleep Raichur September others three or it at insistent being the 25. 1917. to class made south travelling. comfort. any nights two reaching Poona. paid Rs. down Karachi from to Over Africa. seated pressure way into because was bay. great to join to has I should in and the But of majority about notice. These passengers their reaching *Ranchi. class far as two over South I have time travelling for from return my quarter one been now RAILWAYS* INDIAN IN With passengers. 102 Madras. whereon of safety more and accommodation. resorted Having to other conditions under I travel. railway that have I have the have come time and the public much though On the Madras have to the be that the press ance griev- a unredressed.THIRD CLASS I have half a after trains in India of that third travelled north up and Tranquebar.

reaching the station I found unless I take me would not wanted. The of passengers could not found the task almost stayed. I were the floor or tank. millions of the to as passengers give their opinion. A defiant Memon merchant protested against this packing of In vain did passengers like sardines. appearbut I cite the I can vouch for the appearance. walked the the was result The on by These flies. way on scales. he say this was that the train. his fifth night on The the and him referred guard insulted him to management this the at night as many 35 as during in the carriage There terminus. handed went of Many quality but helpless was as they On wala cleaned.you The closet journey and there Refreshments looking. water dirty- the passengers were dirtier hands. of the some choice satisfied to matter in the water no sold in for these used them in journey seated through the passengers waded through dirt. avoided at only by the one intervention not want of to did who of the older passengers the discomfort by an exhibition some add to of temper. time. testimony of the passengers Not during the whole of the compartment or once that was rather every cut your swept time you the floor. cleaned also not during the was filthy receptacles and who taste. to A free fight was. Some in the midst of dirt and some had keep standing. I mildly protested and that paid the the told him ghari- fare he I would . coming to of out ive weighed in equally unattractby previously sampled were asked dainties . were passengers during the greater lay on the floor part of it. expressions as to the they to state had that to they were things take came. The fighters among us The beyond them. On the way tannin water got for tea passengers with filthy sugar called and whitish looking liquid misa milk which muddy a gave this water ance.rush be bearable. guards or other railway servants in only to push in more came passengers.

Soneat and other Purulia. a have not protestant. 9 carry it had constantly 12 in it. But he could not Station the whole day at the Central sat watching two Mahornedan merchants to giving bribe passengers said he had himself Another could were his ticket and get bound for Ludhiana of travel What normal. for friend's a able to performed in no better packed already and but I could intervention secure even the authorised certainly beyond constructed was to number. Rs. Dhond. as and water. for them. Asansol been stations. attached his their tickets. procure and fatigued. a as It closet falselyso called. or soap had compartment evil looking. water. 5 before he procure these and exceptional but Raichur. important an threatened the passengers strike him and locked the door over he had with whom difficultysqueezed in. To this to there compartment designed was be used a There such. I simply told him of the ghari or call the out policeman. was The lying thick was know itself compartment that it had The of wood the upon ever seen passengers. pull me to I had fare. described I have I have got down in junctionstations to to pay three men These had still more nights seat. travelled three nights and was weary He said he had stretch himself. Dirt and work I do not was exceptional an There three were refined two ment assort- stalwart Tamilians and who joined us later. The return journey was The carriage was manner. European closet but could hardly was without I say pipe in it but was a fear of no challenge that it pestilentiallydirty. is at not the They ' are Mosafirkhanas discreditable- ' . related the bribes they had to give to The merchants One of the Punjabis had already comfort. and store Chakradharpur. pur.resister he the authorised before I could him pay would have be to passive turn taken. At at railway servant swore a This was partment com- but passengers place one been admission My seat. Punjabi Mahomedans.

ness is no order. I have not the power without a committing adequately to describe them breach of the laws of decent speech. sit how they like spit where smoke closets attached and The to everywhere. Disinfecting unknown. but a squat third certain fit only in to yet class that plague has become more Indian trains alone passengers fair where go and smoke impunity in all carriages irrespective of the of the endemic other result is impossible Any dirt where always leave some they on leaving. ashes. notwithstanding a bye-law which from without a smoking prevents passenger the sex permission of his fellows in the compartment allotted to smokers. these places defy description. no cleanliand horrible din and noise. And this. the leavings of their permitted to throw They are and food they like. They on. He want to complain even be to court death. but be insanitation health and morality. is not which be The existence awful of the cannot war allowed stand in the way ot this to of the removal gigantic evil. Sonepur forth to warn have come the public and the authorities. or disinfecting fluids are of flies buzzing about them The warns army you dumb third-class traveller is their But a use. be to on with presence and of irrespective of the protest non-smokers. passengers On the Imperial Capital booking-office is a Black-Hole At purpose. War can dirt and overcrowding. powder. wonder Is it any India ? take no destroyed. entire never no warrant One could for tolerating understand an of passenger traffic in a crisis like accentuation of continuation a or and undermine conditions that must stoppage this. wasps the trains. but utter confusion benches have not enough to sit Passengers no or looking places where there dirty floors and eat dirty food. against does not and helpless. . though to go to these places may I know who fast while they are travelling passengers order in lessen of their life in the misery to just At flies having failed.

matters I would the We being of can in classes. in life and travelling that Councillors change millions in these their life. they from places. their superior through class of clean here let of education suggestions : remarkable some class have Imperial travelling class the traffic necessities Commander-in-Chief. even In five class first class. of composite described. and fact neglecting of third comforts be travelling. tunity oppor- is sense people travelling. ex- made Rajas. fellow and cost second Instead receiving class passengers dealing get travel go in ordinary and for return being creature high carried comforts. third simple cleanliness see his between luxuries splendid a of third get claim to third the the sanitation. of Among of of observed that to the giving cultivation warning. would perience.with that first class third fare. is entitled in the ever-increasing the class In class the case much as third simple proportion known a for pays but Madras the times of passengers comfort. is It the It is ? relative some Does one-tenth. uncomplaining fares decency fully respect- without experiences the the be and the lost. Maha- others. the as passenger justice Surely least at orderliness. over is fare the of third the of class class lot the Compare the place third will pectation ex- with . the ger passen- to lesson during the class tastes and first passengers. one-fifth. who and then conditions place of under then soon millions to the previous now pay for rajas. the generally bare object an evil this the and many the with include a first that class third a decent blunted the Viceroy.

offer a solution. of status in He earnest. give we sole would It results the the are work. and cons of his collected The arguments. serious Vedanta the India. the through that being the For so. many nor Series". our examined mass a to all not are masses. world. however. Mehta. Mehta's they *' common Yiddish books through are of succeeded have best and parts a Even yearning which all raised have literature. is proportionate to We reacted have not time the the on anticipate Dr. a into tongues Introduction are Middle of Jews intercourse. subject necessity latest the vernaculars.VERNACULARS is It love be to will India. finding it for mutual to the in translating found not the satisfy foreign the and pros in support the on to have necessary of and the Dr. English medium the as the now out through- as importance national protagonists many are circulation for national means and of vernaculars question vernaculars the form written were of Madras Kesari English- of pages of labour attention following present The instruction be The Mehta's Dr. of pointing Indians patriotic of hears language instruction of and public One suicide. did . writes He has feelingly. English-educated that media neglect . pronouncement The Eastern tongue in must Whilst His Excellency Viceroy. who Europe. He not only education English language. he is keenly alive to the to of in schools instruction imparting our is unable the is I of the is that through But evidence of education. soul's to in Yiddish world's the scattered language. to the receive educated that hoped INSTRUCTION* OF MEDIA AS masters Self-Government be to could they the . by him for printed in their is of of continued fact the custodians of if it monstrous in given The this not were is country fact.

Jewish scholars within generation. during the present tion. Boer these fathers the same lesson. it is a of faith in ourselves surest sign of want . the Taal. medium in South Africa growing up the only a few was ago. therefore.learned the of few wish them among to the tax masses learn the having to Jewish population with a realise their foreign language before they could enriched what at dignity. surely it should they may be an task for us to supply the needs of our easy vernaculars which cultured own languages. sign of decay. the that they rejected even school The masters. a The determined were Boer that There corrupt mothers they would form and the not let with whom their children. in giving their masses age a a languof which feel proud. and Dutch. years of speech between simple but brave If have moment which we who of speak the published Dutch compelled to teach the easier Taal. no be however benevolently or generously it may bestowed make self-governus a upon us. So they have was looked time as mere one a jargon but what upon the Jewish children mothers learnt from their by taking special pains to translate into it the best This is a truly marvellous thought of the world. The It had able pleaders English here was a strong one. they in their infancy talked in the Taal. yield before Boer patriotism. be weighed down with having to for instruction receive case through English. It has been done work. are If South was of teaches Africa us duel there between a English. des- so now were have succeeded. common rustics. for it. And are literature to lost faith in our vernaculars. of to an excellent character is at the present in the Taal. it is the And scheme of self-government. But It may High are English had be observed Dutch. accustomed Europe. would and Eastern But a Jew of Middle Europe " " feel insulted if his mother tongue cribed. will ever . generaand Webster's defines it as Dictionary a for inter-communication by polyglot jargon used Jews from different nations.

10 no respect for the languages .ing nation. if we have mothers our speak.

difficult and It is delicate delicate subject. last month you that that or to that address. 11 . immediate that by my produced only things are of the *Address February delivered before the Missionary Conference on 14. at you I took I under- that diffidence great hard was to put chosen I have subject. tion definiat thinking I have arrived a illustrates that. of the peculiar views Swadeshi. domain In the it by purging it of its defects.SWADESHI* It speak to it in a And all. to and practising in the prayer prayed Swadeshi of us to to about am best the observe to week earnestly may practise to me a already either not am encourages devoted is nothing there preparing not It that is necessary spirit in is that of service of exclusion religion. perhaps. I should religious surrounding. I hold upon because of to selection the very and without not was of it is difficult language my because which I have command that not for giving in what I adequate I know that I may rely thoughts. 1916. an about am will you to bless say my prayer. serve make of the of politics I should indigenous use of their and them institutions by curing them serve In that I should of economics use proved defects. to expression my indulgence for the many shortcomings you upon your will no doubt find in my when address. I must cestral anof my immediate is the religion. best my Swadeshi to as similar much meaning. the more so I tell you that say I I have bear word fruit with a After the for use the and place of I what I know am of my ability. in order our the to which us ings surround- immediate more restricts Thus. satisfy the restrict myself to my definition. requirements remote. That use If I find it defective.

a Hindu considers it he not necessarily because be the best. as I think it has been erroneously of the held. I suppose. Moreover with claim upon I have enhave attention. If there is any substance in what I have said. complement can said about Hinduism true is. do not And. of the other faiths of the world. The spiritof the Sermon with the 'Mount almost equal terms on competes heart. but he that because he knows to And it by introducing reforms. of Let us the three branches briefly examine Swadeshi sketched Hinduism above. if reduced to practice. do still better the spiritof Christianity better by dropping the goal of proselytising while continuing their philanthropic I hope you work consider this to be an ? will not the suggestion in impertinence on my part. will lead to the millennium. But here comes the point I am labouring to reach. has become as conservative a religion and. Swadeshi refuses to change his relispirit. therefore. It is the most tolerant because it is non-proselytising. only it is great held that it is speciallyso in the case of Hinduism. a mighty force because of the Swadeshi spiritunderlying it. to whom not she owes they a deep debt of gratitude for what done and have and are serve doing. deavoured some your Bible. It is suggested that such Swadeshi. because do not we quite to expect reach it within our abandon not times. as we abandon our pursuit after the millennium. and it is as capable of expansion today as it has been found be in the past. but in absorbing Buddhism. I make I all sincerity and due humility. will the great missionary bodies of India. it as part I consider to study the the of my on scriptures. so may we Swadeshi even though it may not be fullyattained for generations to come.neighbours and serve those industries by making them efficient and complete where they might be found wanting. It has succeeded not to in driving out. of my Gita for the domination Bhagavad I yield to no Christian in the strength of devotion what 12 I have . By reason gion.

" " Lead kindly light and several I sing with which of a similar nature. they would now as have not often have to degenerated as they done. saying in Europe. I make believe that religion has nothing to do I do not latter divorced from with politics. But bold to seek it even in politicalmatters. some that I have offered the above suggestion not as a and impartial student biased Hindu. the message in Europe. apologise closing this part for that the frightfuloutrage of my subject. fit As is like a corpse to only a matter of silent manner. in your influence you politicsnot a little. all Go be the world that unto it not May ye somewhat has been narrowly interpreted message be denied. I have other inspired hymns of noted Christian under the influence sionaries miscome And belonging to different denominations. if the attempt religion had not to politics from been separate made it is even made. that many the appeal has cases are only so-called. of friendship with enjoy to this day the privilege will perhaps. The religion be buried. great But I am now do in from the East. therefore. but as a humble of religionwith great^ leanings towards Christianity.I observe the indigenous institutions and the villagepanchayats hold me. In some but to the stomach. which it is yours to give in a special sense. a change of experience. appear considers the that No one politicallife of the upon Following out the Swadeshi spirit. and that light had been little understood faiths. the heart And to not gone leaves conversion in every a behind case a sore " it which. 13 . India is really country is in a happy state. own fact. a new to venture heart. have to be thrown it may I have sought your help in religious matters. And I feel that. is perfectly possible in I know I every one of the thin treading upon not ice. I and the spiritof it missed ? It will not of the conversions speak from experience. allow You of them. is avoidable. I again from " think. Quoting birth. perhaps shows that is just going on that of Jesus of Nazareth. the Son of Peace.

those are 14 . And witness not in reality failure to organise you but want of correspondence between the representatives and the represented. One Mela Hardwar Kumbha last year know at to skilful that organisation must how have been. any It or oppression from the ruling power powers. is the fashion to say that. We not want to represent but we fail. hearts are book Their neither. recognise us not than much the they recognise more English officers. shock hitherto delivered. tion educaWe. whether Indian Princes they were born the vast or foreigners. of those who have been nurtured in the new traditions. treasures are as As it is. I fear. If during the last fifty had been educated we through the vernaculars. the discoverof a Bose or a Ray would been household have the Ramayan and the Mahabharat.have received our have therefore We through a foreign tongue. to a certain extent. aspirations are not ours. but it answered needs. so far as the masses concerned. We have under terrible handicap owing to laboured a an fatal from almost the Swadeshi departure spirit.survived every it is because it is that. Their to an open Hence their is a break. reacted upon the masses. have hardly touched for collecting revenue. the educated classes. its The to political villagersmanaged their internal affairs through the and through it they dealt with caste system. They the masses. years elders and and our servants our neighbours our would have partaken of our ies knowledge. and that it has. we This is true. a possible to deny of a nation that was capable wonderful of producing the caste its system power is not had but to attend the great of organisation. Yet for more than it cater to a lack organising ability. which able effectively without seeming effort was any million pilgrims. The vast organisation of caste as answered of the comnot only the religiouswants munity.republican country. and potentates. latter The masses except rendered have Caesar in their turn to unto seem Caesar's and for the rest have done what much was they have liked.

Lancashire stand aside without can sustain shock for the time hurt. been solved would have The long ago. great discoveries might as in India in error. other before she is able to live or any country And for herself. based and India England was clearlyupon an error. growing all the produce she needs. Had instruction in all the branches of learning been given through the vernaculars. We not to honey. though it may a not being. its It is not on And late to mend. some show could that England easily become selfa sustained country. Lancashire must aside.cipleto be followed by all. too can help if you will. This be an utterly ridiculous preposition.well have been made by foreigners. village be now in a special a livingforce panchayats would and India almost would be enjoying selfway.. I bold to say that they would have been enriched make wonderfully. and may be true. etc. If this be true. is perhaps the best proof that it cannot is one of the largest importers that England in But India cannot live for Lancashire the world. The question of villagesanitation. she live for herself only if can she produces and is helped to produce everything But 15 . she does not remain It is her declared policy that India is to be held in trust for her people. now much of the deep poverty of the masses is due the Swadeshi to ruinous in the departure from industrial life. And if the Swadeshi stand doctrine is a sound doctrine. she commerce would be milk today a land flowing with and But that was be. as no And for the last division of Swadeshi. you other body or bodies can. suited its requirements and would to government have been spared the humiliating spectacle of organised assassination sacred soil. it as religious prir. were greedy and The connection between so was England. and economic If not article of an had been brought from outside India. I am no I have read but treatises which economist. I think of Swadeshi as boycott movea ment undertaken I concieve by way of revenge.

during my wanderings last year to see as weavers possible. And the nation. need into not be.for her requirements within her own She borders. It has already undermined to overwhelm the digestive apparatus of hundrends of thousands and women of men additional tax and constitutes an their slender purses. India is a country It is nonsensical to parch one's throat with thirst when is ready to offer pure kindly Mahomedan a would And of Hindus water to drink. exchanging only such commodities other with villages where necessary all sound they are not locallyproducible. decline to wear other clothing or eat any any other food. it would be your duty and mine to find out and to teach neighbours who can supply our wants how where them to supply them they do not know that there ar. nonsensical men convinced that their religion also. assuming of healthy occupation. fratricide. can do a great deal in the desired hand-loom The direction. drawn to and ruinous of mad the vertex competition which breeds other evils. in want Then are every India of will almost be village self-supporting a self-contained and unit. once can they are demands that they should tured manufacwear garments in India in only and eat food only grown India. Well.jealousy and many who is to from her millionaires But stop great entering into the world competition ? Certainly not tion. Force of public opinion. she ought not be. of nonsense. This may nonsensical. and as many ached heart find how to they had lost. Lord Hardinge can set upon fashion for of the Swadeshi. doctrine. 16 . industry is in a dying I took special care condition. educalegislation. proper however. how my families had retired from this once flourishing and honourable If we follow the Swadeshi occupation. yet thousands die of thirst than rather drink from a water Mahomedan These household. Lord Curzon the fashion for teaset bids fair that pernicious drug now drinking.e neighbours who to proceed. and almost the whole India forswear There is a verse foreign goods.

But I would that urge in the 17 . And we would be making for the confined if we Swadeshi to a goal even given set of articles allowing ourselves as a temporary measure be procurable in such to use things as might not the country. any With is to revert them to practise Swadeshi barbarism. considerable inconvenience.forget that Swadeshi. a British colony. freelyrendered. follow the classes. is a goal to be reached by steady effort. means. cause I hate legislativeinteference. which. It is easy undo the masses to evil if the thinking portion of the community were take the Swadeshi it to for a even vow though may. cause Under its spell the deprivation of a pin or a needle. in any department of life. as defined here. necessary. from their minds by arguing the impossible. But I would tolerate. Swadeshi. It has often been Swadeshi urged that India cannot adopt life at any Those economic rate. Mauritius. The objectors consider it to be a most selfish doctrine in the civilised code of morawithout warrant lity. cause no which he hundreds of things considers today those who dismiss Swadeshi Moreover. because these are in India. after all. is a religious disciplineto be undergone in utter disregard of the physical discomfort it may to individuals. I cannot into a detailed analyto enter sis Swadeshi of the position. welcome. proupon tected its sugar the that from by taxing came sugar another British colony. remains for me There now to consider one more been that has raised objection against Swadeshi. With them it rule a as a mere be made if it involved to patriotic effort not any self-denial. At best it is the lesser evil. indeed.need manufactured not A Swadeshist will learn to dq without terror. England has sinned against India by forcing free trade upon her. but it has been poison for this country. plead for a stiff protective duty foreign goods.in the Bhagavad Gita. who look advance this objection do not upon Swadeshi is of life. It may food have been for her. Natal. time.

and. the custodians of a great faith. life.is the only doctrine consistent with the law of humility and love. should have at once All will not an we reach the same that state time. and the fashion to set show. were my effort upon the family and conto concentrate sider my that through them I was serving the whole nation of humanity. serve harm I do not other country. It is arrogance to think of launching of India when the whole I am out to serve hardly able to serve It better own even family. to extort money I enrich then myself thereby and satisfy many unlawful demands of the family. Under India to the exclusion of every other county. by your preaching. Here I am neither the State. It is the key to a proper practice of Ahimsa or love. patriotism based on hatred killeth and that patriotism based on love *' 41 giveth life. I may serve my the of I family regardless sufferings to cause may As others. the whole This is humility and it is love. Supposing that everyone ideal state. sanctified that by practice. causing injury to anyone followed this mode of life. The will motive determine the quality of the act. But those of at who. My patriotism is any both exclusive and inclusive. Or I may serving the family nor nise recogthat God hands and has given me feet only to work and for that of those with for my sustenance be dependent upon who I would then at me.in seeming to happy day. the family without else." 18 " .but it is inclusive in the sense that my service is not of a competitive or antagonistic Sic alienum la is not ut utere tuo nature. if you will. for instance. I may an ment employaccept which enables me from people. may I can once simplify my life and that of those whom In this instance I would have served directlyreach. non but it is a grand doctrine of merely a legal maxim. It is exclusive in the that in all humility I confine my attention to sense the land of my birth. enforce it in practice will us clearly anticipate and accelerate the coming of that this plan of life. realisingits truth. It is for you.

a as religion. my derived I have Jain religious works from the scriptures of and Vaishnavite. if I suddenly discovered that lead from bore the different by me interpretation a I had still hold learnt I should one to give them. Our Shastras really practises at the his feet snakes harm. to the I much owe view of the to Ahimsa I as am about to forth set here. its negative form Modern October. nation. 19 . though on my result of my of the faiths of the are study of most a the world. irreligion I do ness much be for have how made good them. from world. Review. was a philosopher. they are longer dependent now no upon of my life. of Ahimsa manly have. a other faiths great I as of the of the living company deceased who Kavi. been and have dissensions by internal of country. . In 'The so and This St. it means not injuring any 1916. They are a part the religious books and. no am childhood. authority of these works.500 past of practice the for warrant but we have proof of physical courage. been swayed by the spirit of torn We historical no exaggerated becoming our an the During given ample be to seems I of unmanlicharge I hold the Jains. Thus. Rajachand Ahimsa views Jain by birth.AHIMSA* There belief that with been dominated have. Francis Ahimsa he of in its affects other is said teach to seem a has fulness his surroundings have man who the world that reptiles do venomous to that been the even him experience no of Assisi. we chronise syn- virtues. far know the against birth By in taught Ahimsa religious benefit was bereft years of than rather not can brief 1. of love by love of self instead that is to say.

he. They bore no ill-will to it. most proper the passive resisters of South Africa to have resisted Government the evil that the Union sought to do them.does not prevent from child withdrawing from his presence me a shall imagine.livingbeing whether therefore. requires deliberate deliberate not a self-suffering.who 20 statue on as bearing only Ahimsa. a man Gift of life is the greatest who all hostility. It. cannot fear or frighten him loved one. suffering caused to does not cover do not the wrong-doer by natural acts of mine which proceed from ill-will. be himself fearless. or bear him mental suffering. It may not. He therefore. If I am love my I must I must Ahimsa. the enemy. hurt any ill-will to by body the person him and so or of any cause mind. -doer who is my enemy rules to the wrong same or a would I to my to wrong-doing father as me.disarms honourable for an paved the way understanding. They showed to whenever this by helping the Government it needed consisted of disobedience their help. stranger This active Ahimsa necessarily includes or son. Ahimsa means follower of a love. the greatest charity. the road to the protectionof even a stick. wrongin any if I am. He has gives it in reality. It was. must. As man deceive the truth and fearlessness. apply. who is himself subject to fear can bestow And none that gift. the proper practice of Ahimsa requires me intended the victim from the withdraw to doer. sented reprein a famous This takes us far needs soldier. But a stick. the largest In its positive form. It is the most soldierlyof a has been Gordon General soldier's virtues. and be a coward then practice Ahimsa A man cannot calls forth time. wrong-doer.is a . he does not her. we to Indeed. or of all gifts. even Ahimsa of suffering death at their hands. is about whom strike. Their resistance to the extent of the orders of the Government.therefore. for therefore. whatsoever. injuring This statement of the supposed wrong-doer. the guardian way of such a child. The practice of Ahimsa at the same the greatest courage.

barring of course. takes flight before any danger. was The Moors a finger though Duryasa did his worst. or of Buddha of the Vedas. in the the defender .that extent so much the less soldier. for it second. He is no of Mahavira. in its active form. Such a one who stood his ground without lifting Ambarisha. the readiness They die. AmbaOnly theirs was due to love. will have to walk to his tyrant. conquered to gunners. all the else would remove to while the defend her only to wishing that somebody danger by destroying the 21 . If we because are are unmanly today. their lips. and frantically waved comrades. not do not know fear how strike. And as greeted their erstwhile enemies to a * so the South African passive resisters in their ' sands thou- sell their rather than Ahimsa This was for a little personal ease. honour A honour.showed much the same type the courage of desperation. as the defender soul against the mere body of the tyrant. but because we to we die. is He how stand his the true soldier who knows to die and ground in the midst of a hail of bullets. the very odds "are that the soul in the latter will be awakened. the apostle follower to of Jainism. and the girl would stand and infinitelygreater of her honour chance being protected than in any other conceivable circumstance. their hats. we so. who or being afraid to die. that of her own personal courage. the dead body of her defender victim over . and who were being pounded by the French gunners Allah rushed with who the guns' mouths on to of courage. real of or one who is prepared imaginary. barters away It never helpless girl in the hands of a follower of Ahimsa finds better and surer protection than in the hands were ready to die the him. his has matched the first instance. ceased firing. The would point to which his weapons carry in the first instance. risha's was Yet the Moorish valour. he has but to overpower the is assumed of propriety in that the cannon second the defender instance will be satisfied when In has fought to the extent of his physical valour.

and country a fear vague soothe or other soldiers. or cow supposed a killing with away conscience. their and it. to officials.causing person does not it. this deeper secret Let land us of . true. at rudiments. were saw the life. Mahavira was happy. displace their thej7 and extra- present not can and profession. in him would gods. or country. its all never doing not imperatively ours the understood panacea a are and few a the good cowardice one's satisfy truly mundane. humble my mundane evils necessary so in is all. care is He if straw a follower no he kills Ahimsa of by man a who by inches . opinion the mind the do by protect make to by to Ahimsa we order not intended thing in actuated are and cows does who or few who. deceiving force of arms butcher his a these Here love the stinging of for We can it of practice in is vanity. overdo virtues. truer of a be joint and a into will sharers once with more it Only these be the and abode be godly and of tice prac- practised Buddha found teachers. even off hatred. All trade. at renders but before honourable Just does Ahimsa Tolstoy.

THE The that a claim only I have months some of meeting CO-OPERATION* OF BASIS MORAL on I attended ago mill-hands Ewbank Mr. not cause fairly a After countenance. handling of it must literature kindly placed disposal some at very my the And had I have too on subject. in which filthy as living was they were as could is indulgence your to My nothing. attracts contributed September and me to the Bombay Provincial Co-operative 17. the the people. to tax your consideration I Hence. of tion co-opera- Devadhar. a I handled which moments next made to home that believe. Whatever he has does. to Owing first spoken who was to. his kind few him of the there But particularly innocent and had the him engaged in Gujrati conversation. fire opened forward and who other he people wanted me I naturally pressed I fancy in manner tion a from My is man the children. co-operaliked the rather the invitation to a me subject. 23 . for zeal great it well it matters that. Ewbank's his I should own. 1917. he speak for made has worn-out who man a not about looks suspicious for on been he task. subject his brother. the shirked have seated were. Mr. with whom to wanted he be. of the knowledge technicality a Mr. and women wore to the worse. own. had the himself put of tion. Recent And I Mr. we surrounded on Ewbank by men. moralities Ewbank Mr. upon charpai. had frankly confess must made had rains to chawl The explain the principles of co-operation. patience of co-opera- " moral standpoint. think to predisposes me that there be the must something good in it and Ewbank be fairly difficult. unique a of of effect the opportunity watching some co-opera- naturally *Paper Conference.

I am enthusiast myself. of the success the other hand. hesitation ring inferno that the personal equation counted for success in the one and failure in the other instance. remind points of Mr. but twenty-five years an of experimenting and me experience have made a and cautious Workers discriminating enthusiast.tive Mr. and. frustrate the very I would may enthusiasts in co-operatherefore. in quite unconsciously. there is quiet work in the same direction being done by Mr. With Hamilton Sir Daniel it has become a religion. end in view. I. and often succeed in turning its merits exaggerate its very defects into advantages. PJodge. in keeping with the national genius. In spite of my a cause necessarily. It alone gives me Critics tell me that it represents a soulless soul-force and that its severe it merely disciplinehas made mechanical. Mr. if its controllers do not take the disciplinethat is the foundation of character care. Hodge is a come contact co-operative enthusiast and probably considers that the result which he sees flowing from his efforts are due to the working of co-operation.a missionary whose efforts are those leaving their impress on who in with him. which me of the law of the Twelve Tables. a humble to place wrong. be if they were to meant demonstrations On of co-operation. at best. who was able to watch had in the efforts. the critics and I are both I suppose It is. There are so-called agricultural banks in Champaran. Collins of Behar. gone main are I have points which through like rhe and I-have gone through the twelve Commandments. to me They were ten disappointing efforts. effort in Ewbank's Champaran.he addressed the caution " " 24 . On the 13th January last. to warn venture.though I consider the little institution I am ducting conin Ahmedabad the finest thing in the as world. sufficient inspiration. attempt where the disposal of the nation a home and at men unfettered have for free and women scope may development of character. tion false against entertaining hopes.

in order Scotland's to point a moral. and the welding hammer in the hand of the Government is the co-operative movement. Scottish banking system built. it is an enthusiast's exaggeration. The credit there is evident of thought. So far there can only be perfect agreement Sir Daniel." In his opinion it is the panacea of all the evils that afflict India at the present In its moment. confusion which of the world is becoming the money power * * " 25 . I sense venture to think." Sir Daniel then was shows that it was possible to build up the marvellous Scottish the character so banking system only on built. and so enable her to take her to weld ment rightfulplace in the world.students of the Churches College and. is becoming more of the world. Church manufactured The the men banks manufactured the money to a give the men 'in life. trained to believe in God were created and the trustworthy character the on so Scottish " " . . in the be mentioned not limited has used in which Sir Daniel it. he instanced how hundred of two poverty ago and showed years that great of raised from a condition was country which There to plenty. two were poverty powers. never forget this that it is India into one. . which is only Trust and and more the money Faith. for that character there with without is no co-operation But he would is a sound maxim. that the British Governis here. to glorify God and to enjoy Him and in themselves. and bullet in the parchment power into which is impressed the faith which removes India will find victory and peace." Here mountains. He thus waxes eloquent be your Whatever dreams dayon co-operation : may of India's future. tion condiextended it can sense justifythe claim on one need which here . Church The start disciplined the nation in the fear of God which is the beginning of wisdom and in the parish schools of the Church the children learned that the chief end of man's life was Men for ever. and the Scottish the Scottish raised her Church and the banks. have us go much further. Mark his peroration : "Credit.

the opinion I had often heard expressed has become so firmly rooted in me.but failing of the of grinding poverty do so. nence belief about credit system in order to operative emphasise the point that the cowill be a blessingto India only movement the extent that it is a moral movement to strictly fired with directed It religious fervour.has little moral basis and is not a synonym for Trust are Faith. and this beautiful globe of ours do not if we mind. is today that. It is necessary is fraught with so much good to India for merely advancing should not degenerate into one therefore delighted to read cheap loans. men struggling to be good. But will not fair rates men the wisdom of the Estate or philanthropistsdemands the onward that they should help on path. deadly coil has made passible the or devastating spectacle in Europe. that the greater the rascal the greater his banks. believe that material prosperity Too often do we to the current that a movement growth. After or of men. because to or Facility for obtaining loans at grip of the Mahajan. which we are helplessly as it purse It was perhaps never so true looking on. it bids fair to crush us out witnessed the ruin of breath. that on their opinion that it is to true co-operato express means moral which " 26 . that co-operation should be conto men wishing to be morally right. therefore. The credit system like a serpent's coil. which purely moral qualities. the longest ventured I have to give promifinally wins. labelled credit whether the was co-operative The otherwise. by men fined follows. immoral make moral. I was in the Report of the Committee the recommendation they wish clearly Co-operation in India. the credit he enjoys with banks The his moral do into character : they are not pry satisfied that he meets his overdrafts and promissory has encircled notes punctually. as in law so in war. of many I have a and has made ence differhome the it no through system. who years' experience of hundreds twenty had dealings with banks in South Africa.

" With to not a by the number of co-operative societies formed. co-operate to drum monkeys out They to co-operate use a them found I have operate coof their cattle their to protect to the extent devoting the best land for the grazing of their cattle. thrashing floor. birds or perhaps about the Mahajan place. evil if he represent mightiest Mahajan an must. force. A be out will not device. that is. have been expressed as to the success of co-operation because of the tightness of the Mahajan's hold the The the fears. ensure growth of And the existing societies before multiplying them. Government will make their promotion conditional. however imposing. the number not of societies they have tered. The registrars the moral will.alone. in that event. conceived common But my essentiallymoral movement. responsible for not the measure the of success movement will conduct of co-operative societies does it that advanced not to the see money find its way into the toddy-seller'sbill or into the I would pockets of the keepers of gambling dens. but the moral success of the existing instituof every This will mean tracing the course Those pie lent to the members. the proper ceeded Mahajan if it has suckeeping the gambling die or toddy from the excuse rapacity of the in the ryot's home. bend before an as co-operation. regisupon tions. And been found co-operating they have Doubts against a particular rapacious Mahajan. Co-operation is not a new word of The ryots that destroy their crops. we this standard principles. to tion the moral look must and aspect co-operation which recognises ment of the question that Governa amelioration for the of the masses pseudo-co-operative edifice. of the Mahajan of Champaran revise the accepted opinion about influence/ I have found him to limited experience has ^made me * his blighting be not always 27 . on I do share not ryots. but by the moral condition of the co-operators. which is built in ignorance of co-operative will before us.

upon leverted it and to left otf the calling have they Ashram business. upon Five families that had it only six months ago. The experiment I am conducting shows that there is in this direction. The doing a prosperous supplies are 28 serves many ways . an back to life this will nurse Every registrar who the gratitude important and graceful industry will earn of India. As Dr. I will the audience with any the statement not on weary The third may be first two parts of the experiment.relentless. but I respectfully enquire any whether it is not possible to make effort to a serious draw the good in the Mahajan and help him or out induce him to throw the evil in him. in youth from the craving for weaning the educated other services and the feeling that Government or renders him unfit for independent occupaeducation tion and inducing him to take to weaving as a calling honourable that of a barrister or a doctor.not sometimes always exacting of the last pie. secondly. to their rescue comes is so limited that I dare not draw My observation conclusions from it. this industry equanimity. to join the army has experience proved that he is past praying or for? I note that the movement takes note of all indigenous I beg publicly to industries. Mann used to supply the peasant with an additional source and of livelihood insurance against famine. out May he be induced not of co-operation. no look the patriot dare upon with impending destruction of the hand-loom weaver has stated. field for work vast No wella wisher of India. He his clients in and even in the hour of their distress. as as and who have thirdly by helping those weavers their occupation to revert abandoned to it.. it has a direct bearing allowed a few sentences as able to enter I was the subject before us. humble effort consists My firstlyin researches the of simple as to possibilities making orthodox in the reforms hand-looms. express my for helping me in my gratitude to Government humble effort to improve the lot of the weaver.

loan the minimum a of market the at the with delivery take cash loses door us be realise Then of . is finish. the pre-determined. is being it. cloth advanced loss no by the need they yarn rate. at not Let fail them have we be upon ever for too is mean of ship relation- hope. and limiting its . into entering and their lifted being has not early date. volunteers. co-operation dreaded. some in and them ambitious put developed. with pieces to strictly from for charging saddled breaking like its lar particu- a therefore. point. restrict to loan depends friends be not were use I would moral the for are negligible. warrant merely the interest. Ashram as Ashram is able of purely its note The ready a loss The paying transactions command to transaction to future woven. can again. We All able are received. the cash. take to audience The Whole these the on families obtain ot the therefore. ourselves. our we ventured the I hope. our without are lives for interest. been yet cloth its it. We. lift willing.them their at volunteers them has as loss to interest on yet suffered figure. The such help have no could of the loan middlemen. imitation. betterment. for We never last we dilate to others to ideal. families. but at it there scoundrels should need be " that what no Ruskin I education till This shall cease fear so by to strive of rightly ** for a the an of too reality small tion co-opera- to it. a day. the satisfied rest on weavers And the to start existence This hand every I have experiment together We not dream. these families touched to sure it. character render for to sale It yarn. it will illustrate to present of God The privilege cannot but that we.

NATIONAL I have Nor to a DRESS* successfully resisted to temptation of either Irwin's ism criticMr. courts to me interest in wear rest his to amenities minor taught semi-European Kathiawar dress dress I refer in India always worn I fell period in India with common the with and the taken even dressing. . with I going to succumb regard am now except which fit to dwell Mr. answering or your of the humble work I am doing in Champaran. weaksin in the Indian in the Pioneer. an European committing criticism is it humiliation is best in ryots fact The because becoming most copying our our and the etfect. that the dress I have very short of wearing elsewhere I has it may I the of outside 21 now in a in prey the to the and courts before the precisely the in ago the for that easy I appeared years to is except an my Irwin countrymen dress of respect Mr. that a *Reply. fellow workers. wear made and it is that. correctly familiarity has he manner my " My which in Champaran. by me or my One letter suggests I have dress Champaran the wear natural and believe that sign of discarding degradation. are which Irwin's the for a the our national suited of his dress to is that I most dtess and a in Indian. having change I have and agriculture taken of weaving the to occupation and of Swadeshi. Irwin has thought matter hitherto about and upon trouble of remarks on being Western civilisation national know costume.to 30 of we dress Mr. dress the specially adopted and temporarily produce an to national before I appear that I is a ness. clothing having taken the vow my and and is now hand-sewn entirely hand-woven Irwin's made Mr. of " not informed. Champaran my Kathiawar.

Member of Council. be bad or harmful. headed. for its simplicity.climate and and which. I invite you and Mr. to base your unproved facts. Irwin that you and he will ill-serve the cause both of you is in danger by reason consider of my in Champaran if you continue. he goes to semi-anglicised dress and whenever see officials he puts his legs into the bifurcated garment and on his own admission himself tortures by cramping induce his feet in inelastic shoes. Irwin and your readers to sorry friend Babu that my esteemed Brijakishore Prasad. cheap- the face of the earth and which Had it not answers hygienic requirements. that bare I do not Champaran go about I do avoid shoes for sacred reasons. I am inform Mr.art be beaten ness. Englishmen here long ago have I may dentally incimention adopted the Indian costume. But I find too that it is more natural and healthier to avoid them whenever possible. I cannot him believe that his clients won't desert him and the to his more won't punish him if he wore ing becomcourts and less expensive dhoti. Irwin believe the stories that the latter to not and my friends. to Finally I venture warn you and Mr. the "ex-Hon. in spite with admirable discard his of most contact to me." still remains and and retains the provincial cap unregenerate and walks kicks up barefoot terrible never a in the house we noise even are living in by wearing wooden sandals. but to join me hears about me in the Indians crusade abandoning their against educated which habits and customs not proved to are manners. He has st 11 not the courage. 31 . been for a false pride and equally false notions of would prestige. have as presence you strictures on done. I ask you that I should deem to accept assurance my of myself unworthy of the friendshipand confidence hundreds of my English friends and associates not all of them fellow cranks if in similar circumstances I acted towards them differently from own my is not to on " kt " " " " countrymen.

Sondhi at the Allied by R. Soni for Gandhi Press. R. P. Lahore.Printed by K. . and published Lahore. Publications League.

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