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1.

2.

A centrifugal compressor has a pressure
ratio of 4:1 with an isentropic efficiency
of 80% when running at 15000 rpm and
inducing air at 293 K. Curved vanes at
the inlet give the air a pre-whirl of 25

°

An aeroplane is to move at Mach number
of 1.5 at altitudes of 1000m AND
10,000m. The atmospheric pressure and
densities at these elevation are:

to the axial direction at all radii.

The tip diameter of the eye of the
impeller is 250 mm. The absolute
velocity at inlet is 150 m/s and the
impeller diameter is 600 mm. Calculate
the slip factor.
Solution:

Exit stagnation temperature,
4. A centrifugal
compressor with
T 01=T 01 (π C )(γ−1)/ γ=293(4 )(1.4−1)/1.4 =435.56
K

backward leaning blades develops
a pressure ratio of 5:1 with an
isentropic efficiency of 83 percent.
The compressor runs at 15000 rpm.
Inducers are provided at the inlet of
the compressor so that air enters at
an absolute velocity of 120 m/s.
The inlet stagnation temperature is
250 K and the inlet air is given a

Therefore the isentropic temperature
rise,

∆ T 0 s=435.56−293=142.56 K
The actual temperature rise,

∆ T 0=

∆T0
=178.2 K
ȠC

°

1.

Work done per unit mass is

pre-whirl 22
to the axial
Air at 1.0 bar and 288 K enters an axial flow
at all velocity
radii. The
compressordirection
with an axial
of mean
150 m/s.
diameter
of the
eye of
the
impeller
There are no
inlet guide
vanes.
The
rotor
stage
is 250 mm
and
impeller
tip
has a tip diameter
of 60
cmthe
and
a hub diameter
of
600rps.
mm.
Determine
50 cm and diameter
rotates atis100
The
air entersthe
the
slip factor.
rotor and leaves
the stator in the axial direction

w=C p ∆T 0=1.005 x 178=179 kJ /kg
3.

An aircraft flies at a speed of 400
m/s. What is this aircraft’s Mach
number when flying at standard at
standard sea-level conditions (T = 2

8

9 K) and at standard 15,200

m (T=217 K) atmosphere
conditions?

with no change in velocity or radius. The air is
turned through 30.2 degree as it passes through
the rotor. Assume a stage pressure ratio of 1.2 and
overall pressure ratio of 6. Find the mass flow rate
of air.
Solution:

Solution:
Velocity Diagram

T 01=300 K

At standard sea-level conditions,

a=√ kRT =√(1..4 )(287)(289)=341 m/ s
T 02 S =T 01 ( π C )

and at 15,200 m,

a=√ kRT =√ (1..4 )(287)(217)=295 m/s

0.4

=250 (5 ) 1.4 =395.95 K

∆ T 0 s=395.95−300=95.95 K

. The aircraft’s Mach numbers are
then
5.

γ −1
γ

Actual temperature rise,

Sea-level :
From problem 4. Determine the
relative Mach number at the
impeller tip.
From impeller exit velocity triangle,

∆ T 0=

V 400
Ma= =
=1.17
a 341

∆ T 0 95.95
=
=115.6 K
ȠC
0.83

d t +specific
dh
The
work required,
0.6+0.5
m
U=π
N =π m
100=172.6
3. An axial-flow compressor is designed with a
2
2
2 ) =222.9 2
s
V = C + ( U 2−C w 2 ) = (C 1 cos ∝1) + ( U 2−C
fixed guide vane, or stator blade, located
w2
s
V 400
upstream of the impeller. The stator imparts
Ma= =
=1.36
an angle α = 75 to the air as it enters the
a 295
impeller region. The impeller has a rotational
V2
speed of 500 rpm with a blade exit angle of β
−1 U
o
M rel =
β 1=tan
=49.2
= 70 . The control volume has an outer
Ca
√ γR T 2
diameter of D =300 mm and an inner

15,200 m:
2

2
a

2

(

) (

)

o

1

( )

T 2 =T 02−

C 22
2C p

β 2=49.2−30.2=19o

o

diameter of Di=150 mm. Determine the
normal velocity component and the peripheral
speed of the impeller.
Solution:

V n=

T −T 01
T 02=T 01+ 02 s
=365.61 K
Ƞc
U−C a tan β 2
tan α =
=80.75
Ca
2

(

)

2

o

Q
Q
0.1
=
=
A
π
π
(Do2−D i2 )
(0.32−
4
4

U=ω

()

()

Do + Di
2 π 0.3+0.15
=500
=5
4
60
4

85.0 with an overall isentropic efficiency of 0.β2 = 9o.relcos 45o = 0. An axial flow compressor is to be designed to generate a total pressure ratio of 4. Solution: M1 = M1.65 =T 2 + m/s =331. stage efficiency is a0.4 K U=M 1 √ γR T 1=0. The inlet absolute stagnation temperature is 288 K and the inlet absolute stagnation pressure is 101 kPa. α1 = α3 = a 7o. Calculate the rotor blade speed. Given that the work done factor is 0. The conditions of air at the entry of an axial Solution: compressor stage are P1=1bar and T1=314K. α 1 air angle at stator entry.6364 T1 = T01 = (1+(γ-1)M12/2)-1 = 266. A single-stage transonic compressor operates with axial flow at inlet.9/1. 5.3m/ s ANS.74 = =6.634 ( √ 1.9.4. 29 29 . The air angles are β1 = 51o.9 K 2 T 03=T 02 + 2 T 03 s−T 02 =522. The inlet and outlet blade angles of the rotor blades are 45 degree and 10 degree respectively and the compressor stage has a degree of reaction of 50 percent. Determine the C= U m =187 tan +tan s C = C m =190 cos s λxUx C a x ( tan β 1−tan β 2 ) 100 o o K ∆UT=tan =29 0 s= =tan7 + tan51 C α + tan β p Ca Ca Solution: 1 1 C 12 C T 02a=73. If the blade speed is 220 m/s and the work done factor is 0.4 x 287.6∨7 stages ANS .92 1and the mass flow rate is 25 kg/s.88. 2. The mean diameter and peripheral speed β1 β2 are 50 cm and 100 m/s respectively.86 find the number of stages required.8 K 2Cp U tan α + tan β = λ−1 C T 03 s =T 02 x π c λa =493.5 K φc number of stages required= T 03−T 02 190. mechanical efficiency is 0. The relative flow angle at inlet to the rotor is 45 o and the inlet relative Mach number is 0.95.15 x 266.4 )=208.4142 = 0.

draws air at 20°C and delivers it at 97°C. [ C 1u =0 ] .216 tan ( β 2 )= U → β 1=64 ° C1 U −C2 u → β 2=56 ° .000 rpm.V ) = 274. Dm = 0.89(198. The mean diameter of blade ring is 35 cm and Actual workisdone perrpm.69 Isentropic work 37 Π Dm N Πx 0. kg ofCalculate air = 235. α =12°.4 m/s axial velocity is constant through the stage and the impeller blades are designed to turn the relative velocity 12°.92 = =99. =( 1.3 m/s. is 88%.5) =¿ Isentropic work per Kg of air per stage = Cp x (T2 – T1) = 1. tan ( β 1 )= Π=1. T2 = α1 – α2 ==12° (1)u = 300 m/s. T2=1. w2 [4] Thus.) An axial flow compressor designed with 50% degree of reaction has blade inlet and outlet angles of 55° and 16° respectively when measured from axial direction. Take the inlet compressortemperature has a total pressure stagnation as 305 K.How much will the pressure ratio be over the stage.005(370 – 293) = 77. how much turning of the absolute velocity is needed in the following guide vanes. The rotor blade velocity is 270 m/s and the stage efficiency is 87 %.3 m/s ∝ h0=h 03−h01=U x C 2 u tan 16 °+ tan 55 ° 1.46 – 76. D = 0.) 5. The speed of V CD = 152 m/s. The incoming air has a temperature of 340 K and an absolute velocity of 130 m/s (no swirl component). [6] 23. The air enters the compressor stage at 300K.4 2 2 k 1. 1=155.35m .43) = ¿ 33. N = 5000 rpm. Stage Temperature ratio: Vw1=AD=76.9m and the speed is 5000 rpm.of 2. Find the work done per kg of air and the 1.) h03 s−h01 T −T 01 =cpg= 03 s h03−h01 T 03−T 01 [2] Degree of reaction (Rd) = 1 1 1ax tan ( α )= The stage pressure ratio of an axial compressor is 1. N =15. α1 = β2 = 16° .) U =tan α 1 + tan β 1 Vf It is also known that C1 = Cax1 = 150 m/s Work per Kg Thus of air = Cp = (T2 – T1) and Udone = 250 m/s. From the diagram.88 +1 1000 x 340 Work done per kg of air is found to be = ¿ u(V .92 KJ/kg angles of the blade are 27° and the blade angle at inlet is known to be 53°.5. Note: C p T 01 k−1 1000 x 340 Π k −1 = 270 x 0.84K U C2un +1 C p T 01 ¿ ¿ Π=¿ Actual work 36. Also.84 – 300) = 37 KJ/kg Given: Vf = 150 m/s .5 P1 (Stage Pressure Ratio) T1=300K(Stage Inlet Temperature) Mean blade speed at the given stage U= ¿ Π Dm N 60 An axial flow compressor.5 .6 m/s Work done per kg of air in stage (Euler’s work) = U x (Vw2-Vw1) = U x Vf x (tan β1 – tan β2) But 3. Assume a C2u value of 89 m/s. direction. Hence. P2 =1.9m. Take air angle as 12°.54 KJ/kg Π=¿ Equations 5 and 6 gives C 2 u= Solution: Mean Blade speed. The blade velocity and flow velocity are constant throughout the compressor.3 x (tan 55°tan16°) = 36922 J/kg work done per kg of air if the exit = 36.6 235.385 KJ/Kg nis = Combining equations 1 and 2 gives: U → α =59° C △h0= α2 = T P =( ) T P (3) △h0= The change in total enthalpy can also be expressed as C p T 01 k−1 ∝ h0= (Π k −1) nis (4) C p T 01 k−1 ( Π k −1) nis [5] Applying Euler’s equation to the rotor we get the following expression for total enthalpy rise △h0=U x C 2 u−U x C 1 u . Solution: Given data. That is Πx 0. T1 = 20+273 = 293K.123 x 300 = 336. Calculate the change in relative tangential velocity in the rotor blades. Addition 340 K.2 bar and a total temperature of Also calculate the angles.4 1.87 U ( nis ) ( ) [7] The guide vane turning of the flow is given by tan ( ec )=tan ( α 2 )= w1 C 2u → ec =31 C2 ax ° And the turning of the relative velocity is given by Pressure ratio over the stage.=U Combining eq.The Vr2 = the stage 152. Rd = 50%.2. Calculate the isentropic stage efficiency if pressure ratio of compression is 1. △h0=h 02−h01=h03 −h01=C p ( T 03−T Isentropic efficiency is defined as The turning of the relative velocity is given 12°.31 m/s in axialm/s.89 m/s 60 60 250 x 89 x .8m/s. = 1. R = 0. 97+273 370K.43m/s and k−1 Vw2=AF=198.2. The axial velocity component is constant through the stage. with compression ratio of 4.715 An axial flow compressor is to have a constant axial velocity of 150 m/s and 50% reaction. α1 = β2 = 27°.46 m/s 0. The air parameters areenters given the based from the Velocity triangle: compressor with a velocity of 150 V Vw1=AD=32. The mean diameter at certain stage is 0.25 f = impeller the blades isw2250 m/s and m/s.35 x 15000 U= = =274. V = 290. The blade velocity is 300 m/s. Isentropic Stage efficiency = α2 = β1 = 53° [3] k−1 T 03 P03 k−1 k =( ) =Π k T 01 P01 59−12=47 ° 234. Vr1 = efficiency 307.005 x (336. 3 and 4. Π=stage pressure ratio Solution: Assuming calorically perfect gas [cpg] we get the following expression for the total enthalpy rise in the compressor.000 thex 137.6 = =137.9 x 5000 60 Given: rp=4. 1 T01 = 305K = 235. α2 = β1 = 55°.) The incoming air to an axial degree of reaction.6 speed 15.1 1 1 C p T 01 T 03 s ( −1) nis T 01 (2) Vf = 4.