Introduction

Transposition and Inversion
The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry
Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory
Hindemith, Fugue in E
Conclusion

Groups Actions in neo-Riemannian Music Theory
Thomas M. Fiore with A. Crans and R. Satyendra
http://www.math.uchicago.edu/~fiore/

Introduction
Transposition and Inversion
The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry
Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory
Hindemith, Fugue in E
Conclusion

Introduction

Mathematics is a very powerful descriptive tool in the physical
sciences.
Similarly, musicians use mathematics to communicate ideas
about music.
In this talk, we will discuss some mathematics commonly used
by musicians.

Introduction
Transposition and Inversion
The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry
Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory
Hindemith, Fugue in E
Conclusion

Our Focus
Mathematical tools of music theorists:
Transposition
Inversion
The neo-Riemannian PLR-group
Its associated graphs
An Extension of the PLR-group by Fiore-Satyendra.
We will illustrate this extension with an analysis of Hindemith,
Ludus Tonalis, Fugue in E .

Fugue in E Conclusion References Material from this talk is from: 1 Thomas M. Fiore. 2005. 2 Alissa Crans. Music Theory Online. American Mathematical Monthly. In press since June 2008. Musical actions of dihedral groups. Generalized contextual groups. Fiore and Ramon Satyendra. and Ramon Satyendra.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. 11(3). Thomas M. .

. David Hume: impressions become tangible and form ideas. In other words. music theory provides us with the means to find a good way of hearing a work of music. Fugue in E Conclusion What is Music Theory? Music theory supplies us with conceptual categories to organize and understand music.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Who Needs Music Theory? Composers Performers Listeners .

.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion The Z12 Model of Pitch Class B A#/B We have a bijection between the set of pitch classes and Z12 . C 0 1 11 C#/D 2 D 10 3 D#/E A 9 G#/A 4 E 8 5 7 G 6 F#/G F Figure: The musical clock.

or translation by mathematicians. Fugue in E Conclusion Transposition The bijective function Tn : Z12 → Z12 Tn (x) := x + n is called transposition by musicians.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. T−4 (7) = 7 − 4 = 3 T−3 (5) = 5 − 3 = 2 G 7 7 G 7 7 G 7 7 E♭ 3 T−4 (7) F 5 5 F 5 5 F 5 5 D 2 T−3 (5) .

7i hC . I0 (0) = −0 = 0 I0 (7) = −7 = 5 hC . Fugue in E Conclusion Inversion The bijective function In : Z12 → Z12 In (x) := −x + n is called inversion by musicians. 5i . G i h0.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. F i hI0 (0). I0 (7)i h0. or reflection by mathematicians. 7i h0.

This is the group of symmetries of the 12-gon. B A#/B C 0 1 11 C#/D 2 D 10 3 D#/E A 9 G#/A 4 E 8 5 7 G 6 F#/G F Figure: The musical clock. . these transpositions and inversions form the T /I -group.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion The T /I -Group Altogether. the dihedral group of order 24.

11. 1. 7. Fugue in E Conclusion Major and Minor Triads Major and minor triads are very common in Western music. 5i = f C ♯ = D♭ = h1. 8i h1. 11. 6i = f ♯ = g ♭ D = h2. G i = h0. 3i h8. 1i h6. 8. 6. 4. 11i = b G = h7. 4i h9. 7i = g D♯ = E ♭ = h3. 2. 0i The set S of consonant triads Major Triads Minor Triads C = h0. 9i h2. 1. E . 9i = a F = h5. 7i c-minor = hG . 2i h7. 10i h3. 10. 0. 3. C i = h7. 3i = d♯ = e♭ B = h11. 1i = c♯ = d♭ A = h9. 3. 3. 11i h4. 5i h10. 0i h5. 7i h0. 5. 2i = d A♯ = B♭ = h10. 5. 7. 10. 2. 0.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. 0i = c G ♯ = A♭ = h8. 4i = e . 8i = g ♯ = a♭ E = h4. 8. 6. 9. 9. 10i = a♯ = b♭ F ♯ = G ♭ = h6. E ♭. C -major = hC . 6i h11. 4. 4.

. 5i G 6 F#/G F Figure: I0 applied to a C -major triad yields an f -minor triad. I0 4. 7i = hI0 0. 8. I0 7i = h0. 5. B A#/B C 0 1 11 C#/D 2 D 10 3 D#/E A 9 T1 h0. 7i = hT1 0. Fugue in E Conclusion Major and Minor Triads The T /I -group acts on the set S of major and minor triads. 4. 4. T1 4. T1 7i = h1. 8i G#/A 4 E 8 5 7 I0 h0.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

L. As we’ll see. P. and R. L.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. . and R generate a dihedral group. Fugue in E Conclusion Neo-Riemannian Music Theory Recent work focuses on the neo-Riemannian operations P. called the neo-Riemannian group. this group is dual to the T /I group in the sense of Lewin. and have a pictorial description on the Oettingen/Riemann Tonnetz. and R are defined in terms of common tone preservation. P. These transformations arose in the work of the 19th century music theorist Hugo Riemann. L.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. 3i h8. 0i h5. 3i = d♯ = e♭ B = h11. 2i h7. 6. 3. 7. 10. 0i = c G ♯ = A♭ = h8. 5. 8. 7i = P(C -major) = The set S of consonant triads Major Triads Minor Triads C = h0. 6i h11. 9. 5. 0. R : S → S. 7i h0. 10i h3. 2. Let P(x) be that triad of opposite type as x with the first and third notes switched. 2. 11i = b G = h7. 3. 1. 10i = a♯ = b♭ F ♯ = G ♭ = h6. 5i = f C ♯ = D♭ = h1. 4i = e . 2i = d A♯ = B♭ = h10. 8i h1. 4i h9. 6i = f ♯ = g ♭ D = h2. 0. Fugue in E Conclusion The neo-Riemannian Transformation P We consider three functions P. 8i = g ♯ = a♭ E = h4. 1i = c♯ = d♭ A = h9. 5i h10. For example Ph0. 9. 11i h4. 11. 4. 7. 11. 1i h6. 4. 8. 7i = g D♯ = E ♭ = h3. 9i = a F = h5. 6. L. 10. 1. 9i h2. 4.

3i h8. 0i P(C -major) = c-minor The set S of consonant triads Major Triads Minor Triads C = h0. 8i = g ♯ = a♭ E = h4. 4i h9. Fugue in E Conclusion The neo-Riemannian Transformation P We consider three functions P. L. 7i = h7. R : S → S. 8. 11i h4. 1. 7i h0. 0. 7i = g D♯ = E ♭ = h3. 9i h2. 5i h10. 11. 10i h3. 10i = a♯ = b♭ F ♯ = G ♭ = h6. 2. For example Ph0. 6. 3i = d♯ = e♭ B = h11. 3. 10. 1i = c♯ = d♭ A = h9. 6i h11. 4. 2. 6. 8i h1. 5. 2i h7. 1i h6. 9i = a F = h5. 3. 1. 10. 5. 9. 9. 4i = e . 7. 4.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Let P(x) be that triad of opposite type as x with the first and third notes switched. 2i = d A♯ = B♭ = h10. 5i = f C ♯ = D♭ = h1. 0i = c G ♯ = A♭ = h8. 3. 11i = b G = h7. 11. 0. 8. 7. 0i h5. 6i = f ♯ = g ♭ D = h2. 4.

. 4i L(C -major) = e-minor. 7i = h11. 7i = h4. 9i R(C -major) = a-minor. 0. 7. 4. For example Lh0. 4. Let R(x) be that triad of opposite type as x with the first and second notes switched.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. For example Rh0. Fugue in E Conclusion The neo-Riemannian Transformations L and R Let L(x) be that triad of opposite type as x with the second and third notes switched.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Minimal motion of the moving voice under P. B C 0 B 1 C#/D 11 A#/B 10 4 E 3 D#/E G#/A 8 4 E 5 7 G 2 D A 9 3 D#/E G#/A 8 6 F#/G 5 7 G F PC = c 6 F#/G LC = e B 1 C#/D A#/B 10 2 D A 9 C 0 11 C 0 11 1 C#/D A#/B 10 2 D A 9 3 D#/E 8 4 E G#/A 7 G 5 6 F#/G RC = a F F . L. and R.

Fugue in E Conclusion Example: The Elvis Progression The Elvis Progression I-VI-IV-V-I from 50’s Rock is: HIJK ONML C R HIJK /ONML a L HIJK /ONML F R◦L◦R◦L ONML /HIJK G L◦R ONML /HIJK C .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

Fugue in E Conclusion Example: The Elvis Progression The Elvis Progression I-VI-IV-V-I from 50’s Rock is: HIJK ONML G R HIJK /ONML e L HIJK /ONML C R◦L◦R◦L ONML /HIJK D L◦R ONML /HIJK G .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

Fugue in E Conclusion Example: “Oh! Darling” from the Beatles HIJK ONML f♯ L O/ NML HIJK D E+ A E Oh Darling please believe me f♯ D I’ll never do you no harm b7 E7 Be-lieve me when I tell you b7 E7 A I’ll never do you no harm R O/ NML HIJK b P◦R◦L OHIJK / NML E .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

) The PLR group is dual to the T /I group in the sense that each is the centralizer of the other in the symmetric group on the set S of major and minor triads. Moreover. . Hook 2002... both groups act simply transitively on S.. Theorem (Lewin 80’s.) The PLR group is dihedral of order 24 and is generated by L and R. .. . and R. Hook 2002. L. Fugue in E Conclusion The neo-Riemannian PLR-Group and Duality Definition The neo-Riemannian PLR-group is the subgroup of permutations of S generated by P.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Theorem (Lewin 80’s.

Fugue in E Conclusion The Oettingen/Riemann Tonnetz 6 11 9 2 5 10 1 8 P 10 6 7 1 9 2 5 10 1 8 0 8 0 4 9 5 1 6 11 2 10 3 6 11 3 11 4 L 3 7 0 8 R 0 4 9 8 1 11 2 7 3 10 .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion The Torus .

10 f# G d B L A e F c E C A f C# F# e P a a b E C# c# D g A 2 B b c 7 F# e C 1 5 1 5 e a 9 2 10 2 10 6 7 1 6 11 6 11 3 11 4 L 3 7 0 8 R b E A c# a E R Figure: Douthett and Steinbach’s Graph. . Fugue in E Conclusion The Dual Graph to the Tonnetz 6 11 8 1 c 10 3 9 2 5 10 1 0 8 4 9 P 8 0 8 E 0 4 9 11 3 Figure: The Tonnetz.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

F . d E A a G e C C# F# L A F b E e A a c# d G C# b f Figure: Waller’s Torus. Fugue in E Conclusion The Dual Graph to the Tonnetz c A E b B f# e F# a E b C g e c P D a B f e A c# a D E b f# c C c# B g a c F# A E e C# B E R Figure: Douthett and Steinbach’s Graph.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

Fugue in E Conclusion Beethoven’s 9th. 89:. 89:. 89:. ?>=< 89:. 89:. 89:. 89:. 89:. / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< g♯ B E G♭ e♭ ddddddd c♯ d d R d d d d d ddddddd dLdddddd d d d d d d ddddddd ddddddd L R L R 89:. 89:. / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< c f E♭ A♭ D♭ dddddd b♭ d d d R d d d d d d d d d L dddddddd ddddddd d d d d d d ddddddd L R L R dr dddddd / ?>=< 89:. ?>=< 89:. Measures 143-17 (Cohn) R 89:. / ?>=< F D R 89:.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. 89:. 89:. / ?>=< d b L G e . / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< 89:. 89:. dr dddd / ?>=< ?>=< 89:. 89:. 2nd Mvmt. / ?>=< a f♯ L 89:. / ?>=< / ?>=< B♭ dddddd g d d d d d d d d d d d L dddddddd ddddddd d d d d d d d ddddddd L R L R dr dddddd / ?>=< 89:. 89:. ?>=< C A R R 89:.

Fugue in E Conclusion Thus Far We have seen: How to encode pitch classes as integers modulo 12. But most music does not consist entirely of triads! .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. and consonant triads as 3-tuples of integers modulo 12 How the T /I -group acts componentwise on consonant triads How the PLR-group acts on consonant triads Duality between the T /I -group and the PLR-group Geometric depictions on the torus and musical examples.

. . xr in the list such that 2(xq − xr ) 6= 0. . Let S be the family of 2m pitch-class segments that are obtained by transposing and inverting the pitch-class segment X = hx1 . . . . Then the 2m transpositions and inversions act simply transitively on S. . . xn i. xn ∈ Zm and suppose that there exist xq . 2005) Let x1 .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. . Fugue in E Conclusion Extension of Neo-Riemannian Theory Theorem (Fiore–Satyendra.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. ℓ ≤ n. Moreover. . and its centralizer is the mod m T /I -group. Fugue in E Conclusion Extension of Neo-Riemannian Theory: Duality Theorem (Fiore–Satyendra. Then K and Q1 generate the centralizer of the T /I group of order 2m. the generalized contextual group acts simply transitively on S. Define K (Y ) := Iyk +yℓ (Y ) Qi (Y ) := ( Ti Y if Y is a transposed form of X T−i Y if Y is an inverted form of X . 2005) Fix 1 ≤ k. This centralizer is called the generalized contextual group. It is dihedral of order 2m.

Subject: . Ludus Tonalis. Fugue in E Let’s see what this theorem can do for us in an analysis of Hindemith’s Fugue in E from Ludus Tonalis. Fugue in E Conclusion Subject of Hindemith.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

7. 6. 3i P7 h9. 7i p5 h3. 5i p3 h1. 9i P1 h3. 9. 6i p4 h2. 4. 2i P6 h8. 11. 1. 2. 10.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Transposed Forms P0 h2. 4i p2 h0. Fugue in E Conclusion The Musical Space S in the Fugue in E Consider the four-note motive P0 = hD. 2. 3. 10i P2 h4. B. E . 10. 11. 9i p7 h5. 11i p9 h7. Ai = h2. 7. 9. 6. 10. 4i P8 h10. 3i p1 h11. 0. 0i p10 h8. 0i P4 h6. 5. 7. 5. 7. 1i P5 h7. 0. 0. 11i P3 h5. 11. 3. 0. 4. 6. 4. 1i p11 h9. 8. 2i . 8. 2. 5. 5i P9 h11. 2. 11. 5. 1. 8. 4. 9. 9i. 8i Inverted Forms p0 h10. 4. 8. 6. 8i p6 h4. 1. 7i P11 h1. 3. 11. 10. 1. 9. 3. 6i P10 h0. 10i p8 h6.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Q−2 Applied to Motive in Subject and I11-Inversion HIJK ONML P0 Q−2 HIJK /ONML P10 Q−2 HIJK /ONML P8 Q−2 HIJK /ONML P6 .

Fugue in E Conclusion Q−2 Applied to Motive in Subject and I11-Inversion HIJK ONML p11 Q−2 HIJK /ONML p1 Q−2 ONML /HIJK p3 Q−2 OHIJK / NML p5 .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Product Network Encoding Subject and I11-Inversion 1 HIJK ONML P0 Q−2 I11  34 ONML HIJK p11 ONML HIJK / P10 Q−2 I11 Q−2  OHIJK / NML p1 HIJK ONML / P8 Q−2 I11 I11 Q−2  NML /OHIJK p3 HIJK ONML / P6 Q−2  NML /OHIJK p5 Our Theorem about duality guarantees this diagram commutes! .

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Self-Similarity: Local Picture 29 @ABC GFED G T9  GFED @ABC E I1  GFED @ABC A I11  GFED @ABC D .

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Self-Similarity: Global Picture and Local Picture 8-11 PQRS WVUT Row 1 PQRS WVUT P5 T9 T9  57-60 PQRS WVUT Row 2  PQRS WVUT P2 I1 Q−2  PQRS WVUT p11 I11 I11  1-4 PQRS WVUT Row 4  PQRS WVUT P0 Q−2 T9 Q−2 I1  34-37 PQRS WVUT Row 3 PQRS / WVUT P3  PQRS / WVUT P0 Q−2 Q−2 Q−2  PQRS / WVUT P10 Q−2  PQRS / WVUT p3 Q−2 Q−2  PQRS / WVUT P8 I1 Q−2 I11  WVUT / PQRS P8 PQRS / WVUT P11 T9 I1 I11  WVUT / PQRS P10 Q−2 T9 I1  PQRS / WVUT p1 PQRS / WVUT P1  PQRS / WVUT p5 I11 Q−2  PQRS / WVUT P6 .

Fugue in E Conclusion Utility of Theorems Again. the internal structure of the four-note motive is replicated in transformations that span the work as whole. These groups also act on a second musical space S ′ in the piece. our Theorem about duality allows us to make this product network. which allows us to see another kind of self-similarity: certain transformational patterns are shared by distinct musical objects! .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Thus local and global perspectives are integrated. More importantly.

These included: transposition and inversion. . and duality. the PLR group.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. its associated graphs on the torus. Fugue in E Conclusion Summary In this lecture I have introduced some of the conceptual categories that music theorists use to make aural impressions into vivacious ideas in the sense of Hume.

Fugue in E Conclusion Summary We have used these tools to find good ways of hearing music from Hindemith. Some of these ideas would have been impossible without mathematics.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. and Beethoven. the Beatles. I hope this introduction to mathematical music theory turned your impressions of music theory into vivacious ideas! .