The Harlem Renaissance and the Rebirth of the African-American

Cultural Diaspora in New York City: 1900 -1935
By Ashley Green


1

I.

School/Class Information

Table of Contents

Grade Level and Subject
School District
School Name
School City, State
Class Demographics/Literacy Chart

Page Numbers
2
2
2
2
2-4

II. Unit Overview
General Introduction
Number of Days Required
Essential Questions: Overarching
Essential Questions: Topical
Standards from MA Curriculum Frameworks
Common Core State Standards
Unit Outcomes
Unit Calendar
List of Literacy and Instructional Design Strategies
Assessment List
Materials Required
Annotated Bibiliography

5
5
5
6
6
6-7
7
8
9
9-10
10
10-13

III. Daily Lesson Plans

13-85


2

School/Class Information

I.

10th Grade U.S. History II
Ashland Public Schools
Ashland High School
Ashland, MA
Class Demographics/Diversity and Literacy Profile and Chart:
Class Demographics/Diversity: 13 males, 12 females/ 14 Caucasian students, 2 AfricanAmerican students, 3 Asian-American students, 2 Asian students, 4 Latino students
Class Literacy Profile (Reading/Writing Skill Levels): Reading- 8 Below Grade Level, 11
Proficient, 6 Advanced/Writing- Below Grade Level, 10 Proficient, 10 Advanced 5
Name

Sex

Race

Reading

Writing

First
Language

Exceptionality

Nicholas

M

White

Proficient Proficient

English

N/A

Hannah

F

White

Advanced

Advanced

English

N/A

Kavya

F

Asian-American

Advanced

Proficient

English

N/A

Armando

M

Latino

Below GL

Below GL

Spanish

ELL

Peter

M

White

Advanced

Advanced

English

N/A

Jacob

M

White

Below GL

Below GL

English

Dyslexia, ADHD
(IEP)

Tyler

M

White

Proficient

Proficient English

Asperger’s (504)

Hannah

F

Asian-American

Advanced

Advanced English

N/A

Sophia

F

White

Proficient

Below GL

Austin

M

White

Proficient

Proficient English

N/A

Nicholas

M

White

Proficient

Proficient English

N/A

Pranav

M

Asian

Proficient

Proficient

Hindi

ELL

Mia

F

White

Proficient

Proficient

English

N/A

Madison

F

White

Advanced

Advanced

English

Asperger's (504)

English

Sensory
Processing
Disorder (504)

3

Tyler

M

White

Proficient

Proficient English

N/A

Soon

F

Asian

Proficient

Proficient

Korean

ELL

Austin

M

White

Proficient

Proficient

English

N/A

Sarah

F

African-American

Advanced

Advanced

English

N/A

Joshua

M

African-American

Proficient

Proficient

English

N/A

Teresa

F

Latina

Proficient Proficient

English

N/A

Sara

F

White

Below
GL

Below GL

English

Th

Celia

F

Latina

Below GL

Below GL

Portuguese

ELL

Carlito

M

Latino

Below GL

Below GL

Portuguese

ELL

Tyler

M

Asian-American

Proficient

Proficient English

N/A

Mia

F

White

Proficient

Below GL

N/A

English

4

II. Unit Overview
General Introduction:
This unit would ideally be the first unit of a year-long course in U.S. History II or for
students who have successfully completed coursework in U.S. History through the Civil
War and Reconstruction Era. A PreReading Plan (PReP) will be implemented at the
beginning of the unit in order to ascertain students’ prior knowledge.
A comprehensive understanding of the “Harlem Renaissance” will be introduced by
the first section of the unit on the post-Reconstruction period in the Southern United
States. Highlights here include an examination into the conflicting ideologies of
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois and the use of literature as social
commentary.
The second section of the unit will look into the causes behind “The Great Migration”
northward, primarily using secondary sources from authors Isabel Wilkerson and
Nicholas Lehmann. An expository essay is assigned, enabling students to practice
independent research.
The third section of the unit concerns the culture of Harlem from 1918-1935. Here we
will continue to integrate literature by reading the coming-of-age novel Home to
Harlem by Claude McKay.
Integration of the arts, especially through literature, will be implemented often,
especially in the third section of the unit. Poetry, fiction, and music in particular will be
studied in the context of the African-American experience. The final cooperative
learning project before the end-of-unit examination employs the theme of an
interdisciplinary humanities unit whereby the teaching and learning of both English and
Social Studies support each another in a holistic view of both subjects in the realm of
the Humanities.
Number of Days Required:
24




Overarching Essential Questions:
Do politics impede progress?
Why do people migrate?
How do writers use literature and literary devices to display historical context?
What do the arts reveal about cultural identity?

5

Topical Essential Questions:
• What were the different political strategies endorsed and employed by Washington
and DuBois?
• What was the Niagara Movement?
• How are the issues contained within the Washington and DuBois debates relevant
today?




Why do writers use dialects in fiction?
What is the Great Migration?
How is historical research carried out?
How does Claude McKay portray Harlem in his work Home to Harlem?
How have different artists portrayed Harlem and the African-American experience?

Standards from MA Curriculum Frameworks:
MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of African-American men and women
trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
Common Core State Standards

☞READING
→ RH.9-10.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and
secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the
information.
→ RH.9-10.2 Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine
whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.
→ RL.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text,
including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of
specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a
sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
→ RH.9-10.6 Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they
treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in
their respective accounts.
→ RI.9-10.7 Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums
(e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are
emphasized in each account.
→ RH.9-10.9 Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several
primary and secondary sources.
→ RH.9-10.10 By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social
studies texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

☞WRITING

6

→ WHST.9-10.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and
update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity
to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
→ WHST.9-10-8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print
and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each
source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text
selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard
format for citation.
→WHST.9-10.10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection
and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of
discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

☞SPEAKING AND LISTENING
→ SL.9-10.1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative
discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–
10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly
and persuasively.










Students will be able to…
Activate their prior knowledge about the Harlem Renaissance. (P)
Objectively analyze primary source documents. (P)
Explain the impact of grassroots political organizations such as the Niagara
Movement. (C)
Understand the importance of revising to the writing process. (P)
Draw connections between history and the world in which you live. (P)
Contextualize works of literature. (P)
Analyze the motivations, backgrounds, and potential biases of historians. (P)
Become aware of the work involved in the study of history. (C, P)
Analyze the topic of the early 20th century migration of African-Americans from the
Southern United States to the North. (C)
Gain an appreciation for the art, music, and literature of the time period. (C)

7

Day 1
C: Intro. to Harlem
Renaissance
S: PReP
A: Journal Entry,
Exit Ticket
H: Primary source
readings and
questions

Day 2
C: Washington/
DuBois
S: Timeline graphic
organizer, direct
instruction
A: Participation,
discussion
questions from
homework
H: Create
vocabulary cards

Day 3
C: Washington,
DuBois, and the
Niagara Movement
S: Media sources
with guiding
questions, primary
source analysis
A: Vocab cards,
viewing guides
H: “The Revolution
Will Not Be
Tweeted” 7-Element
Writing Assignment

Day 4
C: 7-Element
Writing Assignment
Draft —
Proofreading and
Revisions
A: 7-Element Drafts
H: Final Draft of 7Element Writing
Assignment

Day 5
C: Mark Twain short
story
S: Type 1 journal,
graphic organizer
for new vocab, selfdesigned prereading
questions,summariz
ing worksheet
A: Journal entries,
Revolution
assignment due
H: Vocab cards,
work on Revolution
assignment

Day 6
C: Mark Twain short
story
S: Summarizing
worksheet, answer
pre-reading
questions
A: Answers to prereading questions
H: Study for vocab
quiz

Day 7
C: The Great
Migration
S: Reciprocal
Teaching —
Secondary Sources
A: Vocabulary/
Reading Quiz,
Group participation
H: NYT article and
“Letter to the Editor”

Day 8
C: The Great
Migration
S: Finish Reciprocal
Teaching
A: Group
Participation, “Letter
to the Editor”
H: No Homework

Day 9
C: “The Great
Migration
S: Summarizing
Secondary Sources
A: Group
Participation
H: Thesis
Statement for 7Element Writing
Assignment #2

Day 10
C: The Great
Migration
S: Library Day for 7Element Writing
Assignment
A: Thesis Statement
H: First Draft of 7Element Writing
Assignment #2

Day 11
C: “The Great
Migration
S: 7-Element
Writing Assignment
#2: Peer Review
and Proofreading
A: Drafts Due
H: Final Draft

Day 12
C: The Great
Migration
S: Documentary
and Viewing Guide
A: 7-Element
Writing Assignment
#2 Final Drafts Due,
Viewing Guides
H: Buy novel Home
to Harlem and bring
to next section, Film
Study Worksheet

Day 13
C: Home to Harlem
by Claude McKay
A: Have purchased
novel, Film Study
Worksheet,
participation,
S: Intro. to Home to
Harlem by Claude
McKay and
Historical Context,
read Foreword in
RT groups
H: Read Ch. 1-5
Home to Harlem
and Reading Guide

Day 14
C: Home to Harlem,
Chapters 1-5
S: Socratic
discussion
A: Participation, Ch.
1-5 Reading Guide
H: Read Ch. 5-9
(Finish Part 1),
Reading Guide

Day 15
C: Home to Harlem,
Chapters 5-9
S: Socratic
Discussion
A: Participation, Ch.
5-9 Reading Guide,
Exit Ticket
H: Read Ch. 10-14/
Reading Guide

Day 16
C: Home to Harlem,
Chapters 10-14
S: Discussion and
Direct Instruction
(Poetry/Fiction)
A: Participation,
Ch. 10-14 Reading
Guide
H: Read ch. 15-18
(Finish Part II),
Reading Guide

Day 17
C: Home to Harlem,
Chapters 15-18
S: Discussion and
Direct Instruction
(Music/visual art/
theatre)
A: Participation,
Ch. 15-18 Reading
Guide
H: Finish novel
(read ch. 19-21),
reading guide

Day 18
C: Home to Harlem,
Chapters 19-21
S: Film and Viewing
Guide
A: Viewing Guide
Ch. 19-21 Reading
Guide
H: Hand back all
reading guides at
end of class to
study for “long quiz”
on novel/culture

Day 19
C: Museum Project
S: Introduction/
Begin Research
A: “Long Quiz” on
Home to Harlem
and Culture of
Harlem
H: Museum Project

Day 20
C: Museum Project
S: Research and
Create Exhibits
A: Group
Participation
H: Museum Project

Day 21
C: Museum Project
S: Research and
Create Exhibits —
Finish
A: Group
Participation
H: Museum Project
— Finish ALL parts

Day 22
C: Gallery Walk
S: Presentations
A: Museum Project
H: None

Day 23
EXAM REVIEW

Day 24
EXAM

8

List of Literacy and Instructional Design Strategies
















PReP
Graphic Organizers
Vocabulary Cards
Collins Method/7-Element Writing Assignment
Documentaries
Reading Guides
Viewing Guides
Expository Writing
Summarizing
Peer Review
Discussion
Cooperative Learning
Creative Writing
Arts Integration
Reciprocal Teaching
Journal Writing

List of Assessments By Type
1.) Participation
2.) Quizzes
• Reading and Vocabulary in DuBois/Washington (Day 7)
• Long Quiz on Home to Harlem and the Culture of Harlem (Day 20)
3.) Projects
• 7-Element Writing Assignment #1 (Creative) (Day 5)
• 7-Element Writing Assignment #2 (Research) (Day 12)
• Museum Project (Day 23)
4.) Classwork
• Journal Entries (Day 1, 5)
• Exit Ticket (Day 1)
• Viewing Guides (Day 3, 12)
• Self-Designed Pre-Reading Questions (Day 6)
5.) Homework
• Vocabulary Cards (Day 3)
• Reading Guides (Day 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17)
• “Letter to the Editor” assignment (Day 8)
• Thesis Statement (Day 10)
9

• Drafts for all 7-Element Writing Assignments (Day 4, 11)
6.) Unit Exam






Materials Required
Copies of handouts and readings (as per lesson plan)
Overhead projector with
Keynote Presentations (as per lesson plan)
Home to Harlem (novel)
Computer compatible with overhead projector and any necessary adaptors/power
supplies
Poster boards and markers

Annotated Bibliography
(In order of appearance)
Johnson, Maisha Z. Online. Accessed http://everydayfeminism.com/2015/06/culturalappropriation-wrong/?
utm_source=SocialWarfare&utm_medium=facebook&utm_campaign=SocialWarfare on June
21, 2015. Blog entry outlining definition of “cultural appropriation” with modern examples
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Ways to Add and Activate Background Knowledge.” Pearson Custom
Education: GEDUC 420 Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2011. Print. The “PReP"
instructional technique was found in this book on page page 165.
Hughes, Langston. “Harlem” from Collected Poems. New York: Random House, Inc., 1990.
Online. Accessed from: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/175884 on May 26, 2015. This
is the poem students will respond to in my lesson plan that I have memorized by
happenstance.
Stanford History Education Group. “Booker T. Washington v. W.E.B. DuBois.” Online. Accessed
from https://sheg.stanford.edu/booker-t-washington-dubois on May 26, 2015. The primary
source readings for the homework assignment are found here.
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Introducing Technical Vocabulary.” Pearson Custom Education: GEDUC 420
Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2011. Print. Used material from the section on
graphic organizers (pages 183-194).

10

Stanford History Education Group. “Booker T. Washington v. W.E.B. DuBois.” Online. Accessed
from https://sheg.stanford.edu/booker-t-washington-dubois on May 26, 2015. The primary
source readings for today’s lesson and activities are found here.
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Introducing Technical Vocabulary.” Pearson Custom Education: GEDUC 420
Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2011. Print. Used material from the section on
graphic organizers (pages 183-194).
Stanford History Education Group. “Booker T. Washington v. W.E.B. DuBois.” Online. Accessed
from https://sheg.stanford.edu/booker-t-washington-dubois on May 26, 2015. The primary
source readings for today’s lesson and activities are found here.
“Divergent Educational Philosophies: Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.” 2:33. Posted by PBS
Learning Media. Date Unknown. http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/
9919a094-6841-4f12-a677-35e5658d40fa/9919a094-6841-4f12-a677-35e5658d40fa/ This is
the media clip shown in the beginning of class.
“W.E.B. DuBois and the Niagara Movement.” 4 minutes. Posted by History Channel. Date
Unknown. http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/black-history-month/videos/web-duboisand-the-niagara-movement This is the documentary clip used for the previous night’s
homework.
“Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois: The Conflict.” 3:31. Posted by PBS Learning Media.
Date Unknown. http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/bf10.socst.us.indust.bookert/
booker-t-washington-and-web-du-bois-the-conflict/ This is the documentary clip used for the
previous night’s homework.
Primary Sources Used for Jigsaw Activity (from W.E.B. DuBois Library at UMass Amherst)
Niagara Movement. Statement of Principles. (1905). http://scua.library.umass.edu/collections/
etext/dubois/niagara.pdf
Ovington, Mary W., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (New York, N.Y., 1905 September 2)
http://scua.library.umass.edu/digital/dubois/312.bx005f88-01.pdf
Mitchell, George W., Report of the Secretary for the State of Pennsylvania of the N.M.
Conference Held at Sea Isle City, N.J. Aug. 15th to 18th, 1909. (S.l., 1909 August)
http://scua.library.umass.edu/digital/dubois/312.2.839-10-11.pdf

11

Niagara Movement, An Open Letter to College Men: The Meaning of the Niagara Movement
and the Junior Niagara Movement. (S.l.: s.n., 1909)
http://scua.library.umass.edu/digital/dubois/312.2.839-10-02.pdf
Mitchell, George W., Report of the Secretary for the State of Penna.. (Oberlin, Ohio, 1908
August 31-September 2)
http://scua.library.umass.edu/digital/dubois/312.2.839-08-06.pdf
Collins, John, The Collins Writing Program: Improving Student Performance Through Writing
and Thinking Across the Curriculum. Chapter 3 (pp. 47-60) outlines how to structure the 7element writing assignment. I also used parts of Chapter 2 to develop my oral reading
structure and FCAs (pp. 17-20, 34).
“Oppression Cosplay.” The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, June 15, 2015, http://
thedailyshow.cc.com/videos/00lje7/oppression-cosplay Used to show an example of satire/
parody
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. and Isabel Wilkerson. “A Conversation with Isabel Wilkerson On
America’s Great Migration.” DuBois Review. 7, no. 2 (2010): 257-269. This interview is the
reading used for the reciprocal teaching exercise.
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Providing Time to Read: When, Where, and How?” Pearson Custom
Education: GEDUC 420 Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print. I used
material from the section on Reciprocal Teaching (pages 240-243).
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Introducing Technical Vocabulary.” Pearson Custom Education: GEDUC 420
Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2011. Print. I would like to use the material from
the section on graphic organizers (pages 183-194) as part of a reference guide for my students.
Public Broadcasting Service/PBS. “Harlem in the 1920s.” 3 minutes, 35 seconds. http://
www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/mr13.socst.us.harlem1920s/harlem-in-the-1920s/ This clip
introduced “The Great Migration” in the context of the Harlem Renaissance.
Wilkerson, Isabel. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration.
New York: Random House, 2010. This is the historical text that Wilkerson was discussing in the
interview. I may use it for additional excerpts in the future.

12

Wilkerson, Isabel. “When Will the North Face Its Racism?” The New York Times. January 11,
2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/11/opinion/sunday/when-will-the-north-face-itsracism.html?_r=0 This is the article for which students will need to write a “Letter to the Editor.”
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Ways of Setting Purposes.” Pearson Custom Education: GEDUC 420 Teaching
Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print. — I used material from the subsections
“Questions “Posed by Students” (pages 106-109) and “Summary Writing” (pages 113-114).
“Lesson Title: Using Vernacular and Slang to Understand the Plight of Northern African
Americans during Reconstruction.” Posted by Mark Twain House. Hartford, CT. Date Unknown.
http://www.marktwainhouse.org/programs/downloads/courses/20.%20Using
%20Vernacular%20and%20Slang.pdf — This high school ESL lesson plan has a
comprehensive vocabulary list for teaching the short story at the center of my lesson.
“Mark Twain: Learn More about Mark Twain.” Posted by PBS. Date Unknown. http://
www.pbs.org/marktwain/learnmore/ — The full text of “A True Story Repeated Word for
Word As I Heard It” and background information on reading and Twain’s life can be found here.
Collins, John, The Collins Writing Program: Improving Student Performance Through Writing
and Thinking Across the Curriculum. Chapter 3 (pp. 47-60) outlines how to structure the 7element writing assignment.
Nicholas Lehman, “The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America: African-American
History”, 55:35, posted by The Film Archives, May 15, 2014 https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=P8OKUFOfY_U — 1991 interview from C-Span’s Booknotes series that will be subject of
lesson
Lesson Plans Based on Movies & Film Clips!  (Film Study Worksheet for a Documentary)
http://www.teachwithmovies.org/guides/film-study-worksheet-documentary.html — Film Study
Worksheet templates are located here.
Brodsky Schur, Joan. “Jazz is About Freedom: Billie Holiday’s Anti-lynching Song: Strange
Fruit.” PBS.. http://www.pbs.org/jazz/classroom/visualize.htm# This is a lesson plan that
inspired the focus of my own lesson.
McKay, Claude (2008-09-11).Home To Harlem (Northeastern Library of Black Literature) (Kindle
Location 217). Northeastern University Press. Kindle Edition. This is the subject of the lesson
plan
California State University, Dominguez Hills. “5 Principles of Cooperative Learning.” Accessed
on June 25, 2015. https://www.csudh.edu/dearhabermas/cooplrn.htm

13

14

Day 1 Lesson Overview:
• Title: What is the Harlem Renaissance?
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: Using a bell-ringer journal entry and a PReP class discussion
strategy I will activate and assess students’ prior knowledge of the Harlem Renaissance and
post-Reconstruction era in preparation for an upcoming unit.
• Total time allotted: One 45-minute class period
• Materials Required: Keynote presentation on laptop prepared for lesson, overhead projector,
whiteboard with working markers — Note: Make sure laptop and projector are compatible.
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: Why do people create art? What do the arts
reveal about cultural identity? Why is artistic expression important to a culture?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: From your recollection, what similarities and
differences are there between the Harlem Renaissance and the European Renaissance?
• Common Core State Standards: WHST.9-10.10. Produce clear and coherent writing in
which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and
audience; WHST.9-10.10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and
revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of
African-American men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will be able to activate their prior knowledge about the Harlem
Renaissance. Students will be able to familiarize themselves with the concepts, ideas, and
themes of the upcoming unit. Students will be able to respond more quickly and articulately
in writing and conversation to spontaneous critical thinking questions.
Lesson Roadmap:
1.) “Do Now” bell ringer journal entry (10 minutes)
2.) I will prompt students with questions and pictures about the topic of the new unit. Students
will write down answers independently and then discuss answers in groups as I circulate. This is
Phase 1 of the PReP method. (10 minutes)
3.) I will lead the class in a group discussion of their findings. This is PReP Phase 2. (10 minutes)
4.) I will clarify and explain an overview of the upcoming month-long unit, which will begin in
the next class. (5 minutes)
5.) On a new sheet of paper, students will answer concluding questions about their experience.
This is PReP Phase 3. (5 minutes)
6.) I will explain homework assignment for the next class. Students will hand in all papers as
their ‘exit ticket’ at the end of class. (5 minutes)
Detailed Descriptions of In-class Activities and Homework Assignments:
1.) Before beginning, reiterate the expectations and guidelines for a safe and constructive
classroom climate of which students should be familiar due to the potentially triggering nature of
some of the subject material. Display Slide #1 of a Keynote presentation, which will contain a 5minute writing assignment asking students to write a journal entry answering one of the
following questions (their choice):
• (a) Have you ever moved? What were your or your family’s reasons for moving? What was the
most difficult part about living somewhere new? What was the best part?
15

• (b) Have you ever created artwork (writing, painting, performance, etc.) outside of school?
What do you create? Why did you create this particular piece of art?
Facilitate a 5-minute discussion relating to what they wrote, explaining how it relates to the new
unit. Students will turn in their journal assignments, which will be used as an informal
assessment of their literacy skills.
2.) On Slides #2-12 of the Keynote presentation, prompt students with questions and pictures
about the topic of the new unit. Allow 30 seconds after each slide for the student to jot down a
brief description of what it is, what he or she thinks it is, or what the word evokes — based on
previously acquired knowledge or past experience. The slides should read as follows. Read the
slides aloud in the case of any visual impairment:
• Slide 2: (text) What do these images or words represent to you? Why do you think or feel that
way?
• Slide 3: Picture of the Cotton Club, NYC
• Slide 4: (text) NAACP
• Slide 5: (text) Booker T. Washington
• Slide 6: (picture) Tuskegee Institute
• Slide 7: (text) Harlem
• Slide 8: (text) segregation
• Slide 9: (text) Niagara Movement
• Slide 10: (text) lynching
• Slide 11: (text) citizenship
• Slide 12: Recite “Harlem” by Langston Hughes. Ask students to write what they think the
poem is saying. When students are finished writing, ask students to discuss each answer
(compare and contrast) with the person next to them for 5 minutes.
3.) Call the class together to discuss their findings as a group. Write all answers on the
whiteboard as the students volunteer them. Then, provide students with the “correct” definition
of each item. Ask students if they notice any patterns or trends in their classmates’ responses or
why students chose certain responses. Collect student papers at the end of this discussion.
4) On Slide #13, clarify and explain an overview of the upcoming month-long unit, which will
begin in the next class. Briefly describe the objective of each of the four sections, mentioning
any upcoming assessments and deadlines.
• I. Compromise or Capitulation: Perspectives on Reconstructing an Identity
→ Using primary sources, students will be able to examine the historical events and
differing political attitudes that led to the formation of the Niagara Movement and the NAACP.
The assessment will involve a modern re-enactment of the debate between these two factions via
a 7-element writing assignment. A vocabulary/reading quiz will also be used for assessment. This
evening’s homework will begin this lesson.
→ The second part of this section will focus on emerging African-American cultural
traditions. The individual assessment will focus on an understanding of oral traditions using a
short story by Mark Twain.
• II. The Great Migration
→ The essential question to answer is why African-Americans felt compelled to move to
the North. Comprehension will be assessed through a reciprocal teaching activity the completion
of a second 7-element writing assignment.
• III. Post-Migration Life in New York City
16

→ What was Harlem like at this time? How did the neighborhood transition? This
material will cover 5 class sessions as an immersive experience in which students will read
Claude McKay’s novel Home to Harlem using reading guides. Students will be assessed through
a quiz.
• IV. Artistic Legacies of the Harlem Renaissance
→ This section will survey significant artistic achievement (poetry, fiction, drama, visual
and performing arts) during this time period over the course of five sessions. Students will be
assessed through a cooperative group project where they are to create a museum exhibit
commemorating one of the artists we have studied.
• V. Examination
→ In-class written unit test
→ Tripartite: Multiple-choice, short answer, and essay
5.) On a new sheet of paper, students will answer concluding questions about their experience.
This will be their “exit ticket.” These questions will be displayed on Slide #14 and will read as
follows:
• Based on our discussion at this point, do you have any new ideas or feelings about this unit?
• What would you like to see addressed in this unit?
• Are you worried about anything that might be covered?
• Choose one idea presented by one of your classmates during discussion today and explain why
you found it particularly interesting.
6.) The evening’s homework will be to read the excerpts from Booker T. Washington’s 1895
“Atlanta Compromise” speech and W.E.B. DuBois’ 1902 The Souls of Black Folk and answer
questions on a worksheet for the purpose of enhancing understanding and analysis.
Assessments
• Bell Ringer/Journal Entry: This is an informal assessment that is ungraded, but used as a guide
for the teacher’s awareness of student’s literacy skills as well as any personal issues that are
affecting academic performance. Thoughtful, articulate answers will improve a student’s class
participation grade.
• PReP answer sheets (including “exit ticket”): Again, today’s questions and discussions were
largely an informal assessment to guide the teacher’s lesson planning for this particular class,
but both positive and negative participation can factor into a student’s participation grade.
Participation assessments are tracked with a check mark or a zero [0].
Annotated Bibliography
Johnson, Maisha Z. Online. Accessed http://everydayfeminism.com/2015/06/culturalappropriation-wrong/?
utm_source=SocialWarfare&utm_medium=facebook&utm_campaign=SocialWarfare on June
21, 2015. Blog entry outlining definition of “cultural appropriation” with modern examples
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Ways to Add and Activate Background Knowledge.” Pearson Custom
Education: GEDUC 420 Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2011. Print. The “PReP"
instructional technique was found in this book on page page 165.

17

Hughes, Langston. “Harlem” from Collected Poems. New York: Random House, Inc., 1990.
Online. Accessed from: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/175884 on May 26, 2015. This is
the poem students will respond to in my lesson plan that I have memorized by happenstance.
Stanford History Education Group. “Booker T. Washington v. W.E.B. DuBois.” Online. Accessed
from https://sheg.stanford.edu/booker-t-washington-dubois on May 26, 2015. The primary
source readings for the homework assignment are found here.

18

Name: __________________________________ Date: ____________ Class Period: ______
Reading Primary Sources
Homework Assignment
On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions using the Booker T. Washington
and W.E.B. DuBois readings. Please staple this worksheet to your answer sheet.
1.) Using a dictionary, define the following words:
vessel
heeding
injunction
pacifying
disenfranchisement
spectators
fidelity
bestowed
2.) In Document A, who is Booker T. Washington saying is “ignorant and inexperienced?”
3.) Explain the metaphor that Washington uses. Who is meant to represent each ship? What is
represented by the “bucket of water”?
4.) In Document B, why do you think W.E.B. DuBois uses the term “Negro” in reference to
African-Americans whereas Washington does not use this term?
5.) What type of audience do you think Washington is addressing? Cite at least one piece of
textual evidence for your answer.
6.) In Question 5, does your answer contrast from the audience whom DuBois is addressing in
Document B? Again, cite at least one piece of textual evidence for this answer.
7) According to DuBois, it is a false claim that African-Americans can survive only through
__________. What are the three things that DuBois asks them give up?
8.) In Document B, how does W.E.B. DuBois feel about Booker T. Washington? In other words,
what is the mood, or attitude of the author towards his subject?
9.) What does DuBois mean by “tender of the palm branch”?
10.) What examples does DuBois provide to show that Washington’s message has failed their
race?

19

Document A: Booker T. Washington
Ignorant and inexperienced, it is not strange that in the first years of our new life we
began at the top instead of at the bottom; that a seat in Congress or the state legislature
was more sought than real estate or industrial skill; that the political convention or stump
speaking had more attractions than starting a dairy farm or truck garden.
A ship lost at sea for many days suddenly sighted a friendly vessel. From the mast of
the unfortunate vessel was seen a signal, “Water, water; we die of thirst!” The answer
from the friendly vessel at once came back, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” A
second time the signal, “Water, water; send us water!” ran up from the distressed
vessel, and was answered, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” And a third and
fourth signal for water was answered, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” The
captain of the distressed vessel, at last heeding the injunction, cast down his bucket,
and it came up full of fresh, sparkling water from the mouth of the Amazon River. To
those of my race who depend on bettering their condition in a foreign land or who
underestimate the importance of cultivating friendly relations with the Southern white
man, who is their next-door neighbor, I would say: “Cast down your bucket where you
are”— cast it down in making friends in every manly way of the people of all races by
whom we are surrounded….
Cast it down in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in domestic service, and in the
professions…. No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a
field as in writing a poem. It is at the bottom of life we must begin, and not at the top.
To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange
tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted I would repeat what I
say to my own race, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” Cast it down among the
eight millions of Negroes whose habits you know, whose fidelity and love you have
tested… As we have proved our loyalty to you in the past, in nursing your children,
watching by the sick-bed of your mothers and fathers, and often following them with
tear-dimmed eyes to their graves, so in the future, in our humble way, we shall stand by
you with a devotion that no foreigner can approach, ready to lay down our lives, if need
be, in defense of yours, interlacing our industrial, commercial, civil, and religious life with
yours in a way that shall make the interests of both races one. In all things that are
purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things
essential to mutual progress.
Source: Excerpt from Booker T. Washington’s ‘Atlanta Compromise’ speech, 1895.

20

Document B: W.E.B. DuBois
Easily the most striking thing in the history of the American Negro since 1876 is the
ascendancy of Mr. Booker T. Washington. It began at the time when war memories and
ideals were rapidly passing; a day of astonishing commercial development was
dawning; a sense of doubt and hesitation overtook the freedmen's sons,—then it was
that his leading began. Mr. Washington came, with a simple definite programme, at the
psychological moment when the nation was a little ashamed of having bestowed so
much sentiment on Negroes [during Reconstruction], and was concentrating its
energies on Dollars….
Mr. Washington's programme practically accepts the alleged inferiority of the Negro
races…. Mr. Washington withdraws many of the high demands of Negroes as men and
American citizens….
In answer to this, it has been claimed that the Negro can survive only through
submission. Mr. Washington distinctly asks that black people give up, at least for the
present, three things,—
First, political power,
Second, insistence on civil rights,
Third, higher education of Negro youth, and concentrate all their energies on industrial
education, and accumulation of wealth, and the conciliation of the South. This policy has
been courageously and insistently advocated for over fifteen years, and has been
triumphant for perhaps ten years. As a result of this tender of the palm-branch, what has
been the return? In these years there have occurred:
1. The disfranchisement of the Negro.
2. The legal creation of a distinct status of civil inferiority for the Negro.
3. The steady withdrawal of aid from institutions for the higher training of the Negro.
His doctrine has tended to make the whites, North and South, shift the burden of the
Negro problem to the Negro's shoulders and stand aside as critical and rather
pessimistic spectators; when in fact the burden belongs to the nation, and the hands of
none of us are clean if we bend not our energies to righting these great wrongs.
Source: W. E. B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk (Chicago, 1903).

21

Day 2 Lesson Overview:
• Title: Understanding Historical Context Through A Close Reading of the Writings of Booker
T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: I will demonstrate historical context through an interactive
timeline of events (based on a combination of direct instruction, teacher modeling, and group
participation) leading up to the time period of last night’s readings.
• Total time allotted: 1 45-minute class period
• Materials Required:
✓ Copies of timeline graphic organizer handouts
✓ Extra copies of Documents A and B
✓ Copies of worksheet for documentary
✓ Transparency for Close Reading
✓ Overhead projector
✓ Copies of Frayer vocabulary card template
✓ 3x5 index cards
✓ Copies of viewing guides (homework)
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: Are there more suitable alternatives to
governments and judicial systems in ending discrimination? Do politics ever impede
progress?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: How effective were the 14th Amendment and the
Civil Rights Act in ending racial discrimination? Who was Booker T. Washington? What were
his political beliefs? Who was W.E.B. DuBois? How did his political beliefs contrast from
Washington’s?
• Common Core State Standards:
→ RH.9-10.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and
secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
→ RH.9-10.3 Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether
earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.
→ RH.9-10.6 Compare the point of view of two or more authors to how they treat
similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective
accounts.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of
African-American men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Using the previous night’s homework assignment, a timeline graphic
organizer, direct instruction, discussion, and a brief documentary clip, students will be able to
organize the perspectives of two African-American civil rights’ leaders in the early 20th
century with regards to historical context and future analysis.
Lesson Roadmap:
1.) “Pair share” discussion of previous night’s homework assignment1. (5 minutes)
2.) Close reading activity using timeline graphic organizer and direct instruction (35 minutes)
1

*The previous night’s homework assignment was to read the excerpts from Booker T. Washington’s
“Atlanta Compromise” speech and W.E.B. DuBois’ The Souls of Black Folk and complete a worksheet.

22

3.) Assign, distribute, and explain homework assignment (5 minutes)
Detailed Descriptions of In-class Activities and Homework Assignments:
1.) Pair Share (5 minutes)
a. For five minutes and in pairs, students will discuss the following question: Based on
last night’s primary source reading, what was life like for African-Americans in the South after
Reconstruction ended in 1877?
b. Circulate around the room to check last night’s homework and assess preparedness. Do
not collect homework questions as they will need them as a guide for today’s discussion and for
their homework assignment.
2.) Close Reading (35 minutes)
a. Give a timeline graphic organizer handout to each student and explain that the
timelines will be filled out together as a class. Explain that the authors of the pieces they read
were largely reacting to the events on the timeline, which is why they are significant. For
example, say: As you will see in the close reading we are about to do, dates are crucial to
history. You don’t have to necessarily memorize dates as a historian, but it often happens
naturally out of an understanding of when certain events take place. Note: a “horseshoe” seating
arrangement is preferable for this activity so the teacher and students are visible to one another.
b. Put the timeline transparency on the overhead projector. Ask the students to take out
the Washington reading first. Highlight aspects of the reading as you explain each event of the
timeline. For example, say (in italics), The first thing I do when I read a document is look for
who wrote it. Here at the bottom it says, “Source: Excerpt from Booker T. Washington’s ‘Atlanta
Compromise’ speech, 1895.” Mark 1895 on your timeline. Between what two events does it fall?
Call on someone here. Great. Let’s talk about these two events since they sandwich the year when
Washington wrote: the founding of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881 and the Supreme Court case of
Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. First, does anyone know who founded the Tuskegee Institute? The
students are not expected to know this since it is not mentioned in the readings. Provide them
with the answer if they don’t know. Booker T. Washington, who wrote the piece. (emphasize) He
founded the Tuskegee Institute to teach workforce skills to African Americans. What do you
suspect his position in American society was when he wrote this speech in 1895? Remember: he
was in a position to start an educational institution in 1881, and he was speaking to a nearly allwhite audience in Atlanta. Do you think this information impacts why he believes as he does?
What was his strategy here? Keep discussions brief in order to to maintain time.
c. Transition to Plessy v. Ferguson, explaining how the Supreme Court case legalized Jim
Crow laws that maintained “separate but equal” establishments. Explain the origins of Jim Crow
laws, and note that this ruling happened a year after Washington’s speech. Note that in 1901, the
last black representative lost his seat in Congress. With respect to this court case, define and
highlight the significance of: de facto segregation, de jure segregation, lynching, Jim Crow,
and disenfranchisement (noting seemingly indirect barriers to entry for black voters [poll tax,
literacy tests]).
d. Discuss African-American military involvement in the Spanish-American War.
e. Ask the students to recall the 14th Amendment. Explain the 1875 Civil Rights Act.
Then, explain the concessions towards African-Americans, highlighting the Compromise of 1877
and the 1883 nullification of the Civil Rights Act, using these events as precursors.

23

f. Say, Now that we have more background knowledge, we are going to read the
document again so we can practice close reading. You can put the timeline aside for now and
just listen until it’s your turn to read. At each stopping point, clarify vocabulary terms and
definitions from Question 1 on last night’s homework.
g. Call on someone to read the first section, starting with “ignorant” and ending with the
word “garden.” After the student reads, ask the class, “Who is he calling ‘ignorant and
inexperienced?’ Why?” Answer: African-Americans/He is addressing a white audience. (Though
answers can be varied. Students should be allowed to explore different ways of drawing
conclusions.)
h. After discussion, call on someone to read the next paragraph, starting with “a ship” and
ending with “surrounded” Again, ask the class, “What does he want his fellow AfricanAmericans to do here?” Answer: Washington wants them to stay in the South or “cast down their
bucket where they are.” He presents a friendly depiction of Southern whites. Ask what is meant
by “there is as much dignity in telling the field.” Are his expectations low or high for black
workers? Note the word “fidelity” and his likening of them to servants of white men. Define
assimilation.
i. Call on someone to read the final two paragraphs. Ask concluding questions. For
example, So, what do you think? He’s not particularly idealistic, but do you think he was selling
his people short, as DuBois seems to think? Or was he being realistic and cautionary? What
spurred intellectuals like DuBois to take the position he did?
3.) Homework Assignment: Frayer vocabulary cards on key terms from Washington and
DuBois lessons; documentary clips and 10-question viewing guide
Assessments:
• Homework from previous night: Reading questions on Washington and DuBois readings,
checked in beginning of class, allowed to use to support discussion and close reading activities
• Student Participation: Direct instruction from close reading and timeline activity will be
featured in upcoming Type 2 vocabulary/reading quiz
Annotated Bibliography:
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Introducing Technical Vocabulary.” Pearson Custom Education: GEDUC 420
Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2011. Print. Used material from the section on
graphic organizers (pages 183-194).
Stanford History Education Group. “Booker T. Washington v. W.E.B. DuBois.” Online. Accessed
from https://sheg.stanford.edu/booker-t-washington-dubois on May 26, 2015. The primary
source readings for today’s lesson and activities are found here.

24

Vocabulary Cards Assignment and Quiz Overview
As preparation for a quiz on (date), create a two-sided vocabulary card (see template)
for each of the 12 key terms (below) from the Washington and DuBois lesson. Since you
have defined the first eight words for your previous homework assignment, a portion of
the work is already finished.
vessel
heeding
injunction
pacifying
disenfranchisement
spectators
fidelity
bestowed
de facto segregation
de jure segregation
Jim Crow
assimilation
As per the template, each card requires the following:
Side 1: Write the word and provide a small, summarizing illustration. I’m not

looking for Monet’s “Water Lilies” here, just a quick sketch or diagram to help you
remember.
Side 2: Provide a basic dictionary definition for the word and use the word in an

original sentence.
Your completed 12 cards are due at the beginning the next class period. As usual, the
rules for late, missing, or incomplete homework apply.
The main focus on the quiz will be the vocabulary. You should be prepared to
understand the definitions of all of the listed terms. You should also focus on the
particular historical context of: de facto segregation, de jure segregation, Jim Crow,
disenfranchisement, and assimilation as it relates to African-American politics and
political organizations during the post-Reconstruction time period in which W.E.B.
DuBois and Booker T. Washington lived.

25

Vocabulary Cards — Template
Using a 3x5 index card, follow the example below for each vocabulary word.
Side 1
Word: ________________________________
Illustration:

Your Name

Side 2
Definition:

Sentence Example:

26

U.S. History II
Background Timeline — Washington & DuBois Readings
Name: _____________________________

The 14th
Amendment
1868

Class Period: _______

The Compromise of
1877

1875
The Civil Rights Act

Date: _____________

The Spanish-American
War
1898

1881
Founding of Tuskegee
Institute

1896
Plessy v. Ferguson

27

Day 3 Lesson Overview:
• Title: Assimilation or Disruption?: Washington, DuBois, and the Foundations of Social
Change
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: Students will study media sources about Booker T.
Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and the foundations of various African-American political
organizations while filling out a viewing guide.
• Total time allotted: 1 45-minute class period
• Materials Required:
✓ Computer with Internet
✓ Overhead projector
✓ Copies of primary source readings
✓Copies of document analysis worksheet
✓ Copies of 7-Element Writing Assignment
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: Are there more suitable alternatives to
governments and judicial systems in ending discrimination? Do politics ever impede
progress?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: What were the different political strategies
endorsed and employed by Washington and DuBois? What was the Niagara Movement? What
is the NAACP?
• Common Core State Standards:
→ RI.9-10.7 Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life
story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
→ RH.9-10.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary
sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
→ RH.9-10.2 Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier
events caused later ones or simply preceded them.
→ RH.9-10.9 Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and
secondary sources.
→ SL.9-10.1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-onone, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues,
building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of
African-American men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will be able to objectively analyze primary source documents
and work together to synthesize the information. Students will be able to explain the impact
of grassroots political organizations such as the Niagara Movement.
Lesson Roadmap:
1.) Check homework (vocab cards and viewing guide) while students watch film clip introducing
today’s lesson (3 minutes)
2.) Jigsaw/Primary Source Document Analysis (37 minutes)
3.) Introduce 7-Element Writing Assignment for Homework (5 minutes)
Detailed Descriptions of In-class Activities and Homework Assignments:
1.) Before we engage in the primary source reading activity, the students will watch a
documentary clip from the PBS series “The Rise of Jim Crow” for background information,
28

increased clarification, and to also assist those who learn more visually. First, students will watch
the short documentary Divergent Educational Philosophies: Washington, DuBois, and Garvey as
I check that they have completed their vocab cards and viewing guides that are due.
2.)
a. (10 minutes) Students will be divided into 5 groups consisting of 5 students each. Each
person in a group will be assigned a primary source from the following list. Students will read
their source independently, analyzing it using the enclosed worksheet from the National
Archives. Documents should be assigned based on reading level using differentiated instruction.
Documents are as follows:
• Niagara Movement — Statement of Principles
• Ovington, Mary W. — Letter to W.E.B. DuBois
• Mitchell, George W. — Report from the Niagara Movement 1909 Conference
• Mitchell, George W. — Report from the Niagara Movement 1909 Conference
• Niagara Movement — Open Letter to College Men: The Meaning of the Niagara Movement
and the Junior Niagara Movement
b. (2 minutes per student or 10 minutes) Upon completion of the worksheet, each student
will explain and “teach” their document to their group.
c. (10 minutes) Students will summarize their findings together on one sheet of paper
answering the following question and supplemental questions: Using only the primary source
readings what do we know about the Niagara Movement?
• Who comprised the Movement?
• Who were its leaders?
• What was its purpose?
• What activities were organized?
• Where were they located? Were they located in more than one place?
• Were there any criticisms or setbacks?
• What do you think is the Niagara Movement’s role in U.S. history?
3.) Collect summaries and introduce homework (7-Element Writing Assignment: The Revolution
Will Not Be Tweeted… or Will it?) (5 minutes)
Assessments:
• Viewing Guides: For preparation for today’s Jigsaw activity
• Frayer Vocabulary Cards: Key terms from DuBois/Washington unit to assess understanding of
technical vocabulary and historical context
• Group summaries: To assess collaboration efforts and understanding of the significance of the
Niagara Movement to U.S. political history
• 7-Element Writing Assignment: To assess ability to synthesize and connect historical debate to
contemporary issues
Annotated Bibliography:
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Introducing Technical Vocabulary.” Pearson Custom Education: GEDUC 420
Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2011. Print. Used material from the section on
graphic organizers (pages 183-194).

29

Stanford History Education Group. “Booker T. Washington v. W.E.B. DuBois.” Online. Accessed
from https://sheg.stanford.edu/booker-t-washington-dubois on May 26, 2015. The primary
source readings for today’s lesson and activities are found here.
“Divergent Educational Philosophies: Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.” 2:33. Posted by PBS
Learning Media. Date Unknown. http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/
9919a094-6841-4f12-a677-35e5658d40fa/9919a094-6841-4f12-a677-35e5658d40fa/ This is the
media clip shown in the beginning of class.
“W.E.B. DuBois and the Niagara Movement.” 4 minutes. Posted by History Channel. Date
Unknown. http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/black-history-month/videos/web-duboisand-the-niagara-movement This is the documentary clip used for the previous night’s homework.
“Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois: The Conflict.” 3:31. Posted by PBS Learning
Media. Date Unknown. http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/bf10.socst.us.indust.bookert/
booker-t-washington-and-web-du-bois-the-conflict/ This is the documentary clip used for the
previous night’s homework.
Primary Sources Used for Jigsaw Activity (from W.E.B. DuBois Library at UMass Amherst)
Niagara Movement. Statement of Principles. (1905). http://scua.library.umass.edu/collections/
etext/dubois/niagara.pdf
Ovington, Mary W., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (New York, N.Y., 1905 September 2)
http://scua.library.umass.edu/digital/dubois/312.bx005f88-01.pdf
Mitchell, George W., Report of the Secretary for the State of Pennsylvania of the N.M.
Conference Held at Sea Isle City, N.J. Aug. 15th to 18th, 1909. (S.l., 1909 August)
http://scua.library.umass.edu/digital/dubois/312.2.839-10-11.pdf
Niagara Movement, An Open Letter to College Men: The Meaning of the Niagara Movement
and the Junior Niagara Movement. (S.l.: s.n., 1909)
http://scua.library.umass.edu/digital/dubois/312.2.839-10-02.pdf
Mitchell, George W., Report of the Secretary for the State of Penna.. (Oberlin, Ohio, 1908
August 31-September 2)
http://scua.library.umass.edu/digital/dubois/312.2.839-08-06.pdf


30

Name _____________________ Date: _________________ Class Period: ______
Document Analysis Worksheet
1. TYPE OF DOCUMENT (Check one):
___ Newspaper
___ Letter
___ Patent
___ Memorandum
___ Map
___ Telegram
___ Press release
___ Report
___ Advertisement
___ Congressional record
___ Census report
___ Other
2. UNIQUE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF THE DOCUMENT (Check one or more):
___ Interesting letterhead
___ Handwritten
___ Typed
___ Seals
___ Notations
___ "RECEIVED" stamp
___ Other
3. DATE(S) OF DOCUMENT:

4. AUTHOR (OR CREATOR) OF THE DOCUMENT:

5. POSITION (TITLE):

6. FOR WHAT AUDIENCE WAS THE DOCUMENT WRITTEN?

Page 1 of 1


31

DOCUMENT INFORMATION (There are many possible ways to answer A-E.)
A. List three things the author said that you think are important:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
B. Why do you think this document was written?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
C. What evidence in the document helps you know why it was written? Quote from the
document.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
D. List two things the document tells you about life in the United States at the time it was
written:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
E. Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the document:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
Designed and developed by the 

Education Staff, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408.

Page 2 of 2


32

Name _____________________ Date: _________________ Class Period: ______
Viewing Guide
Watch the two documentary clips and answer the following questions using a separate
sheet of paper.
Documentary 1 — Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois: The Conflict
1.) Washington was a very popular figure in the early 1900s. To what do you attribute
his popularity?

2.) What was Booker T. Washington's attitude regarding civil rights? Explain.

3.) Describe the mission of Washington’s Tuskegee Institute. What were some of
Washington’s goals when he founded the school?

4.) Describe some of the criticism DuBois voiced towards Washington. Do you think it
was fair? Explain.
Documentary 2 — W.E.B DuBois and the Niagara Movement
5.) Who did DuBois refer to as the “talented tenth”?

6.) What job did DuBois do when he moved to Tennessee from the North?

7.) W.E.B. DuBois was the first black man in the United States to
______________________.
8.) Why was it called the “Niagara Movement”?

9.) Name one right called for in the Niagara Movement’s proclamation.

10.) What was the catalyst (the event that brought it about) to the formation of the
NAACP?


33

7-Element Writing Assignment

Name: ______________________ Class: _________ Date: __________

The Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted… or Will it?
1.) Assignment Summary:

Now that we have analyzed the debate between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B.
DuBois as well as the historical backgrounds of the two figures, do you think that
there are similar arguments today surrounding race relations? A parody is a type of
literary satire that takes a humorous spin on a well-known artistic or intellectual work.
The Onion newspaper and Saturday Night Live are two famous examples of outlets
that use humor to often reveal an underlying truth or highlight an analogous situation.
Imagine the History Channel is recruiting students to write sketches that will both
entertain and inform modern audiences. They are looking for scripts that will engage
adolescents and adults by presenting history as both accurate and accessible. One of
the best ways to accomplish this is by drawing analogies to present-day situations
through parody. Using your notes and assignments from the past two classes recalling
the DuBois/Washington debate, you will re-create the scenario in the format of a
three-page play as a conversation taking place between two individuals over a social
media site of your choice (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, etc.).

2.) Purpose

The purpose of this assignment for you to both entertain and inform about the subject
matter about which we have recently learned. For example, how would a writer for the
The Daily Show or Saturday Night Live take on such a challenge?

3.) Writer’s Role

Your role will be that of a freelance screenwriter selling a short sketch to the History
Channel for appearance on their website.

4.) Audience

Write for a contemporary, non-academic audience, ages 14 and up.

5.) Form

Write a 3-page sketch in the format of a screenplay. Your play will be a retelling of the
DuBois/Washington debate through a modern-day lens, as taking place between two
individuals over a social media site of your choice (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, etc.).
34

6.) Focus Correction Areas (60 points)

FCA 1: Content (20 points)
• Sufficient, relevant detail (10 points)
• A minimum of three technical vocabulary words (10 points)
FCA 2: Organization (20 points)
• Appropriate to the purpose of the assignment (10 points)
• Importance of the historical debate clear to non-historians (10 points)
FCA 3: Style (20 points)
• Demonstrates engagement with source material (10 points)
• Captures audience interest (10 points)

7.) Procedures/Steps:

☐You must have your drafts in class on (date) since we will be devoting an entire class
period to revising. Also — and as always — papers will be marked down one letter
grade for each day late.
☐You will read your paper out loud in class using a one-foot voice. It is important here
to check for any confusing parts and make sure your script flows well. During this
class period, each person will also read their drafts out loud to me.
☐ Edit your FCAs as suggested. Final drafts will be due in the next class period.

35

Day 4 Lesson Overview
• Title: “The Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted” 7-Element Writing Assignment (Type 3 and 4):
Proofreading and Revisions
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: Students will read their homework assignments aloud in class
and meet with me for a one-on-one meeting to discuss revisions for final drafts.
• Total time allotted: 1 45-minute class period
• Materials Required: Students must bring their 7-Element Writing Assignment to class.
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: What role does satire play in civil society?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: How is writing a process? How are the issues
contained within the Washington and DuBois debates relevant today?
• Common Core State Standards:
→W.9-10.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using
effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
→WHST.9-10.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development,
organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
→WHST.9-10.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing,
rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific
purpose and audience.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of AfricanAmerican men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will understand the importance of revising to the writing process
and begin to internalize the process of writing. Students will be able to learn from mistakes in
their drafts, and develop stronger writing with each additional draft. Students will be able to
draw connections between history and the world in which they currently live.
Lesson Roadmap:
1.) Show sketch “Operation Cosplay” or another sketch from The Daily Show with Jon Stewart (3
minutes) as an example of satire.
2.) Explain the editing process for today’s class through modeling by reading aloud your own
writing in the “one-foot” voice, asking yourself three questions:
✓ Did I complete the assignment?
✓ Does the composition sound right? Is it easy to read?
✓ How are my Focus Correction Areas?
Note that if you’re read-aloud sounds too slow, you’re probably doing it right. Note that students
should not stop to fix or edit work as they read to themselves. Rather they should simply mark the
spot in question.
3.) As students read aloud their assignments to themselves, call each student to your desk to read
aloud their assignments to me. Final drafts will be due in the next class period. (37 minutes)
Assessments:
Class Participation: Having completed their homework assignments and actively editing their work
in accordance with the structure of the lesson
Annotated Bibliography:
Collins, John, The Collins Writing Program: Improving Student Performance Through Writing and
Thinking Across the Curriculum. Chapter 3 (pp. 47-60) outlines how to structure the 7-element
writing assignment. I also used parts of Chapter 2 to develop my oral reading structure and FCAs
(pp. 17-20, 34).
“Oppression Cosplay.” The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, June 15, 2015, http://
thedailyshow.cc.com/videos/00lje7/oppression-cosplay


36

Day 5 and Day 6 Lesson Overview:

• Title: Mark Twain’s “A True Story Repeated Word for Word As I Heard It”: An Introduction
to African-American Oral Tradition and Literary Dialect in Historical Context
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: This lesson will mark the first of two lessons on artistic
representations of black culture during the post-Reconstruction period, primarily focusing on
oral tradition. Student-created questions and summarizing will be combined into a hybrid
model as the main instructional strategy used for this particular lesson.
• Total time allotted: 1-2 45-minute class periods
• Materials Required: Copies of reading (use 2-in-1 reading/graphic organizer handout at end
of document)
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: What is cultural appropriation? Should more
privileged groups be barred from using language that their ancestors used to exploit others?
How does prior knowledge of history change the way in which we perceive and are affected
by the literature of certain time periods?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: For what purposes do writers use dialect? In Mark
Twain’s short story, why is dialect used for some characters and not others? How does dialect
support Twain’s goals for the work?
• Common Core State Standards:
→ RL.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text,
including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of
specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a
sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
→ RH.9-10.10 By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts
in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of
African-American men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Given previous historical background lessons, two class periods, a bellringer journal entry (Collins’s Type 1 Writing), direct instruction, self-designed reading
questions, and an annotated reading worksheet, students will be able to — independently and
in cooperative groups — contextualize works of literature and explain writers’ motivations
both for creating specific characters and their characters’ mannerisms.
III. Lesson Roadmap:
Class 1
1.) “Do Now” journal entry and collect 7-Element Writing Assignment Final Drafts (5 minutes)
2.) Discussion-based direct instruction (10 minutes)
3.) Develop pre-reading questions (10 minutes)
4.) Form groups (2-3 students), review each other’s pre-reading questions, and decide on list of
ten questions to be answered after reading exercise. (10 minutes)
5.) Start reading/annotating “A True Story Repeated Word for Word As I Heard It.” (15 minutes)
No homework assignment.
Class 2
6.) Finish reading and annotating worksheet (35 minutes)
7.) Answer pre-reading questions independently (10 minutes) to be completed for homework.
37

Detailed Descriptions of In-class Activities and Homework Assignments:
1.) Upon arriving to class, students will have five minutes to answer the following question
posted in front of them on a separate sheet of paper: In a maximum of ten lines, provide a reallife example of your own experience or an experience you have witnessed where others have
commented on the way you speak, dress or act. Try to use an example where the criticized
behavior is supposedly “unique” to a particular culture or part of cultural stereotype.
2.) a. Begin direct instruction to introduce (or re-introduce) students to Mark Twain as a preface
to today’s close reading activity. As a precursor to African-American oral tradition as a subtopic
of the unit, introduce the literary terms dialect (the topic of their journal entry) and related
terminology such as accent, colloquialism, slang, idioms, and jargon. Since these words
represent subdivisions of dialect, definitions can be modeled via a “tree diagram” graphic
organizer on either a reference handout or through a Keynote presentation. Prompt students to
recall the types of dialect in the United States and also provide everyday examples of the other
literary terms contained in the diagram.
b. Discuss the literary implementation of dialect in the upcoming story. Note that though we use
abbreviated forms of words (e.g. texting, daily speech), most of us have been taught to read and
write in Standard English, so when fiction writers use dialect as characterization, it can be
difficult for readers to interpret, even readers with the same accent as the character.
c. Warn students that today’s reading contains two usages of the “N” word, reminding them of
the guidelines for a positive classroom climate because they are capable of maintaing a mature,
academic discussion of the text. Ask why Twain, an abolitionist, would present such words in his
writing. Define cultural appropriation.. Explain that while fiction may be “pretend”, writers like
Twain often present realities in an effort to “hold a magnifying make-up mirror” up to society for
the purpose of disillusionment (verfremdungseffekt or Brechtian alienation) or catharsis. Use the
quote from playwright Edward Albee as an example of this philosophy: ”If you're going to spend
a hundred bucks or more to go to theatre, something should happen to you. Maybe somebody
should be asking you some questions about your values or the way you think about things, and
maybe you should come out of the theatre with something having happened to you, Maybe you
should be changing or thinking about changing, but if you just got there and the only thing you
worry about is where you've left the damned car, you've wasted your hundred bucks."
d. Provide students with a brief synopsis of the story. An elderly woman, a former slave, recounts
a story from her past to a young, white Northerner, based on the true story based on Twain’s
friendship with a domestic servant named Mary Ann Cord. Note that the retelling is an attempt to
immortalize, or preserve the legacy, of oral tradition. Provide a vocabulary sheet, identifying
definitions for more difficult terms and colloquialisms in story such as: “I wasn’t born in the
mash to make a fool by trash.”
3.) Students will develop five pre-reading questions independently. Two questions must be literal
(“Right There” or the slightly more difficult “Think and Search”; stated directly in text), two
questions must be inferential (“On My Own”; answer not directly in text, but implied), and one
question must be critical (“Author and Me”; answer not in text; how the text and prior
knowledge fit together).
4.) Students will form groups of no more than three students and review each other’s pre-reading
questions. They will decide on list of ten questions to be answered independently after reading
exercise. 2 questions must be critical, 4 questions must be inferential, and 4 questions must be
literal. Circulate, answering questions and offering feedback.
38

5.) Hand out annotated reading. Note that students should read the left side of the worksheet first
so that they will know the answer they are seeking as they read. The purpose here is to practice
annotating, “marking up”, or actively reading a text for improved comprehension.
6.) Students will continue to work on this assignment in groups during the next class so there is
no homework following Class 1. Continue to circulate.
7.) In class 2, with the remaining time once finished with their annotated reading, students will
independently answer their self-created questions, which will be finished for homework and
collected during the next class. Remind students that next class there will also be a Vocabulary/
Reading Quiz on the DuBois/Washington debates.
Assessments:
• Journal entries: Collected for an informal assessment and usage towards class participation
grade
• Individual answers to group questions: Collected at the beginning of Class 3, to be assigned an
individual grade rather than a group grade, slightly larger percentage of final grade than
homework (perhaps a quiz grade)
Annotated Bibliography:
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Ways of Setting Purposes.” Pearson Custom Education: GEDUC 420 Teaching
Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print. — I used material from the subsections
“Questions “Posed by Students” (pages 106-109) and “Summary Writing” (pages 113-114).
“Lesson Title: Using Vernacular and Slang to Understand the Plight of Northern African
Americans during Reconstruction.” Posted by Mark Twain House. Hartford, CT. Date Unknown.
http://www.marktwainhouse.org/programs/downloads/courses/20.%20Using
%20Vernacular%20and%20Slang.pdf — This high school ESL lesson plan has a
comprehensive vocabulary list for teaching the short story at the center of my lesson.
“Mark Twain: Learn More about Mark Twain.” Posted by PBS. Date Unknown. http://
www.pbs.org/marktwain/learnmore/ — The full text of “A True Story Repeated Word for
Word As I Heard It” and background information on reading and Twain’s life can be found here.

39

A TRUE STORY, REPEATED WORD FOR WORD AS I HEARD IT
Author: Mark Twain
Source: The Atlantic Monthly, (November, 1874)
Exposition
Where is the story set? Who do you
think Aunt Rachel is? Who do you
think the narrator is?

Translate the text to Standard
English:

    
 It was summer time, and twilight. We were
sitting on the porch of the farm-house, on the
summit of the hill, and "Aunt Rachel" was sitting
respectfully below our level, on the steps,--for she
was our servant, and colored. She was of mighty
frame and stature; she was sixty years old, but her
eye was undimmed and her strength unabated. She
was a cheerful, hearty soul, and it was no more
trouble for her to laugh than it is for a bird to sing.
She was under fire, now, as usual when the day was
done. That is to say, she was being chaffed without
mercy, and was enjoying it. She would let off peal
after peal of laughter, and then sit with her face in
her hands and shake with throes of enjoyment which
she could no longer get breath enough to express.
At such a moment as this a thought occurred to me,
and I said:-        "Aunt Rachel, how is it that you've lived sixty
years and never had any trouble?"
        She stopped quaking. She paused, and there
was a moment of silence. She turned her face over
her shoulder toward me, and said, without even a
smile in her voice:--

→"Misto C----, is you in 'arnest?"

        It surprised me a good deal; and it sobered my
manner and my speech, too. I said:-        "Why, I thought--that is, I meant--why, you can't
have had any trouble. I've never heard you sigh, and
never seen your eye when there was n't a laugh in
it."
        She faced fairly around, now, and was full of
earnestness.

→         "Has I had any trouble? Misto C----, I's
gwyne to tell you, den I leave it to you. I was bawn
down 'mongst de slaves; I knows all 'bout slavery,
40

Translate the text to Standard English:

'case I been one of 'em my own se'f. Well, sah, my
ole man--dat's my husban'--he was lovin' an' kind to
me, jist as kind as you is to yo' own wife. An' we
had chil'en--seven chil'en--an' we loved dem chil'en
jist de same as you loves yo' chil'en. Dey was black,
but de Lord can't make no chil'en so black but what
dey mother love 'em an' would n't give 'em up, no,
not for anything dat's in dis whole world.

   →    "Well, sah, I was raised in ole

 
Translate the text to Standard English:

Fo'ginny, but my mother she was raised in
Maryland; an' my souls! she was turrible when she'd
git started! My lan'! but she'd make de fur fly! When
she'd git into dem tantrums, she always had one
word dat she said. She'd straighten herse'f up an'
put her fists in her hips an' say, 'I want you to
understan' dat I wa' n't bawn in de mash to be fool'
by trash! I's one o' de ole Blue Hen's Chickens, I is!'
'Ca'se, you see, dat's what folks dat's bawn in
Maryland calls deyselves, an' dey's proud of it. Well,
dat was her word. I don't ever forgit it, beca'se she
said it so much, an' beca'se she said it one day when
my little Henry tore his wris' awful, an' most busted
his head, right up at de top of his forehead, an' de
niggers did n't fly aroun' fas' enough to 'tend to
him. An' when dey talk' back at her, she up an' she
says, 'Look-a-heah!' she says, 'I want you niggers to
understan' dat I wa' n't bawn in de mash to be fool'
by trash! I's one o' de ole Blue Hen's Chickens, I is!'
an' den she clar' dat kitchen an' bandage' up de
chile herse'f. So I says dat word, too, when I 's riled.


41

Translate the text to Standard English:

→ "Well, bymeby my ole mistis say she's

        

broke, an' she got to sell all de niggers on de place.
An' when I heah dat dey gwyne to sell us all off at
oction in Richmon', oh de good gracious! I know
what dat mean!”

What do you think Twain wanted to
convey about Aunt Rachel in his use of
figurative language here?

→ Aunt Rachel had gradually risen, while

            

she warmed to her subject, and now she towered
above us, black against the stars.

       

Translate the text to Standard English:

 
 "Dey put chains on us an' put us on a stan' as
high as dis po'ch,--twenty foot high,--an' all de
people stood around', crowds an' crowds, An' dey
'd come up dah an' look at us all roun', an' squeeze
our arm, an' make us git up an' walk, an' den say,
"Dis one too ole,' or 'Dis one lame,' or 'Dis one
don't 'mount to much.' An' dey sole my ole man,
an' took him away, an' dey began to sell my chil'en
an' take dem away, an' I begin to cry; an' de man
say, 'Shet up yo' dam blubberin',' an' hit me on de
mouf wid his han'. An' when de las' one was gone
but my little Henry, I grab' him clost up to my
breas' so, an' I ris up an' says, 'You shan't take him
away,' I says; 'I'll kill de man dat tetches him!' I
says. But my little Henry whisper an' say, 'I gwyne
to run away, an' den I work an' buy yo' freedom.'
Oh, bless de chile, he always so good! But dey got
him--dey got him, de men did; but I took and tear
de clo'es mos' off of 'em, an' beat 'em over de
head wid my chain; an' dey give it to me, too, but I
did n't mine dat.


42

→”Well, dah was my ole man gone, an' all my
Translate the text to Standard English:

Translate the text to Standard English:

Translate the text to Standard English:

chil'en, all my seven chil'en--an' six of 'em I hain't set
eyes on ag'in to dis day, an' dat's twenty-two year
ago las' Easter. De man dat bought me b'long' in
Newbern, an' he took me dah. Well, bymeby de
years roll on an' de waw come. My marster he was a
Confedrit colonel, an' I was his family's cook. So
when de Unions took dat town, dey all run away an'
lef' me all by myse'f wid de other niggers in dat
mons'us big house. So de big Union officers move in
dah, an' dey ask me would I cook for dem. 'Lord
bless you,' says I, 'dat's what I's for.’

 
"Dey wa' n't no small-fry officers, mine you,
dey was de biggest dey is; an' de way dey made
dem sojers mosey roun'! De Gen'l he tole me to
boss dat kitchen; an' he say, 'If anybody come
meddlin' wid you, you jist make 'em walk chalk;
don't you be afeard,' he say; 'you's 'mong frens,
now.
 

→"Well, I thinks to myse'f, if my little Henry ever

got a chance to run away, he'd make to de Norf, o'
course. So one day I comes in dah whah de big
officers was, in de parlor, an' I drops a kurtchy, so,
an' I up an' tole 'em 'bout my Henry, dey a-listenin'
to my troubles jist de same as if I was white folks;
an' I says, 'What I come for is beca'se if he got away
and got up Norf whah you gemmen comes from,
you might 'a'seen him, maybe, an' could tell me so
as I could fine him ag'in; he was very little, an' he
had a sk-yar on his lef' wris', an’ at de top of his
forehead.' Den dey look mournful, an' de Gen'l say,
'How long sence you los' him?' an' I say, 'Thirteen
year.' Den de Gen'l say, 'He would n't be little no
mo', now--he's a man!’

→"I never thought o' dat befo'! He was only dat

little feller to me, yit. I never thought 'bout him
growin' up an' bein' big. But I see it den. None o' de
43

Translate the text to Standard English:

Translate the text to Standard English:

Translate the text to Standard English:

gemmen had run acrost him, so dey could n't do
nothin' for me. But all dat time, do' I did n't
know it, my Henry was run off to de Norf, years
an' years, an' he was a barber, too, an' worked
for hisse'f. An' bymeby, when de waw come, he
ups an' he says, 'I's done barberin',' he says; 'I's
gwyne to fine my ole mammy, less'n she's dead.'
So he sole out an' went to whah dey was
recruitin', an' hired hisse'f out to de colonel for
his servant; an' den he went all froo de battles
everywhah, huntin' for his ole mammy; yes
indeedy, he'd hire to fust one officer an' den
another, tell he'd ransacked de whole Souf; but
you see I did n't know nuffin 'bout dis. How was I
gwyne to know it?

  
"Well, one night we had a big sojer ball; de
sojers dah at Newbern was always havin' balls
an' carryin' on. Dey had 'em in my kitchen, heaps
o' times, 'ca'se it was so big. Mine you, I was
down on sich doin's; beca'se my place was wid
de officers, an' it rasp me to have dem common
sojers cavortin' roun' my kitchen like dat. But I
alway' stood aroun' an' kep' things straight, I did;
an' sometimes dey 'd git my dander up, an' den
I'd make 'em clar dat kitchen, mine I tell you!

→"Well, one night--it was a Friday night--dey

comes a whole plattoon f'm a nigger ridgment
dat was on guard at de house,--de house was
head-quarters, you know,--an' den I was jist abilin'! Mad? I was jist a-boomin'! I swelled aroun',
an' swelled aroun'; I jist was a-itchin' for 'em to
do somefin for to start me. An' dey was awaltzin' an a-dancin'! my! but dey was havin' a
time! an' I jist

→ a-swellin' an' a-swellin' up!

Pooty soon, 'long comes sich a spruce young nigger
a-sailin' down de room wid a yaller wench roun' de
wais'; an' roun' an' roun' an roun' dey went, enough
to make a body drunk to look at 'em; an' when dey
got abreas' o' me, dey went to kin' o' balancin'
44

Translate the text to Standard English:

aroun', fust on one leg an' den on t'other, an'
smilin' at my big red turban, an' makin' fun, an'
I ups an' says, 'Git along wid you!--rubbage!'
De young man's face kin' o' changed, all of a
sudden, for 'bout a second, but den he went to
smilin' ag'in, same as he was befo'. Well, 'bout
dis time, in comes some niggers dat played
music an' b'long' to de ban', an' dey never
could git along widout puttin' on airs. An' de
very fust air dey put on dat night, I lit into 'em!
Dey laughed, an' dat made me wuss. De res' o'
de niggers got to laughin', an' den my soul
alive but I was hot! My eye was jist a-blazin'! I
jist straightened myself up, so,--jist as I is now,
plum to de ceilin', mos',--an' I digs my fists into
my hips, an' I says, 'Look-a-heah!' I says, "I
want you niggers to understan' dat I wa' n't
bawn in de mash to be fool' by trash! I's one o'
de ole Blue Hen's Chickens, I is!' an' den I see
dat young man stan' a-starin' an' stiff, lookin'
kin' o' up at de ceilin' like he fo'got somefin,
an' could n't 'member it no mo'. Well, I jist
march' on dem niggers,--so, lookin' like a
gen'l,--an' dey jist cave' away befo' me an' out
at de do'. An' as dis young man was a-goin'
out, I heah him say to another nigger, 'Jim,' he
says, 'you go 'long an' tell do cap'n I be on
han' 'bout eight o'clock in de mawnin'; dey's
somefin on my mine,' he says; 'I don't sleep no
mo' dis night. You go 'long,' he says, ' an' leave
me by my own se'f.'

      
  "Dis was 'bout one o'clock in de
mawnin'. Well, 'bout seven, I was up an' on
han', gettin' de officers' breakfast. I was astoopin' down by de stove,--jist so, same as if
yo' foot was de stove,--an' I'd opened de stove
do wid my right han',--so, pushin' it back, jist as
I pushes yo' foot,--an' I'd jist got de pan o' hot
biscuits in my han' an' was 'bout to raise up,
when I see a black face come aroun' under
mine, an' de eyes a-lookin' up into mine, jist as I's a45

Translate the text to Standard English:

lookin' up clost under yo' face now; an' I jist
stopped right dah, an' never budged! jist
gazed, an' gazed, so; an' de pan begin to
tremble, an' all of a sudden I knowed! De pan
drop' on de flo' an' I grab his lef' han' an' shove
back his sleeve,--jist so, as I's doin' to you, an'
den I goes for his forehead an push de hair
back, so, an 'Boy!' I says, 'if you ant my Henry,
what is you doin wid dis welt on yo wris an dat
sk-yar on yo forehead? De Lord God ob heaven
be praise', I got my own agin!'
        "Oh, no, Misto C----, I haint had no trouble.
An no joy!"

46

Day 7 and 8 Lesson Overview:
• Title: The “Great Migration” through Reciprocal Teaching: Reading Isabel Wilkerson
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: This lesson will examine the writings of one historian’s work
on the “Great Migration” through the instructional strategy of reciprocal teaching and provide
supplementary homework based on relevant contemporary issues.
• Total time allotted: Two 45-minute class periods
• Materials Required: Computer with internet access and overhead projector to display video,
Copies of article to be read in class, copies of reciprocal teaching worksheet, example of
graphic organizers, 22x28 poster boards, markers, research materials (e.g. laptops, textbooks,
reference books), copies of homework articles and reading questions
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: Why do people migrate? How different are
people’s reasons for moving domestically as opposed to crossing borders and oceans?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: What is the Great Migration? What is Wilkerson’s
purpose in writing about the subject? What are her motivations?
• Common Core State Standards:
→ RH.9-10.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary
source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course
of the text.
→ RH.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text,
including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies.
→ RH.9-10.10 By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts
in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
→ ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives,
summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their
own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning
presented.
→ ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.4 Present information, findings, and supporting evidence
clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the
organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of
African-American men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes:
#1 Students will be able to work together to analyze the motivations, backgrounds, and
potential biases surrounding the work of a particular historian regarding a subtopic of
their unit.
#2 Students will also become aware of the work involved in the study of history, cultural
anthropology, and other types of fieldwork in the social sciences.
III. Lesson Roadmap:
Class 1:
1.) Vocabulary/reading Type 2 Quiz from DuBois/Washington unit section (15 minutes)
2.) Watch video of the Harlem Renaissance from PBS (4 minutes)
3.) Introduce Reciprocal Teaching concept and the Wilkerson article (15 minutes).
4.) Begin Reciprocal Teaching exercise (10 minutes)
47

Class 2:
5.) Finish Reciprocal Teaching exercise and posters (20-25 minutes).
6.) Present to the class and group discussion (20 minutes).
Detailed Descriptions of In-class Activities and Homework Assignments:
Class 1:
1.) Vocabulary/reading Type 2 Quiz from DuBois/Washington unit section (15 minutes)
2.) Watch video of the Harlem Renaissance which connects article content to the culmination of
the unit: The Harlem Renaissance (4 minutes).
3.) Provide Direct Instruction to support today’s lesson and continue learning technical
vocabulary, introduce Reciprocal Teaching (15 minutes).
a. Direct Instruction: Explain 4-step process of reciprocal teaching: Predicting, Reading
Aloud, Clarifying, Questioning (2 minutes).
b. Direct Instruction: Provide background information and connections to previous
lessons in the unit, including defining the following relevant technical vocabulary: defection,
precipitating, sharecroppers, agitating. caste system, reverse migration, leaderless revolution (2
minutes).
c. Modeling: Hand out Reciprocal Teaching worksheet to all students. Read aloud all
instructions and explain by providing examples, especially during the graphic organizer section
(5-10 minutes).
d. Students form their reciprocal teaching groups (4-5 students). If they haven’t been
assigned as of yet, assign them. Separate those with behavioral issues and those who may be
negative enablers of one another, but do not classify students based on reading proficiency.
Assign leader/spokesperson role for this particular reading project who will present and ask
questions during the presentation section. Assign the rest of the roles as follows: one writer (for
the worksheet), two readers (one will “play” the interviewer (Henry Louis Gates, Jr.), one artist
(for the summarizing poster). and the other who will “play” Isabel Wilkerson). Recall guidelines
for reciprocal teaching and be sure to display in front of class (e.g. through a transparency or by
handing out the attached worksheet) for easy reference (Lucove, Figure 9.5, P. 144) (2 minutes).
4.) Guided Practice: students will begin Reciprocal Teaching exercise using worksheet (10
minutes).
Homework Assignment: Op-ed article and journal response for homework; briefly explain or
demonstrate guidelines for citing an op-ed piece.
Class 2:
5.) Collect previous night’s homework. Students will finish Reciprocal Teaching exercise and
posters (20-25 minutes).
6.) Students will present their posters to the class and have a guided discussion. Students will be
graded individually for participation (20 minutes).
Homework for Class 2:
• Read 2015 op-ed article by Isabel Wilkerson from The New York Times with a journal response
to the following prompt: Write a 175-word “Letter to the Editor” discussing your response to
the article based on today’s lesson and the information in the unit up until now. Answer the
following question in your response, providing two examples of textual evidence to support
your opinion: “How does Wilkerson’s own academic work affect her perspective of current
events?”
48

Assessments:
• Reciprocal Teaching Exercise: Students will be assessed individually in terms of group
participation and fulfillment of their designated roles. Through this cooperative activity they
will be able to solve problems through collaboration, learn practical leadership skills, as well
as a clearer understanding of the subject matter by engaging their peers in respectful dialogue.
• Journal Response/Letter to the Editor: Students will receive a homework grade based on
meeting the requirements of the instructions and quality of content. Students will think
critically and write a brief argument exploring the lesson’s learning objectives relating to the
study of history as a career path.
Annotated Bibliography:
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. and Isabel Wilkerson. “A Conversation with Isabel Wilkerson On
America’s Great Migration.” DuBois Review. 7, no. 2 (2010): 257-269. This interview is the
reading used for the reciprocal teaching exercise.
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Providing Time to Read: When, Where, and How?” Pearson Custom
Education: GEDUC 420 Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print. I used
material from the section on Reciprocal Teaching (pages 240-243).
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Introducing Technical Vocabulary.” Pearson Custom Education: GEDUC 420
Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2011. Print. I would like to use the material from
the section on graphic organizers (pages 183-194) as part of a reference guide for my students.
Public Broadcasting Service/PBS. “Harlem in the 1920s.” 3 minutes, 35 seconds. http://
www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/mr13.socst.us.harlem1920s/harlem-in-the-1920s/ This clip
introduced “The Great Migration” in the context of the Harlem Renaissance.
Wilkerson, Isabel. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration.
New York: Random House, 2010. This is the historical text that Wilkerson was discussing in the
interview. I may use it for additional excerpts in the future.
Wilkerson, Isabel. “When Will the North Face Its Racism?” The New York Times. January 11,
2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/11/opinion/sunday/when-will-the-north-face-itsracism.html?_r=0 This is the article for which students will need to write a “Letter to the Editor.”


49

Type 2 Reading Quiz — Vocabulary
Name: _______________________________ Date: ___________ Class Period: _____
1.) Select five of the words from the word bank below and provide their definitions.
(2 points each)
fidelity

spectators

assimilation

bestowed

injunction

pacifying

vessel

heeding

1. Word: ___________________
Definition:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Word: ___________________
Definition:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Word: ___________________
Definition:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Word: ___________________
Definition:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Word: ___________________
Definition:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

But wait, there’s more!

50

2.) Jim Crow laws were an example of (circle one): de facto segregation or de jure segregation
(2 points)
3.) What is an example of a Jim Crow law used to bar African-Americans from voting? (2 points)
a. poll taxes
b. Both A and D
c. “separate but equal” establishments
d. literacy tests
4.) Identify and explain the difference between the following de facto segregation and de jure
segregation, using one example from the readings or from class. (1-2 sentences) (3 points)
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

5.) Why was disenfranchisement a problem in the United States during the time of Washington
and Dubois’s writings? (1-2 sentences) (3 points)
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

51

“A Conversation with Isabel Wilkerson On America’s Great Migration.”
A Reciprocal Teaching Exercise
Names of Group Members:
Group Leader(s): _____________________________
Writer:_____________________________
Reader:_____________________________
Reader:_____________________________
Artist:_____________________________
The Five Steps
1.) Predict: Based on your prior knowledge and my overview of the reading, what do
you predict this article will discuss? Write down each group member’s response.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2.) Read aloud with your readers assuming the roles of Gates and Wilkerson. Jot down
any words or key terms that you don’t know or are otherwise confusing on the left “I
Don’t Know” column in the T-chart provided. Be aware of words from today’s
vocabulary list.
3.) Clarify: After reading, research and provide definitions for these words in the right
column, “Now I Know.”
4.) Question: After reading, create two of each question. Remember, your questions
may be included on the unit exam with an optional +2 bonus points per question.
Right There:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
52

Think and Search:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
On My Own:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Author and Me:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5.) Summarizing: Look at the list of key terms on your T-chart. Are any of the terms on
your list related to one another? If so, mark what the relationship is. Now, decide on a
graphic organizer that would be best suited to displaying the categories that you have
created. Recall our mini-lesson on graphic organizers and your packet of the different
models. On a small poster board, design your model that you will present to the class.
Examples of graphic organizer types include:
• If you mostly have a list of chronological events, use a timeline.
• If your categories deal mainly with the interrelation of people, groups, and/or
institutions, use a sociogram.
• If there is a lot of information on each key term, use a semantic map or a “web”
organizer.
• Use a tree diagram if the categories are subdivisions of each other.
• Use a Venn diagram, if the there overlap between two or more concepts.

53

Now I Know

IDK

Evidence Used

By Whom?

Commentary
Do you see any patterns?
What better evidence could
be addressed?

54

What Specifc Themes Have
Been Addressed?

Who Introduced This
Theme?

What Interesting Comments
Were Made and By Whom?

55

56

Day 9 Lesson Overview
• Title: “The Great Migration”: Comparing Secondary Sources
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: After completing a Write-Pair-Share activity, students will meet
with their reciprocal teaching groups, but instead complete a summarizing activity analyzing
another scholarly source in preparation for their second 7-Element Writing Assignment.
• Total time allotted: 1 45-minute class period
• Materials Required: Copies of scholarly journal article, Copies of summarizing activity
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: Why do people migrate? How different are
people’s reasons for moving domestically as opposed to crossing borders and oceans?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: What is the Great Migration? How does Carole
Marks’ account differ from Isabel Wilkerson’s?
• Common Core State Standards:
→ RH.9-10.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary
source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course
of the text.
→ RH.9-10.6. Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the
same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective
accounts
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of AfricanAmerican men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will be able to work together to analyze and compare scholarly
works with respect to a unit subtopic, improving their skills in critical analysis and peer review.
Lesson Roadmap:
1.) Collect “Letter to the Editor” assignment from previous class as students write the following
“bell ringer” journal entry in preparation for a Write-Pair-Share. When homework is collected,
students discuss answers with the person next to them. (5-10 Minutes)
• a.) In your current living situation, what factors would lead you to pack your bags and move
hundreds of miles from your family and friends? List at least three.
• b.) Imagine yourself at age 25. Where are you living? Do you imagine yourself living far away
from home? Why or why not?
2.) Students will form their Reciprocal Teaching Groups from the previous class session. Provide
each student with the article, “The Great Migration: African-Americans in Search of the Promised
Land” by Carole Marks as well as a worksheet for the purpose of summarizing the main topic of
each paragraph or “chunk.” (25 minutes)
3.) 7-Element Writing Assignment #2. The first draft is due in due class periods, but students will
need to provide a thesis statement at the beginning of the next class, which will meet in the library.
(5 minutes)
Assessments:
Class Participation: Active completion of the summarizing activity will be assessed through
circulating and prompting students as they work.
Annotated Bibliography:
• Lucove, Jeffrey. “Chapter 7: Making Reading Purposeful.” Pearson Custom Education:
GEDUC 420 Teaching Content Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print. — I used material from
the section on Summary Writing (p. 113-114)
• The Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture. “In Motion: The African-American
Migration Experience.” The New York Public Library. http://www.inmotionaame.org/
migrations/landing.cfm?migration=8&bhcp=1 — Marks article and idea for writing prompt at
the beginning of class are from here.

57

Day 10 and Day 11 Lesson Overview
• Title: 7-Element Writing Assignment #2 Research Day and Peer Review Day
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: Once thesis statements are approved, students will collect
research on their 7-Element Writing Assignments in the library.
• Total time allotted: 2 45-minute class periods
• Materials Required: Library, preferably with computer access
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: Why do people migrate? How different are
people’s reasons for moving domestically as opposed to crossing borders and oceans?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: As a historian, write an expository 5-paragraph essay
comparing “The Great Migration” to another racial or ethnic group to the United States (for
example, Jews in the Lower East Side of New York). You may choose a group based on your
own heritage if you wish, but you cannot draw your contrast from personal experience. Rather,
in addition to the readings, you must cite two articles from academic journals.
• Common Core State Standards:
→WHST.9-10.2(b) Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts,
extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate
to the audience’s knowledge of the topic
→WHST.9-10.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development,
organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
→WHST.9-10.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing,
rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific
purpose and audience.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of AfricanAmerican men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will be able to effectively analyze the topic of the early twentieth
century migration of African-Americans from the Southern United States to the North through
researching a comparative social movement.
Lesson Roadmap:
Class 1
1.) Once all students are in the library, present a 15-minute presentation on Internet research
strategies, answering the question: where do we find academic articles?
2.) As everybody researches, circulate to check that each student has a prepared thesis statement.
Class 2
1.) Drafts are due at the beginning class. Students are assigned partners for peer review.
Assessments:
Thesis Statement: Counts as one of the FCA’s, along with content organization and quality of
evidence.
Student Participation: Shown primarily by engagement in research and peer review
Annotated Bibliography:
Collins, John, The Collins Writing Program: Improving Student Performance Through Writing and
Thinking Across the Curriculum. Chapter 3 (pp. 47-60) outlines how to structure the 7-element
writing assignment.

58

Day 12 Lesson Overview
• Title: The Great Migration: An Interview with Nicholas Lehman
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: Students will watch and take notes on a 35-minute interview
with historian Nicholas Lehman about his research for the book The Great Black Migration and
How It Changed America: African-American History in preparation for their homework
assignment (a film study worksheet).
• Total time allotted: 1 45-minute class period
• Materials Required: Computer with Internet access, overhead projector
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: Why do people migrate? How different are
people’s reasons for moving domestically as opposed to crossing borders and oceans?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: What is a sharecropper? Why is public housing a
controversial issue, even today? What are the roots of public housing? What does a historian
actually do? In other words, what does historical research look like? What types of questions do
historians ask? Do you think it’s important?
• Common Core State Standards: SL.9-10.3 Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and
use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted
evidence.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of AfricanAmerican men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will be able to identify new facts about the topic of “The Great
Migration and distinguish between different types of historical research on the subject.
Lesson Roadmap:
Class 1
1.) Collect final drafts of 7-Element Writing Assignment #2. (>1 minute)
2.) Explain the basis of the documentary students will be watching and the expected content of their
notes. Distribute Film Study Worksheet for homework. Briefly introduce the novel they will need
to have purchased for the next class, as we will be reading the Foreword as a class. (10 minutes)
3.) Documentary (35 minutes)
Assessments:
Film Study Worksheet
Annotated Bibliography:

Nicholas Lehman, “The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America: African-American
History”, 55:35, posted by The Film Archives, May 15, 2014 https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=P8OKUFOfY_U — 1991 interview from C-Span’s Booknotes series that will be subject of
lesson
Lesson Plans Based on Movies & Film Clips! (Film Study Worksheet for a Documentary)
http://www.teachwithmovies.org/guides/film-study-worksheet-documentary.html — Film Study
Worksheet templates are located here.


59

Day 13 Lesson Overview
• Title: Home to Harlem: An Introduction to the Novel
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: Students will re-join their Reciprocal Teaching groups from Day
7 (with reassigned roles) and analyze the foreword to Claude McKay’s novel.
• Total time allotted: 1 45-minute class period
• Materials Required: Computer with Internet access, overhead projector
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: What is a bildungsroman or coming-of-agestory? What does this literary format help us to do as readers?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: Who was Claude McKay? According to the
foreword, what was Harlem like during the time period of the novel? Does the author think
McKay was historically accurate? What does the author say about the novel’s main characters
and depictions of women?
• Common Core State Standards:
→ RH.9-10.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide
an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

→ RH.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including
vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies.
→ RH.9-10.10 By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the
grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
→ ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize
points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views
and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of AfricanAmerican men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will be able to identify new facts about the topic of “The Great
Migration and distinguish between different types of historical research on the subject.
Lesson Roadmap:
1.) Check to make sure everyone has purchased the novel. Collect Film Study Worksheets. (>2
minutes)
2.) Introduce novel, assign reading for the next class period (Chapters 1-5), explain and distribute
reading guides to be completed. (10 minutes)
2.) Students will form their Reciprocal Teaching groups and complete the Reciprocal Teaching
Worksheets from Day 7, except instead of a poster board, they will write a high-level summary.
(30-35 minutes)
Assessments:
Reciprocal Teaching Exercise: Students will be assessed individually in terms of group
participation and fulfillment of their designated roles. Through this cooperative activity they will be
able to solve problems through collaboration, learn practical leadership skills, as well as a clearer
understanding of the subject matter by engaging their peers in respectful dialogue.
Annotated Bibliography:
Cooper, Wayne F. “Foreword.” McKay, Claude (2008-09-11).Home To Harlem (Northeastern
Library of Black Literature) (Kindle Location 217). Northeastern University Press. Kindle
Edition. This is the subject of the lesson plan.


60

Introduction: Now that we have at last migrated to New York City, the epicenter of the
cultural movement known as The Harlem Renaissance, we are going to explore the
neighborhood from the period of 1917 through the 1930s. World War I, the
supposedly “roaring” twenties, and the less roaring Depression years will serve as the
scenery for our excursions. The lens through which we will view the history of this time
is the loosely autobiographical novel Home to Harlem by Claude McKay, an author and
poet who was one of the many African-Americans who rose to cultural prominence
during this age of artistic revolution.
McKay tells the story of Jake, a young black man recently returned to Harlem
from Europe after serving in World War I. We will complete this novel in five days, with
reading assignments of 3-5 chapters per night. The author’s writing style is down-toearth, relatable, and immersive as I want to make sure you have a good “feel” for what
real life was like in Harlem at this point in history. Along with your nightly reading
assignment, you will also need to fill out a reading guide. These guides are designed
to help support your understanding and your discussions during the next class, which is
why I will collect them at the end of each class rather than at the beginning. When we
have finished reading and discussing the novel in historical context, I will return the
guides to you for the purpose of studying for the quiz on (date). Because the questions
within the guides are directly related to the content of this upcoming assessment, it is
in your best interest to complete your assignments on time and use the guides to help
enhance your understanding of the work.
Your assignment for the next class…
• Read chapters 1-5 and answer the questions on the reading guide.
• The guide should be read once before you read as it contains definitions to
important or unfamiliar words found in the text.
• The glossary in the beginning of the guide is for you to use as a reference while you
read. No vocabulary cards will be due this week, and there will be no vocabulary quiz
in addition to the quiz on the novel.
• Reading the guide before will also help you to know what answers to look for in the
reading, almost like a scavenger hunt.

61

Claude McKay’s Home to Harlem: Chapters 1 — 5 Reading Guide
Glossary of Terms (in order of appearance)
freighter — a ship or aircraft designed to carry goods in bulk
dinghy — a small boat
water-closet —bathroom
berth — fixed place on a ship where sailors sleep; a bunk
stoker — a person who tends to the furnace on a steamship
fetid — smelling extremely unpleasant
sloop — type of sailboat with one mast
Armistice — formal agreement that marked the end of World War I, November 11,
1918 and now celebrated as a national holiday in the UK and other parts of Europe
Mile End Road — road in London/East End
fisticuffs - fighting using only the fists, similar to boxing
intoxicated — drunk
siphon — to transfer something gradually over a period of time (originally referred to
liquid)
chitterlings —- stewed small pig intestines, sometimes battered and fried, part of the
Southern culinary tradition
Fricassee — French entree of sautéed chicken and “white sauce” of flour and milk
apache - colloquialism for a French street ruffian
amour —- “love” in French
wench — derogatory term for a female prostitute
mulattress — colloquialism for mixed-race (specifcally white and black ancestry) female
tripe — type of fish, used as an insult in the novel
indiligence — outdated term for laziness
saloon — bar
speakeasy — bar that sells alcoholic beverages illegally (as in during Prohibition)
blackamoors — styled figurines of native Africans
scab — derogatory term for a “replacement worker”, a person who “crosses a picket
line” or works when there is a strike
blackleg — a gangrenous disease or another derogatory term for a “scab” worker
perilous — dangerous
ornery/ornerist — (someone who is) bad-tempered or stubborn
bootblack — one who shines shoes
Sing Sing - prison outside NYC in Ossining, NY (Westchester County)
pianola - player piano/piano that plays on its own


62

”As you read…”
Guiding Questions for Chapters 1-5
Be sure to read all parts of the question and refer to the glossary for any unfamiliar
terms. If there are unfamiliar words that I have not included, please write them in the
margins and/or let me know during our next class discussion.
OK. Enough from me. Let’s start!
Chapter 1: Going Back Home
1.) How much can you infer about Jake’s character from the opening paragraph? Who
is Jake? What does he do for living? How can you tell from the text? (3-5 sentences)
2.) Use 3 adjectives that you feel best describes the boat where Jake is working:
_________________, _________________, _________________
3.) How does Jake’s dialect compare to Aunt Rachel’s in the Mark Twain story that we
read? (1-2 sentences)

4.) What was Jake’s job before he enlisted in the Navy?

5.) How does McKay (the author) distinguish between Jake’s accent and the English
sailor’s accent? (1-2 sentences)
Hint: For this one, It might help
you to flip back and re-read both
lines of dialect next to each other.
6.) What do you think Jake means by “friendly contempt”
in the following quote: “He preferred white folks’ hatred to
their friendly contempt. To feel their hatred made him strong and aggressive, while
their friendly contempt made him ridiculously angry, even against his own will.” (3-5
sentences)

63

7.) Would you say that the East End is an upscale or working-class neighborhood?
Provide at least one piece of textual evidence to support this. Be sure to include page
numbers for easy reference. (2-5 sentences)

8.) Why do you think Jake refers to World War I as a “white folks’ war”? (3-5 sentences)

Chapter 2: Arrival
1.) What is the mood in the beginning of Chapter 2 now that Jake has arrived in
Harlem? In other words, how do you feel about the characters and setting after reading
the first two pages? Do you think this was McKay’s intention? (3-5 sentences)

2.) How does Harlem compare to the descriptions of Europe in Chapter 1? (2-4
sentences)

Chapter 3: Zeddy
1.) In this chapter, we are introduced to the other main character: Jake’s friend, Zeddy.
How do Jake and Zeddy know each other? (1-2 sentences)

64

2.) What do you think the term “agwine” means in Standard English? Example: When
Zeddy says, “I’m alongshore, but I ain’t angwine to work thisaday”, what does this
mean? (1-2 sentences)

3.) McKay uses a variety of ethnic slurs in the conversations of his characters, many of
which are fortunately outdated today (“boches” “froggies”). Why do you think he
implements these terms? What is his purpose in doing so? (1-2 sentences)

Reminder! Try reading lines with
dialect aloud if confusing.

4.) What do you think is meant by the “dog mah doggone” conversation between the
two men? Explain your reasoning. (1-2 sentences)

I was actually puzzled by this
quote, so I wanted to ask what you
all think. I’ll tell you my opinion
next class.

5.) How has the old neighborhood changed since Jake’s return from war? Cite two
pieces of textual evidence (with page numbers). (3-5 sentences)

Chapter 4: Congo Rose
1.) What kind of hang-out is The Congo? What are the people like? The surroundings?
(2-4 sentences). Cite page numbers in your response so that you can more quickly refer
to the text in the next class discussion.

65

2.) In listing different colors (“Dandies and pansies, chocolate, chestnut…), what is the
author trying to express about the club’s setting? (1-2 sentences)

3.) Note the abrupt change in tone (an author’s view towards his subject) that begins,
“A crash cut through the music.” What is McKay trying to convey here? Cite textual
evidence with page numbers as needed (at least one example). (3-5 sentences)

Chapter 5: On the Job Again
Almost there!!!!!
1.) What kinds of jobs were available to Jake upon his return to New York? (2-3
sentences) On what page did you find evidence of this information? Note: the answer
may be inferred or not stated directly in the text.

2.) What does Jake’s “primitive passion for going against regulation” say about his
character? (1-2 sentences)

3.) How do you think Jake feels about being a labor union member? Cite 2 pieces of
textual evidence. (3-5 lines)

Note: He can feel more than one way
about it. Is anything in this class ever
black-and-white? Well, apart from this
reading guide.

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4.) Jake wears a “hook in his belt.” What does this tell you about Jake or about his
surroundings? (1-2 sentences).

5.) Based on your background knowledge at this point, do you agree with: (circle one)
(a) Jake’s view on scabbing, (b) Zeddy’s view on scabbing, (c) Both, (d) Neither —-Why
did you choose your answer? (2-4 sentences)

6.) How would you describe the current relationship between Zeddy and Jake? (1-2
sentences)

7.) Did a razor blade just land in my cocktail? Ouch!

8.) Do you think music (e.g. jazz, blues) will be significant to the plot? Explain your
reasoning citing two pieces of textual evidence (with page numbers, of course).

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Day 14 and 15 Lesson Overview:
• Title: Claude McKay’s Home to Harlem: A Socratic Discussion on Chapters 1-5
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: This lesson will introduce the discussion format of the
Socratic Method in the context of the historical bildungsroman Home to Harlem.
• Total time allotted: 2 45-minute class periods
• Materials Required: Each student should have a copy of the novel and their completed
readings guides. Teacher materials include:
• Laptop with Internet access (For video clip)
• Overhead projector with Socratic Method Seating Chart transparency
• Copies of Peer Evaluation form (22 at least), Copies
• Copies of Facilitator forms (2 of each type)
• Timer with alarm
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: How do art and history intersect? How can
reading literature, particularly (in this case) fictional works, from a specific time period and
location help us as historians?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: What conflicts arise within the first five chapters
of the novel? Are they internal or external? How does the author portray Harlem?
• Common Core State Standards:
→ ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A Come to discussions prepared, having read and
researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence
from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned
exchange of ideas.
→ ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives,
summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their
own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning
presented.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of
African-American men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will be able to develop their speaking and listening skills,
understand the diverse perspectives of their peers, articulate their own arguments with
supporting evidence, as well as critique the arguments of others.
Lesson Roadmap:
1.) Introduce “Socratic Discussion” as a concept with video clip from 1973’s The Paper Chase.
(10 minutes)
2.) Independently, students create a list of questions to ask (15-20 minutes).
3.) Socratic Discussion, Round 1 (15 minutes)2
Class 2
4.) Class conversation, post-discussion review of Round 1 (10 minutes)
5.) Socratic Discussion, Round 2 (15 minutes)
6.) Post-Discussion Wrap-up — Discussion and Exit Ticket (Type 1 Writing) (15-20 minutes)

2

3.) can be completed at the beginning of Class 2.

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7.) Collect both reading guides for Chapters 1-5 and 5-9, remind students of homework (Ch.
10-14, reading guide). (<5 minutes)
Detailed Descriptions of In-class Activities and Homework Assignments:
Class 1
1.)
a. Introduce the concept and origins of the Socratic Method as a discussion format.
b. Media: Show 3-minute, 38-second clip from the 1973 film The Paper Chase (link in
Annotated Bibliography).
c. Direct Instruction: First, explain that the above clip is an extreme example, and this
exercise won’t be as daunting. Use the clip to show the method’s usefulness for those who may
be pursuing higher education and law school. Summarize that the Socratic Method as largely a
way to develop critical thinking skills and explore truths through open-ended questioning.
Tonight’s homework (Ch. 5-9 reading guides) should be distributed at this juncture to save time
for discussion.
d. Transparency (Enclosed Seating Chart): Explain that students have been assigned a
partner, except for 3 students who have been assigned “facilitator” roles.
i. Those who have been assigned partners will observe each other’s participation
using a Peer Evaluation form (enclosed worksheet, not to be collected). Those in the “inner
circle” will speak in the first 15-minute round while those in the “outer circle” observe their
partner and take notes. When the timer goes off, the partners will switch places, with the outer
circle becoming the inner circle and vice-versa.
ii. The three seats in the front represent three “facilitator” positions: Transition
Tracker, Quote Tracker, Essential Questions Tracker. Students assigned to these roles assist in
“moderating” the discussion and will be prompted to share their findings after each round.
A. The transition tracker keeps count of what transitions (to new
questions) are used and who added new questions. This tracker should also note people who
were interrupted.
B. The quote tracker watches for specific evidence used, by whom, and
how many times. This tracker can note the relevance of the evidence, such as whether the same
information is being used over and over again.
C. The essential questions tracker notes and summarizes the major
thematic trends of discussion.
2.) Student-created Questions: Students independently create a list of questions to ask for a
total of six. As per their reading guides and previous in-class assignments, two questions must be
literal, two questions must be inferential, and two questions must be critical. Clarify the
definitions of literal, inferential, and critical.
3.) Socratic Discussion — Round 1
a. Students will arrange desks in accordance with their assigned seating.
b. Set timer for 15 minutes.
c. Ask an “Essential Question” (above in Lesson Overview) to prompt initial discussion.
d. Allow conversation to flow freely for until allotted time is finished. Moderate student
participation. For example, do not allow a few students to dominate the discussion.
e. Alarm rings, signaling end of discussion.
f. Students hand in reading guides (previous night’s homework), but keep peer evaluation
and facilitator forms, and list of self-created questions for tomorrow.
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Class 2
4.) Post-discussion/review of Round 1 is completed at the beginning of the following class.
Facilitators will share their feedback. Teacher will also provide feedback, modeling constructive
criticism. Just before this discussion for the purposes of time-management, homework should be
assigned and distributed: read chapters 10-14 and complete reading guide.
5.) Socratic Discussion — Round 2.
a. Repeat steps 3a through 3e.
6.) Post-Discussion Wrap-Up
a. This will be a similar discussion as in 4.) except students should be prompted to
discuss the differences between Round 1 and Round 2 and assess the usefulness of earlier group
feedback. Also, where might we use this manner of thinking in our future?
b. Type 1 Writing: (show in front of the room using transparency or Keynote) In ten
lines (double-spaced), identify one question or commentary posed by your classmates during this
Socratic discussion that changed the manner in which you think about the novel Home to
Harlem. What were your assumptions before the discussion? What was it about the information
that enlightened you?
7.) Collect both reading guides for Chapters 1-5 and 5-9, remind students of homework (Ch.
10-14, reading guide). (<5 minutes)
Assessments:
• Reading Guide: To check understanding of reading in preparation for “long quiz” upon
completion of novel
• Student Participation: To assess speaking/listening learning standards and objectives, to
assess daily preparation for class
• Exit Ticket/Type 1 Writing Assignment: To assess the needs of this particular group of
students, to assess how students process and evaluate different perspectives from their own
Annotated Bibliography:
Heitin, Liana. “In Common Core, Teachers See Interdisciplinary Opportunities.” Education Week. March
13, 2013. http://www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2013/03/13/ccio_interdisciplinary_units.html — This article
is helpful for those who wish to use the Common Core to infuse English and History lessons.
Lucove, Jeffrey. “Effective Questioning.” Pearson Custom Education: GEDUC 420 Teaching Content
Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print. 247-263. I adapted various discussion strategies, particularly the
guidelines for constructive criticism (p. 158) and student-generated questions (p.161). The idea for the
Socratic discussion came from page 151 of this text.
McKay, Claude (2008-09-11). Home To Harlem (Northeastern Library of Black Literature) (Kindle
Locations 679-680). Northeastern University Press. Kindle Edition. — Primary reading text for class
discussion.
Teaching Channel. Teaching the N-Word with Socratic Seminar. https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/
teaching-the-n-word — This video is where I found the “facilitator” roles for my activity and also useful
for my previous lesson that used the “N-word” in literature.
Teaching Channel. How to Bring Socratic Seminar Method Into Your Classroom.

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https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/bring-socratic-seminars-to-the-classroom — This is a good howto introduction for teachers on the subject of the Socratic Method.
“The Socratic Method,” 3:38, posted by James Somers through Vimeo, https://vimeo.com/9628635
“How to do the Socratic Method,” 3:10, YouTube video posted by “Teach Like This,” October 22, 2013,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_CPLu3qCbSU — Useful, brief how-to guide for teachers to
introduce the Socratic Method in their classrooms

71

Name: ______________________ Date: ___________ Class Period: _____________
I am observing _____________________.
Behavior

Tally the Number of Times
Behavior is Demonstrated by
Your Partner

Comments

Asks a new question

Answers question

Contributes a new idea

Comments on another person’s
comment

Provides textual evidence from
the novel

Provides support from other
readings and class material

Makes real-world connections

Asks for clarification

Encourages others

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Facilitator: Transitions Tracker
Name: __________________ Period: ______ Round: _______
Who Introduced New
Question/Topic?

Subject of New Question/
Topic

Commentary

73

Facilitator: Quotes Tracker
Name: ___________________ Period: ______ Round:_________

Evidence Used

By Whom?

Commentary
Do you see any patterns?
What better evidence could
be addressed?

74

What Specific Themes Have
Been Addressed?

Who Introduced This
Theme?

What Interesting Comments
Were Made and By Whom?

75

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Day 16 Lesson Overview
• Title: Home to Harlem: Chapters 10-14 and Understanding Poetry and Fiction of the Period
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: Students will read and discuss the short story “Thank You,
Ma’am” by Langston Hughes, and the poems “Lenox Avenue: Midnight” also by Hughes,
“Harlem Shadows” by Claude McKay, and “Black Woman” by Georgia Douglas Johnson
• Total time allotted: 1 45-minute class period
• Materials Required: Copies of poems and short story to be discussed
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: What is a bildungsroman or coming-of-agestory? What does this literary format help us to do as readers?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: What do these poems tell us about the AfricanAmerican experience, particularly in Harlem? How do these poems relate to the novel and to
what we have learned so far?
• Common Core State Standards: MA.RL.9-10.8A Relate a work of fiction, poetry, or drama to
the seminal ideas of its time.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of AfricanAmerican men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will be able to place relevant literature into historical context for a
fuller comprehension of the time period of study.
Lesson Roadmap:
1.) Students will read “Thank You, Ma’am.” independently. (15 minutes)
2.) Lead discussion of short story and last night’s reading through a close reading of three poems
chosen for historical relevance. (25 minutes)
3.) Collect Reading Guides for Chapters 10-14 and distribute Reading Guides due in the next class
(Chapters 15-18). (5 minutes)
Assessments:

• Reading Guide: To check understanding of reading in preparation for “long quiz” upon
completion of novel
• Student Participation: To assess speaking/listening learning standards and objectives, to
assess daily preparation for class
Annotated Bibliography:
McKay, Claude (2008-09-11).Home To Harlem (Northeastern Library of Black Literature)
(Kindle Location 217). Northeastern University Press. Kindle Edition. This is the subject of the
lesson plan.
“Lenox Avenue Midnight” also by Hughes, “Harlem Shadows” by Claude McKay, and “Black
Woman” by Georgia Douglas Johnson www.poets.org, http://genius.com/Langston-hugheslenox-avenue-midnight-annotated — Background info and poems used in lesson

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Day 17 Lesson Overview
• Title: Home to Harlem: Chapters 15-18 and Contextualizing Billie Holiday’s “Strange Fruit”
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: Students will learn about jazz and other forms of music that
evolved during the Harlem Renaissance through direct instruction and a study of the song
“Strange Fruit.”
• Total time allotted: 1 45-minute class period
• Materials Required: Computer with internet access, Keynote presentation, overhead projector,
music recordings, speakers for music
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: What is a bildungsroman or coming-of-agestory? What does this literary format help us to do as readers? How can music and performing
arts reflect the history of a culture? How does music convey emotion?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: Why do you think the lynching of African-American
men began primarily after the end of Reconstruction, when federal troops were withdrawn from
the South? Was Billie Holliday’s “Strange Fruit” effective in its political influence?
• Common Core State Standards: MA.RL.9-10.8A Relate a work of fiction, poetry, or drama to
the seminal ideas of its time.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of AfricanAmerican men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will be able to identify and connect prior unit knowledge, the
fictionalized account of the time period presented in Home to Harlem, and the art that the age
“rebirthed.” Students will be able to connect the song “Strange Fruit” to the issue of lynching,
enhancing their ability to perceive the convergence of art and advocacy.
Lesson Roadmap:
1.) Announce that today’s discussion will be related to sensitive subject material (lynching) and
maturity is expected as this classroom is a safe space, as per the student contract. (1 minute)
2.) Direct Instruction Part 1: Explain the definition of lynching as unsanctioned capital
punishment, people taking the law in their own hands, often quite literally. Provide background
information on the enormity of the problem via a Keynote presentation. (15 minutes)
3.) Direct Instruction Part 2: Describe types of protest and reaction in opposition to lynching.
How can art make a difference? Introduce Billie Holiday. (10 minutes)
4.) Distribute copies of the lyrics to “Strange Fruit.” (1 minute)
5.) Play a recording sung by Billie Holiday. As they listen to the song lyrics, students will write a
list of adjectives to describe their emotional processes. (3 minutes)
6.) Direct Instruction Part 3: Ask a series of follow-up questions that reflect on and analyze the
lyrics. Define the blues in relation to jazz, distinguishing between the two and how the song is
actually a hybrid of both forms. Use contemporary examples as a comparison. (15 minutes)
7.) Collect Chapters 15-18 Reading Guide and distribute Chapters 19-21 reading guide for
homework.
Assessments:
• Reading Guide: To check understanding of reading in preparation for “long quiz” upon
completion of novel
• Student Participation: To assess speaking/listening learning standards and objectives, to
assess daily preparation for class
Annotated Bibliography:
Brodsky Schur, Joan. “Jazz is About Freedom: Billie Holiday’s Anti-lynching Song: Strange Fruit.”
PBS.. http://www.pbs.org/jazz/classroom/visualize.htm# This is a lesson plan that inspired the
focus of my own lesson.

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McKay, Claude (2008-09-11).Home To Harlem (Northeastern Library of Black Literature)
(Kindle Location 217). Northeastern University Press. Kindle Edition. This is the subject of the
lesson plan


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Day 18 Lesson Overview
• Title: Home to Harlem: Chapters 19-21 and “Jazz: A Film by Ken Burns”
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: Students will watch a 40-minute section of the documentary
“Jazz” while completing a viewing guide.
• Total time allotted: 1 45-minute class period
• Materials Required: Overhead projector, documentary on DVD, computer/adapter as needed
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: What is the significance of art for the creating
and preservation of a cultural identity?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical: Who are the major figures of the Jazz Age? What
were the hardships? Why is the Harlem Renaissance a crucial part of U.S. history?
• Common Core State Standards: MA.RL.9-10.8A Relate a work of fiction, poetry, or drama to
the seminal ideas of its time.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of AfricanAmerican men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will be able to place relevant literature into historical context for a
fuller comprehension of the time period of study.
Lesson Roadmap:
1.) Collect final reading guides. Remind students about the “long quiz” in the next class. Distribute
and go through study guide. (5 minutes)
2.) Students will watch documentary. Correct reading guides from homework and distribute all
corrected reading guides so students can use them to study for quiz. (40 minutes)
3.) Students hand i viewing guides as their “Exit Ticket.”
Assessments:
• Reading Guide: To check understanding of reading in preparation for “long quiz” upon
completion of novel
• Viewing Guide: To maintain student focus on documentary and provide a structure in which to
view documentary
• Student Participation: To assess speaking/listening learning standards and objectives, to
assess daily preparation for class
Annotated Bibliography:
McKay, Claude (2008-09-11).Home To Harlem (Northeastern Library of Black Literature)
(Kindle Location 217). Northeastern University Press. Kindle Edition. This is the subject of the
lesson plan.

Jazz: A Film by Ken Burns. PBS site. http://www.pbs.org/jazz/index.htm
This site also has biographical and other informational aids (e.g. audio samples from music) to
support direct instruction.


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Days 19-22
• Title: Museum Project on the Harlem Renaissance
• Summary of the Lesson Plan: In cooperative groups, students will create a museum exhibit
about one artistic figure discussed in the unit.
• Total time allotted: 4 45-minute class periods
• Materials Required: Worksheets with project rubrics, deadlines, and guides, access to research
materials and Internet (students must acquire other project materials themselves)
• Essential Content Questions — Overarching: Why is artistic expression important to a
culture? What do the arts reveal about cultural identity?
• Essential Content Questions — Topical:
• Common Core State Standards: WHST.9-10-8 Gather relevant information from multiple
authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness
of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively
to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
• MA Curriculum Frameworks: MA.U.S.II.9 Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of AfricanAmerican men and women trying to gain basic civil rights. (H)
• Lesson Outcomes: Students will create a visual backdrop for their subject containing examples
of the artist’s significant work and a written guide to viewing the exhibit. Students will be able
to independently manage teams not of their own choosing, mirroring situations they are likely
encounter in their future workplaces. Students will be able to evaluate understanding of an
artist’s work in historical context.
Lesson Roadmap:
Day 19:
1.)“Long Quiz” on Home to Harlem and Culture of the Harlem Renaissance (20-25 minutes)
2.) Introduce Museum Project, Guidelines/Benchmarks, and Rubric (15 minutes)
3.) Students form groups. If there is time, students can delegate roles or begin to think about who
they want to choose as the subject of their exhibit. (5 minutes)
Day 20:
4.) Research Day #1: (preferably in library) Groups must choose subject and delegate roles.
Museum Project is homework as necessary.
Day 21:
5.) Research Day #2: (preferably library) Groups work to finish exhibits. Museum Project is
homework as necessary.
Day 22:
6.) Given a rubric, a list of suggested websites, and two class days in the library or computer lab,
students will create a visual backdrop for their subject containing examples of the artist’s
significant work and a written guide to viewing the exhibit. When the project is due, students will
prepare their exhibits throughout the classroom as a “gallery walk.” Each group will delegate a
“docent” to present their information to the other students who will stop at each exhibit and take
notes for their upcoming unit examination. Docents will have access to each group’s written guide
for the exam since they will not be experiencing the walk as a “visitor.”
The following group roles will be delegated by the students themselves:
*Docent (presents exhibit to “tour groups” on day of gallery walk)
*Designer (of visual aspect of exhibit)
*Curator (in charge of research, e.g. finding examples of artist’s work as well as biographical
information)
*Writer (of exhibit guide, may delegate narration responsibilities)

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Assessments:
• Museum Project: Group grade and individual grade
• Group Participation: Are students displaying the 5 principles of cooperative learning?
(Principles can be used as a rubric)
Annotated Bibliography:
California State University, Dominguez Hills. “5 Principles of Cooperative Learning.” Accessed
on June 25, 2015. https://www.csudh.edu/dearhabermas/cooplrn.htm

Days 23 and 24
Exam Review and Exam

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