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# Introduction

Transposition and Inversion
The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry
Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory
Hindemith, Fugue in E
Conclusion

Groups Actions in neo-Riemannian Music Theory
Thomas M. Fiore with A. Crans and R. Satyendra
http://www.math.uchicago.edu/~fiore/

Introduction
Transposition and Inversion
The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry
Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory
Hindemith, Fugue in E
Conclusion

Introduction

Mathematics is a very powerful descriptive tool in the physical
sciences.
Similarly, musicians use mathematics to communicate ideas
In this talk, we will discuss some mathematics commonly used
by musicians.

Introduction
Transposition and Inversion
The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry
Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory
Hindemith, Fugue in E
Conclusion

Our Focus
Mathematical tools of music theorists:
Transposition
Inversion
The neo-Riemannian PLR-group
Its associated graphs
An Extension of the PLR-group by Fiore-Satyendra.
We will illustrate this extension with an analysis of Hindemith,
Ludus Tonalis, Fugue in E .

Music Theory Online. and Ramon Satyendra. American Mathematical Monthly. Fugue in E Conclusion References Material from this talk is from: 1 Thomas M. Fiore.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Thomas M. Generalized contextual groups. Musical actions of dihedral groups. . In press since June 2008. Fiore and Ramon Satyendra. 2005. 2 Alissa Crans. 11(3).

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. music theory provides us with the means to find a good way of hearing a work of music. Fugue in E Conclusion What is Music Theory? Music theory supplies us with conceptual categories to organize and understand music. In other words. David Hume: impressions become tangible and form ideas. .

Fugue in E Conclusion Who Needs Music Theory? Composers Performers Listeners .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

. C 0 1 11 C#/D 2 D 10 3 D#/E A 9 G#/A 4 E 8 5 7 G 6 F#/G F Figure: The musical clock. Fugue in E Conclusion The Z12 Model of Pitch Class B A#/B We have a bijection between the set of pitch classes and Z12 .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

or translation by mathematicians.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. T−4 (7) = 7 − 4 = 3 T−3 (5) = 5 − 3 = 2 G 7 7 G 7 7 G 7 7 E♭ 3 T−4 (7) F 5 5 F 5 5 F 5 5 D 2 T−3 (5) . Fugue in E Conclusion Transposition The bijective function Tn : Z12 → Z12 Tn (x) := x + n is called transposition by musicians.

or reflection by mathematicians. 7i h0. 5i . G i h0. I0 (0) = −0 = 0 I0 (7) = −7 = 5 hC . I0 (7)i h0.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. F i hI0 (0). 7i hC . Fugue in E Conclusion Inversion The bijective function In : Z12 → Z12 In (x) := −x + n is called inversion by musicians.

the dihedral group of order 24. these transpositions and inversions form the T /I -group. This is the group of symmetries of the 12-gon. Fugue in E Conclusion The T /I -Group Altogether. . B A#/B C 0 1 11 C#/D 2 D 10 3 D#/E A 9 G#/A 4 E 8 5 7 G 6 F#/G F Figure: The musical clock.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

3. 8. 10i h3. 4. 8i h1. 11i = b G = h7. 5. 8i = g ♯ = a♭ E = h4. 10. 10i = a♯ = b♭ F ♯ = G ♭ = h6. C -major = hC . 7. 11. 2i = d A♯ = B♭ = h10. 7i c-minor = hG . E ♭. 1i h6. 2. 3i = d♯ = e♭ B = h11. 2. 0i The set S of consonant triads Major Triads Minor Triads C = h0. 6i = f ♯ = g ♭ D = h2. 3. 7i h0. 11. 8. 9. 5i = f C ♯ = D♭ = h1. 4. E . 7. 9i h2. 1. 3. G i = h0. 5. 6. 6. 7i = g D♯ = E ♭ = h3. 2i h7. 4i = e . C i = h7. 3i h8. 9. 9i = a F = h5. Fugue in E Conclusion Major and Minor Triads Major and minor triads are very common in Western music. 6i h11. 1. 0. 11i h4. 0. 10.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. 5i h10. 4. 0i = c G ♯ = A♭ = h8. 1i = c♯ = d♭ A = h9. 0i h5. 4i h9.

5. 7i = hI0 0. T1 7i = h1. . I0 4. Fugue in E Conclusion Major and Minor Triads The T /I -group acts on the set S of major and minor triads.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. B A#/B C 0 1 11 C#/D 2 D 10 3 D#/E A 9 T1 h0. 5i G 6 F#/G F Figure: I0 applied to a C -major triad yields an f -minor triad. 7i = hT1 0. 8i G#/A 4 E 8 5 7 I0 h0. 4. 4. T1 4. I0 7i = h0. 8.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. and R. As we’ll see. . and have a pictorial description on the Oettingen/Riemann Tonnetz. L. P. P. and R generate a dihedral group. These transformations arose in the work of the 19th century music theorist Hugo Riemann. L. and R are defined in terms of common tone preservation. L. Fugue in E Conclusion Neo-Riemannian Music Theory Recent work focuses on the neo-Riemannian operations P. called the neo-Riemannian group. this group is dual to the T /I group in the sense of Lewin.

5. 10i h3. 9i = a F = h5. 4. Fugue in E Conclusion The neo-Riemannian Transformation P We consider three functions P. 1i = c♯ = d♭ A = h9. 5. 3i = d♯ = e♭ B = h11. 0i = c G ♯ = A♭ = h8. 3. 7. 4. For example Ph0. 4. 1. 0i h5. 9. 8. 9. L. 2i = d A♯ = B♭ = h10. 2. 10. 7i = P(C -major) = The set S of consonant triads Major Triads Minor Triads C = h0. 1i h6. R : S → S. 1. 0. 3i h8. 7i = g D♯ = E ♭ = h3. 11i h4. 6. 7. Let P(x) be that triad of opposite type as x with the first and third notes switched. 11i = b G = h7. 6. 8. 7i h0. 4i = e . 5i h10. 6i h11. 5i = f C ♯ = D♭ = h1. 10i = a♯ = b♭ F ♯ = G ♭ = h6. 2i h7. 0.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. 8i h1. 3. 11. 9i h2. 4i h9. 6i = f ♯ = g ♭ D = h2. 8i = g ♯ = a♭ E = h4. 2. 10. 11.

3i = d♯ = e♭ B = h11. 11i h4.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. 8i = g ♯ = a♭ E = h4. 0i P(C -major) = c-minor The set S of consonant triads Major Triads Minor Triads C = h0. 7i = g D♯ = E ♭ = h3. 7. 3. 0. 11. 6. 9i = a F = h5. 11. 8. 8i h1. 6i h11. L. 10i = a♯ = b♭ F ♯ = G ♭ = h6. 4i = e . 2i h7. 3. Fugue in E Conclusion The neo-Riemannian Transformation P We consider three functions P. 4i h9. R : S → S. 3. 0i h5. 1. 2i = d A♯ = B♭ = h10. 5. 7i h0. 9. Let P(x) be that triad of opposite type as x with the first and third notes switched. 1i = c♯ = d♭ A = h9. 7. 2. 5i = f C ♯ = D♭ = h1. 0i = c G ♯ = A♭ = h8. 6i = f ♯ = g ♭ D = h2. 9i h2. 9. 5. 11i = b G = h7. 1i h6. 4. 3i h8. 2. 4. 7i = h7. 10i h3. 5i h10. 1. 10. For example Ph0. 6. 8. 10. 0. 4.

4. 7i = h11. For example Lh0. 0. 4. .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion The neo-Riemannian Transformations L and R Let L(x) be that triad of opposite type as x with the second and third notes switched. Let R(x) be that triad of opposite type as x with the first and second notes switched. 4i L(C -major) = e-minor. 7. 7i = h4. For example Rh0. 9i R(C -major) = a-minor.

B C 0 B 1 C#/D 11 A#/B 10 4 E 3 D#/E G#/A 8 4 E 5 7 G 2 D A 9 3 D#/E G#/A 8 6 F#/G 5 7 G F PC = c 6 F#/G LC = e B 1 C#/D A#/B 10 2 D A 9 C 0 11 C 0 11 1 C#/D A#/B 10 2 D A 9 3 D#/E 8 4 E G#/A 7 G 5 6 F#/G RC = a F F . and R. Fugue in E Conclusion Minimal motion of the moving voice under P. L.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Example: The Elvis Progression The Elvis Progression I-VI-IV-V-I from 50’s Rock is: HIJK ONML C R HIJK /ONML a L HIJK /ONML F R◦L◦R◦L ONML /HIJK G L◦R ONML /HIJK C .

Fugue in E Conclusion Example: The Elvis Progression The Elvis Progression I-VI-IV-V-I from 50’s Rock is: HIJK ONML G R HIJK /ONML e L HIJK /ONML C R◦L◦R◦L ONML /HIJK D L◦R ONML /HIJK G .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

Fugue in E Conclusion Example: “Oh! Darling” from the Beatles HIJK ONML f♯ L O/ NML HIJK D E+ A E Oh Darling please believe me f♯ D I’ll never do you no harm b7 E7 Be-lieve me when I tell you b7 E7 A I’ll never do you no harm R O/ NML HIJK b P◦R◦L OHIJK / NML E .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

.. Moreover. L.) The PLR group is dual to the T /I group in the sense that each is the centralizer of the other in the symmetric group on the set S of major and minor triads. Theorem (Lewin 80’s. Theorem (Lewin 80’s. Hook 2002.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. and R.. . . Hook 2002. . Fugue in E Conclusion The neo-Riemannian PLR-Group and Duality Definition The neo-Riemannian PLR-group is the subgroup of permutations of S generated by P. both groups act simply transitively on S.) The PLR group is dihedral of order 24 and is generated by L and R..

Fugue in E Conclusion The Oettingen/Riemann Tonnetz 6 11 9 2 5 10 1 8 P 10 6 7 1 9 2 5 10 1 8 0 8 0 4 9 5 1 6 11 2 10 3 6 11 3 11 4 L 3 7 0 8 R 0 4 9 8 1 11 2 7 3 10 .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

Fugue in E Conclusion The Torus .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

10 f# G d B L A e F c E C A f C# F# e P a a b E C# c# D g A 2 B b c 7 F# e C 1 5 1 5 e a 9 2 10 2 10 6 7 1 6 11 6 11 3 11 4 L 3 7 0 8 R b E A c# a E R Figure: Douthett and Steinbach’s Graph.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. . Fugue in E Conclusion The Dual Graph to the Tonnetz 6 11 8 1 c 10 3 9 2 5 10 1 0 8 4 9 P 8 0 8 E 0 4 9 11 3 Figure: The Tonnetz.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion The Dual Graph to the Tonnetz c A E b B f# e F# a E b C g e c P D a B f e A c# a D E b f# c C c# B g a c F# A E e C# B E R Figure: Douthett and Steinbach’s Graph. d E A a G e C C# F# L A F b E e A a c# d G C# b f Figure: Waller’s Torus. F .

/ ?>=< d b L G e . ?>=< 89:. 89:. 89:. / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< g♯ B E G♭ e♭ ddddddd c♯ d d R d d d d d ddddddd dLdddddd d d d d d d ddddddd ddddddd L R L R 89:. 89:. ?>=< C A R R 89:. 89:. dr dddd / ?>=< ?>=< 89:. 89:. 89:.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. 89:. 89:. 89:. 89:. Measures 143-17 (Cohn) R 89:. ?>=< 89:. / ?>=< / ?>=< B♭ dddddd g d d d d d d d d d d d L dddddddd ddddddd d d d d d d d ddddddd L R L R dr dddddd / ?>=< 89:. 2nd Mvmt. Fugue in E Conclusion Beethoven’s 9th. / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< 89:. 89:. / ?>=< F D R 89:. 89:. 89:. / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< / ?>=< c f E♭ A♭ D♭ dddddd b♭ d d d R d d d d d d d d d L dddddddd ddddddd d d d d d d ddddddd L R L R dr dddddd / ?>=< 89:. / ?>=< a f♯ L 89:.

But most music does not consist entirely of triads! .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Thus Far We have seen: How to encode pitch classes as integers modulo 12. and consonant triads as 3-tuples of integers modulo 12 How the T /I -group acts componentwise on consonant triads How the PLR-group acts on consonant triads Duality between the T /I -group and the PLR-group Geometric depictions on the torus and musical examples.

Then the 2m transpositions and inversions act simply transitively on S.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Extension of Neo-Riemannian Theory Theorem (Fiore–Satyendra. . xn ∈ Zm and suppose that there exist xq . . . Let S be the family of 2m pitch-class segments that are obtained by transposing and inverting the pitch-class segment X = hx1 . . . 2005) Let x1 . . . . . xr in the list such that 2(xq − xr ) 6= 0. xn i.

. 2005) Fix 1 ≤ k. Then K and Q1 generate the centralizer of the T /I group of order 2m. It is dihedral of order 2m. Fugue in E Conclusion Extension of Neo-Riemannian Theory: Duality Theorem (Fiore–Satyendra. Moreover. ℓ ≤ n. the generalized contextual group acts simply transitively on S. and its centralizer is the mod m T /I -group.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. This centralizer is called the generalized contextual group. Define K (Y ) := Iyk +yℓ (Y ) Qi (Y ) := ( Ti Y if Y is a transposed form of X T−i Y if Y is an inverted form of X .

Fugue in E Let’s see what this theorem can do for us in an analysis of Hindemith’s Fugue in E from Ludus Tonalis. Fugue in E Conclusion Subject of Hindemith. Ludus Tonalis.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Subject: .

11i P3 h5. Ai = h2. 6i p4 h2. 1. 4i P8 h10. 7. 8. 5. 4. Fugue in E Conclusion The Musical Space S in the Fugue in E Consider the four-note motive P0 = hD. 10i P2 h4. B. 6. 10. 7. 1i P5 h7. 8. 3. 0i P4 h6. 7. 3. E . 7i P11 h1. 2. 5i P9 h11. 10. 3. 1i p11 h9. 10. 4. 3i P7 h9. 8. 1. 2i . 4i p2 h0. 2. 6i P10 h0. 6.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. 9i p7 h5. 11. 5. 8i Inverted Forms p0 h10. Transposed Forms P0 h2. 7. 1. 10i p8 h6. 11. 5i p3 h1. 0. 9. 9. 6. 6. 0. 0i p10 h8. 9i P1 h3. 3i p1 h11. 8i p6 h4. 7i p5 h3. 11i p9 h7. 8. 2. 9i. 11. 1. 9. 2i P6 h8. 11. 11. 0. 4. 3. 2. 5. 5. 4. 0. 10. 9. 4.

Fugue in E Conclusion Q−2 Applied to Motive in Subject and I11-Inversion HIJK ONML P0 Q−2 HIJK /ONML P10 Q−2 HIJK /ONML P8 Q−2 HIJK /ONML P6 .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Q−2 Applied to Motive in Subject and I11-Inversion HIJK ONML p11 Q−2 HIJK /ONML p1 Q−2 ONML /HIJK p3 Q−2 OHIJK / NML p5 .

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Product Network Encoding Subject and I11-Inversion 1 HIJK ONML P0 Q−2 I11  34 ONML HIJK p11 ONML HIJK / P10 Q−2 I11 Q−2  OHIJK / NML p1 HIJK ONML / P8 Q−2 I11 I11 Q−2  NML /OHIJK p3 HIJK ONML / P6 Q−2  NML /OHIJK p5 Our Theorem about duality guarantees this diagram commutes! .

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Self-Similarity: Local Picture 29 @ABC GFED G T9  GFED @ABC E I1  GFED @ABC A I11  GFED @ABC D .

Fugue in E Conclusion Self-Similarity: Global Picture and Local Picture 8-11 PQRS WVUT Row 1 PQRS WVUT P5 T9 T9  57-60 PQRS WVUT Row 2  PQRS WVUT P2 I1 Q−2  PQRS WVUT p11 I11 I11  1-4 PQRS WVUT Row 4  PQRS WVUT P0 Q−2 T9 Q−2 I1  34-37 PQRS WVUT Row 3 PQRS / WVUT P3  PQRS / WVUT P0 Q−2 Q−2 Q−2  PQRS / WVUT P10 Q−2  PQRS / WVUT p3 Q−2 Q−2  PQRS / WVUT P8 I1 Q−2 I11  WVUT / PQRS P8 PQRS / WVUT P11 T9 I1 I11  WVUT / PQRS P10 Q−2 T9 I1  PQRS / WVUT p1 PQRS / WVUT P1  PQRS / WVUT p5 I11 Q−2  PQRS / WVUT P6 .Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith.

our Theorem about duality allows us to make this product network. which allows us to see another kind of self-similarity: certain transformational patterns are shared by distinct musical objects! . More importantly. the internal structure of the four-note motive is replicated in transformations that span the work as whole. Thus local and global perspectives are integrated. These groups also act on a second musical space S ′ in the piece.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. Fugue in E Conclusion Utility of Theorems Again.

.Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. and duality. These included: transposition and inversion. Fugue in E Conclusion Summary In this lecture I have introduced some of the conceptual categories that music theorists use to make aural impressions into vivacious ideas in the sense of Hume. the PLR group. its associated graphs on the torus.

Introduction Transposition and Inversion The neo-Riemannian Group and Geometry Extension of neo-Riemannian Theory Hindemith. I hope this introduction to mathematical music theory turned your impressions of music theory into vivacious ideas! . and Beethoven. Some of these ideas would have been impossible without mathematics. the Beatles. Fugue in E Conclusion Summary We have used these tools to find good ways of hearing music from Hindemith.