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Outline

The Scientific Method

Working with Equations

and Small Numbers

Measuring Angles

Measuring Distances

Big

**The Ground Rules
**

Jeremy S. Heyl

ASTR 311 2015W Term 2

6 January 2016

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2

The Ground Rules

Writing

Outline

The Scientific Method

Working with Equations

and Small Numbers

Measuring Angles

Measuring Distances

Big

Outline

The Scientific Method

Working with Equations

Writing Big and Small Numbers

Big Numbers

Small Numbers

Factors

Multiplication

Division

Exponentiation

The Rules

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2

Measuring Angles

Measuring Distances

The Distance Ladder

Parallax

Parsecs

Light-Travel Time

Distance Units

The Ground Rules

Writing

Outline

The Scientific Method

Working with Equations

and Small Numbers

Measuring Angles

Measuring Distances

Big

What is Science?

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2

The Ground Rules

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . 2.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big What is Science? Science has a method of building knowledge: the scientific method. 1. Jeremy S. 3.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Observations Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Keplers First Law: The planets orbit in ellipses with the Sun at one focus.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Observations Observations of the natural world are sometimes called laws. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . Newton’s Law of Gravitation: The force of gravity decreases with the reciprocal of the distance squared and increases in proportion to the product of the masses. Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Explanations Explanations of the observations or experiments can also be called laws.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Predictions The first type of law is an description and the second makes predictions. Almost all this course has to do with the ramifications of Newton’s Law of Gravitation. Jeremy S.

Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Quantitative Reasoning I Astronomy is the use of quantitative reasoning to understand natural phenomena beyond the Earth. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Quantitative Reasoning I Astronomy is the use of quantitative reasoning to understand natural phenomena beyond the Earth. I Therefore. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . we will have to use mathematics. Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . Jeremy S. we will have to use mathematics. I And equations. I Therefore.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Quantitative Reasoning I Astronomy is the use of quantitative reasoning to understand natural phenomena beyond the Earth.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Quantitative Reasoning An example Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Quantitative Reasoning A harder example Jeremy S.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Experiment Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . not so confident (E) None of the Above Jeremy S. not so confident (C) About 4 × 1026 W. very confident (B) About 2 × 1014 W. very confident (D) About 4 × 1026 W.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Experiment Results What did your group get for the power of the Sun and how confident were you? (A) About 2 × 1014 W.

but you might have not called it one. Equations are like recipes.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Equations: What are They Good For? In the three previous examples you probably had an equation in mind. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . I They have lists of ingredients. Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Equations: What are They Good For? In the three previous examples you probably had an equation in mind. Jeremy S. Equations are like recipes. I A series of steps to follow. I They have lists of ingredients. but you might have not called it one.

I They have lists of ingredients. I And produce something new. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . but you might have not called it one. Equations are like recipes. Jeremy S. I A series of steps to follow.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Equations: What are They Good For? In the three previous examples you probably had an equation in mind.

I Unlike a recipe. you can use equations backward and forward. Equations are like recipes. but you might have not called it one. I They have lists of ingredients. I A series of steps to follow. Jeremy S. I And produce something new. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Equations: What are They Good For? In the three previous examples you probably had an equation in mind.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Equations: What are They Good For? In the three previous examples you probably had an equation in mind. I A series of steps to follow. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . Equations are like recipes. I You can uncook the product to get some of the ingredients. you can use equations backward and forward. Jeremy S. I And produce something new. but you might have not called it one. I They have lists of ingredients. I Unlike a recipe.

I They have lists of ingredients. I Most equations that we will use involve products and powers and their backward versions. ratios and roots. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . I You can uncook the product to get some of the ingredients. Jeremy S. I A series of steps to follow. I And produce something new. I Unlike a recipe. Equations are like recipes. but you might have not called it one.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Equations: What are They Good For? In the three previous examples you probably had an equation in mind. you can use equations backward and forward.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Our First Equation We often would like to relate time elapsed to distance travelled and speed. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . I How fast does the Earth travel in its orbit around the Sun? Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Our First Equation We often would like to relate time elapsed to distance travelled and speed. I How fast does the Earth travel in its orbit around the Sun? I What equation will you use? Jeremy S.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Our First Equation We often would like to relate time elapsed to distance travelled and speed. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . I How fast does the Earth travel in its orbit around the Sun? I What equation will you use? I What ingredients do you need? Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Our First Equation We often would like to relate time elapsed to distance travelled and speed. I How fast does the Earth travel in its orbit around the Sun? I What equation will you use? I What ingredients do you need? I What is the answer? Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .2 × 107 (E) 42.000.000.000 in scientific notation? (A) 42 × 106 (B) 4 × 102 (C) forty-two million (D) 4.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Big Number Question What is 42.000 Jeremy S.

000. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .000 Jeremy S.000.000 in scientific notation? (A) 42 × 106 (B) 4 × 102 (C) forty-two million (D) 4.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Big Number Question What is 42.2 × 107 (E) 42.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . I 1.000. Sometimes we will have to deal with small numbers too. Here is an example. There has to be a better way that keeping all of those zeros around.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Big Numbers) You may have noticed in doing the problem that we had to deal will really big numbers.000 look at the commas to keep track of the zeros Jeremy S.

Sometimes we will have to deal with small numbers too. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . There has to be a better way that keeping all of those zeros around.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Big Numbers) You may have noticed in doing the problem that we had to deal will really big numbers. I 1.000 look at the commas to keep track of the zeros I 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 Jeremy S. Here is an example.000.

000. There has to be a better way that keeping all of those zeros around. I 1.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Big Numbers) You may have noticed in doing the problem that we had to deal will really big numbers. Here is an example. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . Sometimes we will have to deal with small numbers too.000 look at the commas to keep track of the zeros I 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 I 106 Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Small Numbers) Here is another example. I 0.000 000 1 no commas to keep track of the zeros Jeremy S.

I 0.1 × 0. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .000 000 1 no commas to keep track of the zeros I 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Small Numbers) Here is another example.1 × 0.1 Jeremy S.1 × 0.1 × 0.

1 × 0.1 × 0.1 I 1 10 × 1 10 × 1 10 × 1 10 × 1 10 × 1 10 Jeremy S.1 × 0.1 × 0.000 000 1 no commas to keep track of the zeros I 0.1 × 0. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 × 1 10 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Small Numbers) Here is another example.1 × 0. I 0.

1 × 0. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 × 1 10 The Ground Rules .000 000 1 no commas to keep track of the zeros I 0.1 × 0. I 0.1 × 0.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Small Numbers) Here is another example.1 × 0.1 1 1 10 × 10 I 17 10 I × 1 10 × 1 10 × 1 10 × 1 10 Jeremy S.1 × 0.1 × 0.

1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Small Numbers) Here is another example.000 000 1 no commas to keep track of the zeros I 0.1 × 0. I 0.1 1 1 10 × 10 I 17 10 I 10−7 I × 1 10 × 1 10 × 1 10 × 1 10 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 × 1 10 The Ground Rules .

I 2.000 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Factors) Here is a final example.134.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Factors) Here is a final example. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .134.134 × 1.000 I 2. 000. I 2. 000 Jeremy S.

134 × 1. I 2.134 × 106 Jeremy S. 000.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Scientific Notation (Factors) Here is a final example.000 I 2.134. 000 I 2. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Multiplying with Scientific Notation An example I 2 × 106 × 2 × 102 Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Multiplying with Scientific Notation An example I I 2 × 106 × 2 × 102 2 × 106 × 2 × 102 Jeremy S.

Writing

The Scientific Method

Working with Equations

and Small Numbers

Measuring Angles

Measuring Distances

Big

Big Numbers

Small Numbers

Factors

Multiplication

Division

Exponentiation

The Rules

Multiplying with Scientific Notation

An example

I

2 × 106 × 2 × 102

I

2 × 106 × 2 × 102

I

2 × 2 × 106 × 102

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2

The Ground Rules

Writing

The Scientific Method

Working with Equations

and Small Numbers

Measuring Angles

Measuring Distances

Big

Big Numbers

Small Numbers

Factors

Multiplication

Division

Exponentiation

The Rules

Multiplying with Scientific Notation

An example

I

2 × 106 × 2 × 102

I

2 × 106 × 2 × 102

I

2 × 2 × 106 × 102

I

4 × 106 × 102

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2

The Ground Rules

Writing

The Scientific Method

Working with Equations

and Small Numbers

Measuring Angles

Measuring Distances

Big

Big Numbers

Small Numbers

Factors

Multiplication

Division

Exponentiation

The Rules

Multiplying with Scientific Notation

An example

I

2 × 106 × 2 × 102

I

2 × 106 × 2 × 102

I

2 × 2 × 106 × 102

I

4 × 106 × 102

I

4 × (10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10) × (10 × 10)

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2

The Ground Rules

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Multiplying with Scientific Notation An example I 2 × 106 × 2 × 102 I 2 × 106 × 2 × 102 I 2 × 2 × 106 × 102 I 4 × 106 × 102 I 4 × (10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10) × (10 × 10) I 4 × 108 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Dividing with Scientific Notation An example 8 I 4×102 2×10 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Dividing with Scientific Notation An example 8 I 4×102 2×10 8 I 4 × 102 2 10 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Dividing with Scientific Notation An example 8 I 4×102 2×10 8 I 4 × 102 2 10 I 2 × 10×10×10×10×10×10×10×10 10×10 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Dividing with Scientific Notation An example 8 I 4×102 2×10 8 I 4 × 102 2 10 I 2 × 10×10×10×10×10×10×10×10 10×10 I 2 × (10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 10) The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Dividing with Scientific Notation An example 8 I 4×102 2×10 8 I 4 × 102 2 10 I 2 × 10×10×10×10×10×10×10×10 10×10 I 2 × (10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × I 10) 2 × 106 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Dividing with Scientific Notation An example 8 I 4×102 2×10 8 I 4 × 102 2 10 I 2 × 10×10×10×10×10×10×10×10 10×10 I 2 × (10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × I 10) 2 × 106 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Dividing with Scientific Notation An example 8 I 4×102 2×10 8 I 4 × 102 2 10 I 2 × 10×10×10×10×10×10×10×10 10×10 I 2 × (10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × I 10) 2 × 106 What if you end up with some tens downstairs? Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Taking Powers and Roots with Scientific Notation I 102 3 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Taking Powers and Roots with Scientific Notation I I 102 3 102 × 102 × 102 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Taking Powers and Roots with Scientific Notation I 102 3 I 102 × 102 × 102 I (10 × 10) × (10 × 10) × (10 × 10) Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Taking Powers and Roots with Scientific Notation I 102 3 I 102 × 102 × 102 I (10 × 10) × (10 × 10) × (10 × 10) I 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Taking Powers and Roots with Scientific Notation I 102 3 I 102 × 102 × 102 I (10 × 10) × (10 × 10) × (10 × 10) I 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 I 106 Jeremy S.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules The Rules What were the rules that you came up with? I 10a × 10b = Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules The Rules What were the rules that you came up with? I 10a × 10b = I 10a /10b = Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules The Rules What were the rules that you came up with? I 10a × 10b = I 10a /10b = I (10a )b = Jeremy S.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules The Rules What were the rules that you came up with? I 10a × 10b = I 10a /10b = I (10a )b = I (10a )1/b = Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Another Big Number Question What is (A) 3 × 6×104 2×102 102 in scientific notation? (B) 300 (C) 3 × 103 (D) 12 × 106 (E) 1. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .2 × 107 Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Big Numbers Small Numbers Factors Multiplication Division Exponentiation The Rules Another Big Number Question What is (A) 3 × 6×104 2×102 102 in scientific notation? (B) 300 (C) 3 × 103 (D) 12 × 106 (E) 1.2 × 107 Jeremy S.

The firmament is very far away so it is difficult to measure the length between stars. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . so astronomers measure the angles between where the star appear on the sky.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angles on the Sky The stars appear on a sphere above us. Jeremy S.

Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angles Big and Small I A circle consists of 360 degrees (360◦ ). Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angles Big and Small I A circle consists of 360 degrees (360◦ ). I Each degree consists of 60 arcminutes (600 ). Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angles Big and Small I A circle consists of 360 degrees (360◦ ). Jeremy S. I Each degree consists of 60 arcminutes (600 ). I Each arcminute consists 60 arcseconds (6000 ).

Jeremy S. I Your eyes can resolve details bigger than 0. I Each degree consists of 60 arcminutes (600 ).Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angles Big and Small I A circle consists of 360 degrees (360◦ ).5 arcminutes. I Each arcminute consists 60 arcseconds (6000 ). Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . I Each arcminute consists 60 arcseconds (6000 ). I Each degree consists of 60 arcminutes (600 ). I Your eyes can resolve details bigger than 0. I The size of the image of a star through the atmosphere is about 1 arcsecond.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angles Big and Small I A circle consists of 360 degrees (360◦ ).5 arcminutes.

I Each degree consists of 60 arcminutes (600 ).Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angles Big and Small I A circle consists of 360 degrees (360◦ ).5 arcminutes. I The size of the image of a star through the atmosphere is about 1 arcsecond. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . I Each arcminute consists 60 arcseconds (6000 ). I The nearest stars move about an arcsecond per year as the Earth orbits the sun. Jeremy S. I Your eyes can resolve details bigger than 0.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angular Size How big does a object appear at a given distance? What angle does it subtend? Jeremy S.

so there is an easier way. Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angular Size How big does a object appear at a given distance? What angle does it subtend? We would normally have to answer this using trigonometry but in astronomy things are quite far and the angles are small.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angular Size How big does a object appear at a given distance? What angle does it subtend? Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 d l Us α The Ground Rules .

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 d l Us α The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big Angular Size l α = 2πd 360◦ l 360◦ α= d 2π l α ≈ 57◦ d Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Distances I How far are you from your neighbour? Jeremy S.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Distances I I How far are you from your neighbour? A few dozen cm How far are you from the board? Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Distances I I I How far are you from your neighbour? A few dozen cm How far are you from the board? A few meters How far are we from downtown? Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Distances I I I I How How How How far far far far are are are are you from your neighbour? A few dozen cm you from the board? A few meters we from downtown? A few kilometers we from the Sun? Jeremy S.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Distances I I I I I How far are How far are How far are How far are kilometers How far are you from your neighbour? A few dozen cm you from the board? A few meters we from downtown? A few kilometers we from the Sun? A couple hundred million we from the nearest star? Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Distances I I I I I I How far are How far are How far are How far are kilometers How far are kilometers How far are you from your neighbour? A few dozen cm you from the board? A few meters we from downtown? A few kilometers we from the Sun? A couple hundred million we from the nearest star? A couple ten trillion we from the nearest big galaxy? Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Distances I I I I I I I How far are you from your neighbour? A few dozen cm How far are you from the board? A few meters How far are we from downtown? A few kilometers How far are we from the Sun? A couple hundred million kilometers How far are we from the nearest star? A couple ten trillion kilometers How far are we from the nearest big galaxy? A couple ten quintillion (1018 ) kilometers How far are we from the furthest known galaxy? Jeremy S.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Distances I I I I I I I How far are you from your neighbour? A few dozen cm How far are you from the board? A few meters How far are we from downtown? A few kilometers How far are we from the Sun? A couple hundred million kilometers How far are we from the nearest star? A couple ten trillion kilometers How far are we from the nearest big galaxy? A couple ten quintillion (1018 ) kilometers How far are we from the furthest known galaxy? A couple hundred sextillion (1021 ) kilometers Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units The Distance Ladder We can only measure the distance to the nearest objects in the solar system directly (light travel time). Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Parallax We measure distances in astronomy by measuring angles from different points of view.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Parallax Let’s do an Earthly example. Jeremy S.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules Baseline Distance . tan α = Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Parallax Let’s do an Earthly example.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . tan α = Baseline Distance Let’s forget about the trigonometry and draw the circle diagram again. Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Parallax Let’s do an Earthly example.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Parallax Baseline α = 2πd 360◦ 360◦ Baseline d= α 2π 57◦ d ≈ Baseline α You Baseline Me Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 d Star α The Ground Rules .

observed the Moon with 90 of parallax. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . How far is the Moon? I Which recipe? Jeremy S. 1000 km apart.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Earthbound Parallax Two pals.

How far is the Moon? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Earthbound Parallax Two pals. observed the Moon with 90 of parallax. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 57◦ α The Ground Rules . 1000 km apart.

Jeremy S. 1000 km apart.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Earthbound Parallax Two pals. observed the Moon with 90 of parallax. How far is the Moon? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline I 57◦ α Check ingredients. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

1000 km apart. Baseline = 1000km.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Earthbound Parallax Two pals. How far is the Moon? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline I 57◦ α Check ingredients. α = 90 Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . observed the Moon with 90 of parallax.

α = 90 I Convert arcminutes to degrees. observed the Moon with 90 of parallax.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Earthbound Parallax Two pals. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . Baseline = 1000km. Jeremy S. 1000 km apart. How far is the Moon? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline 57◦ α I Check ingredients.

1000 km apart. observed the Moon with 90 of parallax. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . Baseline = 1000km. How far is the Moon? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline 57◦ α I Check ingredients. 90 = 9/60◦ = 0. α = 90 I Convert arcminutes to degrees.15◦ Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Earthbound Parallax Two pals.

α = 90 I Convert arcminutes to degrees.15◦ I Use equation. 000km. d = 1000km 57◦ = 1000km × 380 = 380. 1000 km apart. 0. observed the Moon with 90 of parallax. 90 = 9/60◦ = 0. How far is the Moon? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline 57◦ α I Check ingredients.15◦ Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Earthbound Parallax Two pals. Baseline = 1000km. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Worksheet: Angular Measurement and Parsecs Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Writing

The Scientific Method

Working with Equations

and Small Numbers

Measuring Angles

Measuring Distances

Big

**The Distance Ladder
**

Parallax

Parsecs

Light-Travel Time

Distance Units

**Parallax to the Stars
**

To go beyond the solar system, we have to use

the Earth’s orbit as a baseline.

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2

The Ground Rules

Writing

The Scientific Method

Working with Equations

and Small Numbers

Measuring Angles

Measuring Distances

Big

**The Distance Ladder
**

Parallax

Parsecs

Light-Travel Time

Distance Units

**Parallax to the Stars
**

To go beyond the solar system, we have to use

the Earth’s orbit as a baseline.

Astronomers do this so often that they made

up a distance unit for it.

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2

The Ground Rules

Writing

The Scientific Method

Working with Equations

and Small Numbers

Measuring Angles

Measuring Distances

Big

**The Distance Ladder
**

Parallax

Parsecs

Light-Travel Time

Distance Units

**Parallax to the Stars
**

To go beyond the solar system, we have to use

the Earth’s orbit as a baseline.

Astronomers do this so often that they made

up a distance unit for it.

If the baseline is 1 AU and the angle is 1

arcsecond, then the distance is 1 parsec

(parallax-arc-second).

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2

The Ground Rules

we have to use the Earth’s orbit as a baseline. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules 100 α . If the baseline is 1 AU and the angle is 1 arcsecond. then the distance is 1 parsec (parallax-arc-second).Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Parallax to the Stars To go beyond the solar system. Distance in parsecs = Jeremy S. Astronomers do this so often that they made up a distance unit for it.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units How Big Is a Parsec? I Which recipe? Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 57◦ α The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units How Big Is a Parsec? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline Jeremy S.

Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units How Big Is a Parsec? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline I 57◦ α Check ingredients.

5 × 108 km.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units How Big Is a Parsec? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline I 57◦ α Check ingredients. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . α = 100 Jeremy S. Baseline = 1AU = 1.

5 × 108 km. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . Jeremy S. Baseline = 1AU = 1.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units How Big Is a Parsec? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline 57◦ α I Check ingredients. α = 100 I Convert arcseconds to degrees.

5 × 108 km. Baseline = 1AU = 1. α = 100 I Convert arcseconds to degrees. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . 100 = 1/600 = 1/60/60◦ Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units How Big Is a Parsec? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline 57◦ α I Check ingredients.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . Baseline = 1AU = 1.5 × 108 km.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units How Big Is a Parsec? I Which recipe? d ≈ Baseline 57◦ α I Check ingredients. d = 1.5 × 108 km 57◦ × 60 × 60 = 3 × 1013 km 1◦ Jeremy S. 100 = 1/600 = 1/60/60◦ I Use equation. α = 100 I Convert arcseconds to degrees.

Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .500 ? (A) 0.1 parsec (B) 2 parsec (C) 10 parsec (D) 20 parsec (E) 100 parsec Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units A Parsec Question How far is a star with an parallactic angle (or parallax) of 0.

Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units A Parsec Question How far is a star with an parallactic angle (or parallax) of 0.500 ? (A) 0.1 parsec (B) 2 parsec (C) 10 parsec (D) 20 parsec (E) 100 parsec Jeremy S. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

but light travels fast v = c = 3 × 105 km/s. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . Jeremy S.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Light-Travel Time In space distances are vast.

In astronomy class the time seems vast. and so are the distances. Jeremy S. How far does light go in a year? I d = vt. but light travels fast v = c = 3 × 105 km/s.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Light-Travel Time In space distances are vast. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

How far does light go in a year? I d = vt. I d = (3 × 105 km/s) × (60 × 60 × 24 × 365. but light travels fast v = c = 3 × 105 km/s. In astronomy class the time seems vast. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules . and so are the distances.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Light-Travel Time In space distances are vast.24s) Jeremy S.

I d = (3 × 105 km/s) × (60 × 60 × 24 × 365. In astronomy class the time seems vast.Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Light-Travel Time In space distances are vast.24s) I d = 9. and so are the distances.5 × 1012 km Jeremy S. but light travels fast v = c = 3 × 105 km/s. How far does light go in a year? I d = vt. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 The Ground Rules .

5 × 108 km 9. Heyl ASTR 311 2015W Term 2 1.5 × 1012 km 3 × 1013 km The Ground Rules .Writing Outline The Scientific Method Working with Equations and Small Numbers Measuring Angles Measuring Distances Big The Distance Ladder Parallax Parsecs Light-Travel Time Distance Units Distance Units 1 AU (astronomical unit) 1 ly (light-year) 1 pc (parsec) Jeremy S.

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