Maintenance of transformers in these days has become prime importance,
since the cost of new equipments has considerably increased thereby increasing
the cost operation for restoration of power supply in addition to loss of revenue.
This has led the ESCOMS to adopt condition-based maintenance of the
transformers than the preventive maintenance. The general maintenance, which is
normally required to be done on transformer is as under.
a. Regular inspection of the external surface of the transformer for any dirt &
dust and when required the same shall be cleaned.
b. Regular inspection of the external surface for any damage
due to rust.
c. Possible rust damages when noticed are to be removed and surface treatment
restored in the original state by means of primer and finished paints for
minimizing the risk of corrosion and its subsequent spreading.
d. Check for any oil leakage.
e. Check for any mechanical damage.
f. Check for oil levels.
g. Check that the surrounding area is kept clean & tidy.
h. Check for the conditions of bushings for damages if any.
i. Check for connectors both on HV & LV side for their
tightness and
formation of sulphate formation if any.
j. Before carrying out any maintenance work ensure proper safety procedures.
Based on the above principle the types of maintenance may be classified as
a. Breakdown maintenance: The nomenclature itself indicates that, the
maintenance is to be carried out when the transformer fails. In this case, as such
no maintenance is carried out, but the quantum of loss to the equipment can be
assessed, repaired and re-use the equipment. This will in no way reduce the loss
of revenue. As many as 5% of transformer failures are because of poor
b. Preventive maintenance: This type of maintenance is being carried out by
almost all ESCOMS. In this type of maintenance, all the transformers are
inspected at regular defined intervals. The determination of the maintenance
intervals are based on various reasons like, the life of the transformer already
served, different guide lines issued by the manufacturer and on the previous
c. Condition based monitoring: This type of maintenance is adopted to assess
the condition of the transformer, which is assessed based on different condition
monitoring tests at well determined periodicity.

vi. Sl. control over the temperature and improper observation on the condition of the protective instruments etc. IV. Predictive maintenance: The basic objective of this type of maintenance is to keep the transformer at a desired level of performance. Poor quality of oil leads to damaging the insulation. i. Therefore. Preventive Maintenance schedule. preventive maintenance is strongly recommended to increase the efficiency on the transformers. iv. cracked/ dirty bushings. Defective operation of tap changer may lead to un-balance current flowing within the transformer leading to over heating and further reducing the insulation quality. If the protective equipments relays and instrument transformers are not observed/maintained the transformer may be subjected to high surges and fault currents. defective operation of tap changer. the cause of failure of transformers is to the tune of 5% because of poor maintenance. CAUSE OF FAILURE OF TRANSFORMERS: As indicated already.No Checks to be carried out 1 Checking of bushing oil level 2 Checking of oil level in the Conservator 3 Checking of oil level in the OLTC Conservator 4 Checking of cooler oil pumps & fans a. oil quality. iii.d. thereby less cooling effect. excessive loading. Oil leakage leads to deficiency in oil quantity. III. entry of moisture to the open core & winding leading to failure of insulation of winding. formation of sludge and hence increasing the temperature. to minimize the maintenance and shutdown periods and to avoid replacement of components after failure thereby reducing the period of total shutdown. ii. Periodicity Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Yearly Monthly Monthly Half yearly Half yearly . They are oil leakage. 7 Measurement of BDV of oil 8 Testing of oil for DGA and other parameters. Manual actuation b. Cracked / dirty bushings lead to leakage path and further decreasing the safe zone. v.* Auto starting 5 Checking of oil leaks 6 Checking of condition of silicagel in the breather. Excessive loading increases the temperature rise leading to damaging the winding quality.

The inlet and outlet pipes for both the transformer and the filter machine are connected properly. 16 * External cleaning of radiators 17 * Cleaning of bushings 18 * Maintenance of OLTC drive mechanism 19 * Electrical checking of pressure relief valve. which in turn produces moisture and contamination of oil including gasses being dissolved. 4. As the sulpher in the rubber hose may react with hot oil. 1. 2. Precautions to be taken for filtration/degassing. When the quantity of dissolved gasses and contamination increases in percentage than the permissible limits the oil needs to be de-gassed or filtered to avoid further damage to the transformer. 5. 7. Guide lines issued by the manufacturers of the transformer and the filter machine shall be followed strictly. Check the direction of rotation of all pumps. The main tank oil and the OLTC oil shall be filtered separately. OLTC surge relay and replacement of gaskets of the terminal block. 21 * Checking and calibrating OTI & WTI 22 * Filtration/replacement of OLTC oil 23 * Filtration/replacement of main tank oil 24 * Drying of the transformer * The checks/testing on these items require shut down. If required. Yearly Yearly 3 yearly 3 yearly 3 yearly If required. The filter machine needs to be put to reverse cycle before commencement of process. If required. 20 * Checking the operation of BH relay by injecting air. Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly If required. BH relay. If required V. Degassing/Filtration of transformer oil. When the transformer is subjected to various electrical stresses for any of the reasons mentioned earlier. . 3.9 Checking & filling up of oil in the oil trap of breather 10 * Measurement of BDV of OLTC oil 11 * Tan δ measurement for bushing 12 * Measurement of IR & PI on winding 13 * Tan δ measurement for winding 14 * Measurement of winding resistance 15 * Measurement of winding ratio. The temperature of the oil during filtration shall be limited to 80 ºC. 6. rubber hose pipes are not suggested. results in de-gradation of both the oil and insulating materials.

The IR values are measured at regular intervals ae same temperature and noted down. 4. and in case the moisture is absorbed in core & winding. These connections will be reversed at every 12 hours interval for better results. 2. all leaks are properly sealed by replacing the gaskets. The oil first enters the preliminary filter where the coarse particles are filtered. 9. In case of power transformers of capacity 50 MVA & above. (Carbon dioxide in solid state) . After this the oil enters degassing chamber wherein the dissolved gasses are degassed. 5. For filtration of the transformer. drying process needs to be more effective. 5. either the transformer is taken out for repairs or IR values have gone down because of deterioration of cellulose material the moisture entered in the paper insulation. first the inlet to the machine is taken from the bottom of the transformer tank and the outlet is connected to the top of the tank. Drying of the transformer: Whenever. VI. after which the oil enters heating chamber where the moisture is removed. 6. Additional room heaters may be provided for accelerating the drying process. 2. Care shall be taken that. the transformer needs drying. The inlet and outlet valves of the transformer to the plant are open after evacuating the system for some time. Procedure: 1. Drying process will be commenced by filtering the oil through a streamline filter. 8. In case of the transformer core is opened for major repairs in the repair bay vacuum drying is advised. Under such circumstances rigorous vacuum drying is done by using dry ice.Procedure: 1. For speedy operation short circuit may be done simultaneously by shorting LV side and connecting 415 Volts supply to HV side. Oil level to be topped up to just above the winding in case of normal drying process and totally drained in case of vacuum drying. 3. 7. 4. Coolers are to be isolated to avoid heat loss in addition to the transformer be covered with tarpaulin. 3. Ensure that all hose connections are air tight.

1. COMMISIONING TEST ON TRANSFORMERS Necessity of testing of Transformers: At manufacturer’s works: 1. Insulation resistance test: This test is done by using Insulation resistance tester (IR Tester). Transformer type & routine tests are according to IS 2026 & IEC publication 60076 (latest edition) At site: During transport & installation. 1000 V. it is sure that. Recommended field tests. b) Periodical tests. Continuity test: This test shall be done with only multimeter. (Per kV means the voltage on HV side of the transformer under test. Continuity is tested between phase to phase both on HV side & LV side. 2. To prove that the transformer meets the customer’s specifications & design expectations. To decide the good condition of the transformer shall be computed as per the following table. In some of the kits. Routine tests are carried out on every unit manufactured. (Special tests) 5. A 1000 V IR kit can be used for testing insulation resistance of distribution transformers and higher capacity IR kit shall be used for power transformers of higher rating. c) Emergency tests. a) Pre-commissioning tests. As a standard practice. it is very much essential to record the temperature of oil when IR test is being conducted. (Type Tests) 2. These IR Testers are available in capacity of 500 V. the transformer may be exposed to conditions which can adversely affect its reliability and useful life. . one kit can be used for IR testing of any voltage class transformers. To obtain information useful to the users during operation & maintenance of the transformer.VII. To check that the quality requirements have been met and the performance is within the tolerances guaranteed. variable voltage provision is made such that. 4. 2500 V. that portion of the winding is open within the transformer. 6. (Routine Tests) 3. If there is no continuity between any of the phases. IR value shall be 2 MΩ/ kV at 60°C. 5000 V & 10000 V. Field testing is one of techniques to ensure good operating healthy conditions of the transformers. Further tests cannot be conducted unless the fault is rectified.) Hence.

Correction factor for analyzing the IR values.0 Above 2. LV to TV and TV to ground. DC Absorption Ratio=------------------------------------Reading taken at 15th Sec. Polarization Index.00 The IR values are measured between HV to ground. HV to LV. Difference in temperature Correction factor 5 1.1 to 1.76 30 3. Reading taken at 1st Minute.1 1. Then Polarization Index & DC absorption is computed based on the following formula.10 40 5. Reading taken at 10th Minute Polarization Index=-------------------------------------Reading taken at 1st Minute.84 20 2. All the measurements are taken in steps of 10 secs up to 1 minute and then at every minute up to 10 minutes.23 10 1.25 to 2.25 1. LV to ground. Less than 1 1. If there is third winding like tertiary winding then IR values are measured between HV to ground. These PI & DC absorption are measured and used for deciding the healthiness of the transformer as per the table below.50 15 1.25 25 2. HV to TV. HV to LV and LV to ground.0 Dangerous Poor Questionable Fair Good .0 to 1.35 35 4.

previous values and diagnostics. Magnetic Balance Test: This test is conducted only on three phase transformers to check the imbalance in the magnetic circuit. Winding Resistance Test: This test is done with a separate kit called the winding resistance test kit. The results of transformation/voltage ratio are absolute and may be compared with the specified values measured during factory testing. The results of this test will help to identify whether there is open circuit or short circuit in any of the tapping winding or main winding. This indicates the voltage that needs to be applied to allow the full load current to flow. which can be calculated based on the impedance voltage. The results of this test will help to identify whether there is open circuit in any of the tap position. wherein the variation in the voltages at each tap positions are indicated. since the maximum voltage that is available for testing/handling is limited to 440 volts. Care shall be taken to see that suitable size shorting wire shall be used for shorting.5% of the specified values for all windings. . 4. mainly when the transformer is transported or the transformer has sustained severe faults. Ratio Test: This test is conducted by applying 400 V AC across HV terminals keeping LV open. The resistance is measured and then computed at 75°C for all practical purposes of comparison with the design specified values. Voltage both on HV & LV side are recorded for each tap position of the transformer and compared with the factory test results or with the name plate. The acceptance criteria should be that the measured values are within 0. Current both on HV & LV side are recorded for each tap position of the transformer and compared with the factory test results. 6. 5. Short Circuit Test: This test is conducted by applying 400 V AC across HV terminals keeping LV short circuited. mentioned on the name plate and it is in percentage.3. One should also consider the trend of voltage ratio values with reference to voltage ratio values measured during commissioning tests. The cold temperature of winding shall be determined as accurately as possible when measuring the cold resistance. a) Keep the transformer in normal tap position. The proportionate current can be calculated. b) Disconnect the neutral earthing.

b) For power transformers apply 3-phase. The results shall be in the order furnished hereunder. The measurements will be such that. c) Repeat the above test keeping the transformer at normal & highest tap positions. d) Measure the voltage across the two pairs of HV terminals and record. . Measurement of Magnetizing current: This test is performed to locate the defects in the magnetic core structure.  A distribution transformer.  A current transformer. These conditions change the affective reluctance of the magnetic circuit.  Clamp meter of low range. 7. thus affecting the current required to establish flux in the core.  A pair of HV insulated cables. d) Care shall be taken to see that. under no condition the HV terminals are contacted.  A water rheostat.  Accurate voltmeter. rubber mat etc. High voltage excitation test: The following equipments are required for conducting this test. RY YB BR 180 235 415 210 205 415 240 175 415 Zero voltage or negligible voltage induced may be investigated.  A high voltage potential transformer. safety materials like hand gloves.  Other materials like wires. failure in turn to turn insulation or problem in the tap changer.  Clamp meter of higher range. the middle phase draws less current than the other phases. 415 VAC on LV side and measure the voltage across each terminal on LV side and current flowing in each phase. shifting of winding. a) Keep the transformer in the lowest tap and HV & LV open. 8.c) Apply 230 V/440 V on two phases of HV winding keeping LV open.

Corresponding HV winding of the distribution transformer is selected. There are two NO contacts. Neutral from the source is directly connected to the neutral of the distribution transformer. using HV insulated cable. through a CT in series duly inserting a clamp meter in the CT secondary. Pre-commissioning Checks: a) Checking of Magnetic Oil gauge. the power transformer under test is charged in single phase. (MOG): This is located on the conservator tank. with a multimeter across PT secondary terminal. The function is to indicate the oil level in the conservator tank. The copper rod of the rheostat is immersed in water till the required voltage is built up. Alarm is given for low & high trip. Observe and listen to to the humming sound of the transformer for its homogeneous effect. Across which a voltmeter is connected. At this stage. One more corresponding HV bushing of the distribution transformer is connected to other corresponding LV bushing of the power transformer under test. Repeat the test for other phases. The phase from the source is connected to the bottom of the water rheostat.Single phase 230 V power supply is given to phase and neutral of the distribution transformer. A PT is connected across the HV cable. . Record the corresponding voltage and current. 9. is connected to the phase of the distribution transformer. One HV bushing of the distribution transformer is connected to one of the LV bushing of the power transformer under test using HV insulated cable. a copper tube. The other end of the rheostat. The circuit is to be checked.

b) Checking of BH Relay: This is located between the main tank and the conservator tank. The diaphragm is to be checked. Pump ON and Pump OFF. When the transformer gets overheated. This pocket shall be filled with transformer oil. For any internal fault of the transformer or if the transformer has sustained any severe fault. Trip. like Alarm. gets accumulated in BH Relay. the oil expels out duly breaking the diaphragm protecting the transformer from further damages. c) Explosion Vent: This is provided on the top cover of the transformer. The gasses so generated. The circuit and the diaphragm are to be checked. thereby replacing the oil in the BH Relay by gas. The circuit is to be checked. is being replaced by PRV. This breather is a container which is filled with silica jell. in addition to tripping the breaker. thermometers are installed for different activities like indicating top oil temperature (OTI) and/or winding temperature (WTI). shall be verified. In case of severe fault inside the transformer. with an in-built diaphragm. with an in-built diaphragm. Also depending on the requirement deferent settings are housed with the thermometers. there will be alarm or the incoming breaker trips. A pipe is brought from the top of the conservator tank at the end of which the breather is connected. the oil expels out duly breaking the diaphragm protecting the transformer from further damages. There are two NO mercury contacts. f) Breather: It is a fact that the transformer breaths just like any living animals. the maximum guaranteed temperature rise in oil and that in winding. transformer being a petroleum product. In case of severe fault inside the transformer. the oil expands and air cushion in the conservator tank compresses and air under pressure will go to the atmosphere through breather. d) Pressure Relief Valve: (PRV) This is provided on the top cover of the transformer. Depending on which contact has actuated. This action is . Under such condition the mercury contacts because of self weight of mercury. making the NO contacts to NC contacts. The probes of all these thermometers are inserted in the pockets located on the top cover of the transformers. In the name plate it is clearly mentioned that. Fan OFF. e) Thermometers: Depending on the capacity of the transformers. Fan ON. Based on the guide lines/instructions by the manufacturer all the above setting shall be done in all the thermometers. Note: Explosion vent is a old version. fall down. likely to decompose generating some hazards gasses. and at the bottom an oil trap is fixed.

 Locking below tap 1  Locking beyond the highest tap. When the current arcs across this gap the voltage recorded at that instant is the dielectric strength/ breakdown strength of the insulating liquid. The kit used for conducting this test is called BDV kit. oil is passed through breather. In such condition. It shall be replaced. a) Break down Voltage Test: The dielectric strength of insulating oil is a measure of the oils ability to withstand electrical stress without failure. 10. This action is the transformer is breathing in. If.  Power supply to motor and the phase sequence. then the color turns to black. for some reason.Transformer Oil Testing: The transformer oil is tested for the following parameter as specified in IS 1866:2000. Because. This trap will be filled with oil. oil is collected .  Tripping circuit in case of diverter switch.  Electrical-Local/Remote through RTCC panel operations from first tap to the last tap for raising the taps. The test involves applying a ac voltage at a controlled rate to two electrodes immersed in the insulating fluid. The gap is a specified of 2. Whatever air passes in or out. the oil gets contracts. The air cushion in the conservators gets partially vacumized.  Manual operations from first tap to the last tap for raising the taps.the transformer is breathing out.5 mm distance. it cannot be re-activated.  Interlocking arrangements for start & stop after every tap changing operation.  Electrical-Local/Remote through RTCC panel operations from last tap to the first tap for lowering the taps. oil is highly hygroscopic most of the moisture is absorbed by this oil and further drying is taken care of by silica jell. It turns in to pink or white when the moisture is absorbed. When the color is pink or white. (Exhale) When the transformer cools down. the silica jell can heated up to 120 degrees and reactivated. The external air from the atmosphere rushes in to the conservator through the breather. g) Operation of OLTC (Diverter Switch): Check the operation of the tap changer for the following functions. an oil trap is fixed. At the bottom of the breather.  Manual operations from last tap to the first tap for lowering the taps. (Inhale) The normal color of good silica jell is blue. The level in the conservator goes down. it passes through this oil. In this case.

The test is not specific in what it detects i. There is a relation with the values of BDV & Moisture Content values. Reveals the presence of moisture resin. which is the measure of the contamination or deterioration i. Oil required for this purchase is about a container called the cell.There are different kits available for conducting this test. First oil is collected allow it settle for one minute so that it does not contain any air bubbles or floating impurities or impurities settle down. the kit trips when the oil sample under test attains break down value. Repeat the test on the same sample six times. b) Moisture Content/Water content Test: Water. The results are directly available from the kit. which is not supposed to be. d) Acidity or Neutralization number: Acids in the oil originate from oil decomposition/oxidation products. c) Tan Delta & Resistivity Test: Also called the Dissipation test measures the leakage current through an oil. An increase in the acidity is an indication of the rate of deterioration of the oil with SLUDGE as the inevitable by-product of an acid situation which is neglected. when the kit is switched on.5 ltr. liberating more water in the process (heat catalysed). if sludge is detected. Acids can also come from external sources such as atmospheric contamination.e. . varnishes or other products of oxidation oil or of foreign contaminants such as motor oil or fuel oil. is harmful in power equipment because it is attracted to the places of greatest electrical stress and this is where it is the most dangerous. the Moisture content value increases and vice versa. when the oil sample under test. g) Sludge/Sediment: This measures the quantity of sludge present in the oil.e. then it will be recommended for replacement of transformer oil. Both these tests are conducted in one set of testing kit and are simultaneously. These organic acids are detrimental to the insulation system and can induce corrosion inside the transformer when water is present. If the BDV value decreases. f) Flash point: Flash point measures the oil at which the oil may catch fire because of internal fault of the transformer. During test. At certain voltage. Note the value. is more a screening test. voltage is slowly built up at the rate of 2 kV/Sec. As the kit is motorized. in minute quantities. Water accelerates the deterioration of both the insulating oil and the paper insulation. The average of these six readings is the BDV value of the oil under test. e) The Interfacial Tension (IFT): This test measures the tension at the interface between two liquid (oil and water) which do not mix and is expressed in dyne/cm. The test is sensitive to the presence of oil decay products and soluble polar contaminants from solid insulating materials.

Such gases so generated will accumulate in the BH relay. are listed hereunder.1*10 12 Ohm.Cm(Min) 90ºC d) Acidity 0. Sl.20(Max) g) Flash point 140 ºC(Min) Reference IS 1866 IS 1866 IS 1866 IS 1866 IS 1866 IS 1866 IS 1866 IS 1866 11.5 mm charging During O&M 50 kV with a gap of 2. Even though there is no precise interpretation method available which can scan the exact type and location of fault.10593.5 mm for transformers of above 145 kV. which are of great interest along with the permissible values and probable internal fault. Some of these gases get dissolved in the oil. At the time of first 15 PPM (Max) charging During O&M 25 PPM (Max) c) Resistivity at 0. Any abnormal fault or electrical stress that has been sustained by the transformer causes decomposition of transformer oil and or paper insulation. The following are the some of the gas concentration that may persist while the transformers are in service based on the experience of the persons who are in service in this field for a long period. Dissolved Gas Analysis. which in turn may produce certain gases that create hazards. IS 9434) This has been considered as one of the important tool in diagnosing the internal fault or aging of the transformer. The testing of this gas for its DGA indicates the nature and type of fault or aging of the transformer or its components. . 40 kV for 72.5 mg.1992. 1 Transformer oil a) BDV At the time of first 60 kV with a gap of 2.5 to 145 kV and 30 kV for below 72.5 kV transformers. The composition and quantity of gas so generated depends upon the severity of the fault. The gases.KOH/gm(Max) e) IFT at 27 ºC 0. (Ref: IS.018N/M(Min) f) Tan δ at 90ºC 0. b) Moisture content. the various interpretation methods available provide only guidelines.The specified permissible values of different parameters are as under.No Test data .

the following are the specified values of gas concentrations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Gases Period of Service ≤ 4 Years 4 to 10 Yrs.No. Gasses Test results 1 Methane (CH4) PPM 40-110 2 Ethylene (C2H4) PPM 60-280 3 Ethane (C2H6) PPM 50-90 4 Acetylene (C2H2) PPM 3-50 5 Carbon Monoxide (CO) PPM 540-900 6 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) PPM 5100-13000 7 Hydrogen (H2) PPM 60-150 There are different methods adopted for analyzing the DGA results.1-1. by conducting DGA test on 15000 power transformers. Sl. 0 No fault 0 0 0 Normal ageing 1 Partial discharges 0 1 0 Discharges in gasof Low energy But not filled cavities . 1.1 0. where are transformers are in service. These are the values that have been arrived at. Methane (CH4) PPM 50/70 100/150 Ethylene (C2H4) PPM 100/150 150/200 Ethane (C2H6) PPM 30/50 100/150 Acetylene (C2H2) PPM 20/30 30/50 Carbon Monoxide (CO) 200/300 400/500 PPM Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 3000/3500 4000/5000 PPM Hydrogen (H2) PPM 100/150 200/300 ≥ 10 Years 200/300 200/400 800/1000 150/200 600/700 9000/12000 200/300 But as per IS 10593:1992. IEC 599 C2H2 CH4 C2H4 C2H4 H2 C2H6 Ratios of characteristic gases ˂0.0 1 0 0 ˃3. No.0-3. in 15 different utilities.0 0 1 0 1.0 1 2 1 2 2 2 Case Characteristic fault Typical examples No.Sl.

As above. Continuous sparking in oil between bad connections of different potential or to floating potential.density. Breakdown of oil between solid materials. Discharges with power followthrough. or super saturation or cavitations or high humidity. 1 1 0 3 Discharges of low energy 1-2 0 1-2 4 Discharges of High Energy 1 0 2 5 Thermal fault of Low Temperature <150°C Thermal Fault of Low Temperature range 150°C-300°C Thermal fault of Medium temperature range 300°C-700°C Thermal fault of high temperature >700°C 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 2 2 6 7 8 resulting from incomplete impregnation. but leading to tracking or perforation of solid insulation. varying from small hot spots in core. or between coils to earth. Increasing hot spot temperatures. Selector breaking current. bad contacts/joints (pyrolitic carbon . General insulated conductor overheating Local overheating of the core due to concentrations of flux. significant 2 Partial discharges of Low energy density. Arcing-breakdown of oil between windings or coils. overheating of copper due to eddy currents.

0 <1.0 <3.0 Partial Discharge corona Partial Dischargecorona with tracking Continuous discharge <1.0 <1.0 or ≥3. overloaded joints <1.0 ≥3.0 < power follow Through Slight Overheatingto 150°c .0 Normal <1.0 or ≥3.0 <0.0 or ≥3.1 <1.5 ≤0.5 Overheating 200°300°C General conductor Overheating Circulating currents in windings Circulating currents core and tank.0 <3.1 <1.0 ≥3.0 ≤0.0 1.0 >0.0 <3.0 ≥0.0 ≥0. 2.0 ≥1.5 >1.0 <0.0 ≥3.0 <1.0 <3.0 ≥1.0 <1.1 <1.formation) up to core and tank circulating currents.0 <3.0 <1.5 Suggested Diagnosis <1. SUGGESTED DIAGNOSIS FROM GAS RATIOS-ROGERS RATIO METHOD CH4 H2 >0.0 <1.5 ≥1.0 ≥1.0 ≥0.5 Arc .0 <1.0 ≥1.0 <1.5 <0.with power follow Through Arc .0 <0.0 >0.0 <3.0 <3.0 >0.0 >1.1 C2H6 CH4 <1.1 <1.5 or ≥3.0 C2H4 C2H6 <1.0 <1.0 ≥1.0 <1.0 <3.0 <1.5 <3.0 <0.5 or ≥3.0 <0.1 <1.0 ≥1.0 C2H2 C2H4 <0.5 Overheating 150°-200°C ≥1.0 ≥1.0 <3.0 >1.0 ≥1.

3. . The earthing pipe shall be of 40 mm diameter and 2.5 mtr.) is involved . The major gas produced during arcing is acetylene. The minor gas produced is Methane. 1. minimum gas concentration shall be 100 ppm. A thermal fault at low temperature (<300deg/C) produces mainly Methane and Ethane and some Ethylene. As the fault temperature rises. Power arcing can cause temperatures of over 3000deg/C to be developed. otherwise no gas ratio method can be adopted. PARTIAL DISCHARGE is a fault of low level energy which usually occurs in gas-filled voids surrounded by oil impregnated material. THERMAL FAULTS. 2. ARCING is a fault caused by high energy discharge. The earth electrodes can be laid in triangular configuration if the space is insufficient. A thermal fault at higher temperatures (>300deg/C) produces Ethylene. carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are generated. NOTE : If the cellulose material (insulating paper etc. ORIGIN OF GASES IN TRANSFORMER OIL Fault gases are caused by corona (partial discharge). the formation of the degradation gases change from Methane (CH4) to Ethane (C2H6) to Ethylene (C2H4). A small amount of decomposition occurs at normal operating temperatures. thermal heating (pyrolysis) and arcing. The pits shall be dug to the complete depth and at a distance of twice the length of the electrode. The major gas produced is Hydrogen. in which reports are given based on the prominent gasses generated and Dornenburg Ratio Method. Long and is a galvanized pipe. EARTHING OF THE TRANSFORMER CENTERS. wherein it is indicated that. The higher the temperature becomes the greater the production of Ethylene. provided the other gas analysis results also indicate excessive oil degradation. The main cause of decomposition in partial discharges is ionic bombardment of the oil molecules.There are methods like Key gas method of analysis. A normally aging conservator type transformer having a CO2/CO ratio above 11 or below 3 should be regarded as perhaps indicating a fault involving cellulose.

sand with excavated stuff. 6. Sufficient watering shall be done to get good results.4. ii) body and all the structure included and iii) lightening arrestors. if it is soft soil. an earth mat also be designed and provided. All the three earth electrodes shall be interconnected in the ground. after inserting the earth electrode. On the other hand. Borrowed stuff shall be laid if the excavated stuff is hard soil/rocky soil. Salt. 8. The earth resistance of all the electrodes shall be less than 5 ohms. by means of alternate layers of Charcoal. These earth pits shall be back filled. Space between any two electrodes is twice the length of the electrode . If the results are above the acceptable values. 5. to independent electrodes and shall be firmly joined. proper strengthening shall be done by using bentonite clay or cast iron pipes or plate earthing may be proposed. 7. Earthing leads may be multi strand GI wire or MS flat shall be run from i) Neutral.