# Solved Problems by: SAUT BONIFACIO R.

1. A jet propulsion unit, with turbojet engine, having a forward speed of 1,100
km/hr produces 14 kN of thrust and uses 40 kg of air per second. Find: (a) the
relative exit jet velocity, (b) the thrust power, and (c) the propulsive efficiency

( a ) C a=

1100 x 1000
m
=305.56
3600
s

F=m ( C j −Ca )
14000=40 ( C j−305.56 )
C j=655.56 m/s

( b) W = ( F ) (C a)
¿ ( 14000 )( 305.56 )
¿ 4,277.8 k J

( c ) η p=

2
2
=
=0.636=63.6
Cj
655.56
1+
1+
305.56
Ca

2. The effective jet velocity of a rocket is 2,700 m/s, the forward flight velocity is
1350 m/s and the propellant consumption is 73.3 kilogram per second.
Calculate: (a) thrust, (b) thrust power, and (c) propulsive efficiency.

( a ) F=m(V ej )
¿ ( 73.3 )( 2700 )
¿ 197.91 kN

( b) W = ( F ) (C a)
¿ ( 197910 )( 1350 )
¿ 267.18 MJ

2

( c ) η p=

Ca
V ej

( )
( )

C
1+ a
V ej

2

1350
)
2700
¿
=0.8=80
2
1350
1+(
)
2700
2(

3. Given the following data for a bipropellant rocket motor:
Flight velocity= 650 m/s
Effective jet velocity= 1950 m/s
Rate of propellant consumption= 7 kg/s
Calculate: (a) thrust, (b) thrust power and (c) the propulsive efficiency

( a ) F=m ( V ej )
¿ ( 7 ) ( 1950 )
¿ 13650 N

( b) W = ( F ) (C a)
¿ ( 13650 )( 1950 )
¿ 26.62 MJ

2

( c ) η p=

Ca
V ej

( )
( )

1+

Ca
V ej

2

u that missile could achieve in level flight.i .414 3 2 m m .650 ( 1950 ) ¿ 650 1+ ( 1950 ) 2 2 ¿ 0. and (b) ue . respectively.65 x 104 N kg ∧0. maximum temperature of 2100K. Missile is propelled by ramjet using JP-8 fuel.max at this maximum operating flight speed Assumptions: flow through the ramjet around the missile is ideal air is a thermally and calorically perfect gas 2 ( a ) T 02=T a + u 2 cp umax =√ 2 c p ( T max −T a ) ¿ √ (2 )( 1200 ) ( 2100−250 ) ¿ 2110m/s ( b ) Since no fuel is added . Find: (a) maximum velocity. Consider a turbojet-powered airplane flying at a velocity of 300 m/s at an altitude of 10 km. ue =u . ue =2110 m/ s 5. e . The turbojet engine has inlet and exit .60=60 4. air is expanded back yo its original velocity . where the free-stream pressure and density are 2.

4 )=260.4 kg s mtotal=1.82 kg s F=m ¿tal V f −mair V i + ( p f − pi ) A e ¿ ( 260. mair =ρ V i A i=( 0. Calculate the thrust of the engine.82 )( 500 ) −( 248.414 )( 300 ) ( 2 )=248.3−2. The fuel-to-mass ratio is 0.65 ) x 104 ) ( 1 ) ¿ 5.4 ) ( 300 ) + ( ( 2. LOBITANA . The velocity and pressure of the 2.05 ) (248.3 x 104 N 2 m respectively.24 x 10 4 N Solved Problems by: FRANCIS R. respectively.05.05 mair =( 1.areas of 2 2m and 2 1m exhaust gas are 500 m/s and .

458 bar and 248 K.90 Mechanical efficiency of transmission 99% Nozzle efficiency 95% Find the nozzle pressure ratio.1.1 km where the ambient conditions are 0.4. Cpg = 1.33. Take C pa = 1.005 KJ/kg-K and k = 1.147 KJ/kg-K and kg = 1.85 Isentropic efficiency of turbine 0. Assume convergent nozzle. The following data apply to a turbojet aircraft flying at an altitude of 6. Speed of aircraft 805 km/h Pressure ratio of compressor 4:1 Combustion chamber pressure loss 0. SOLUTION: .21 bar Turbine inlet temperature 1100 K Intake duct efficiency 95% Isentropic efficiency of compressor 0.

21  2.75 K P03  P02  0.5  1]} 2(1. Compressor pressure ratio 9:1.005 KJ/kg-K and k = 1.9.389 4.95[(1  223.458 bar and -15 OC.751 P5 Pa 0.005)(248)(1000)  0.08 K C pa (T02  T01 ) C pg m  1. A turboprop aircraft is flying at 600 km/h at an altitude where the ambient conditions are 0.458{1  0.08  272.6 m/s 3600 2 k Ci P01  Pa {1   ram [(1  ) k 1  1]} 2C pTa Speed of aircraft   0. The intake duct efficiency is 0.631)  2.03 P04  P03 ( 04 ) g  2.805(1000)  223. Assume the exhaust gases leave the aircraft at 600 km/h relative to the aircraft.87)  138.31 bar T04 '  T03  T03  T04 138. And total head isentropic efficiency of compressor and turbine is 0.524 bar 2 Ci 223.25  1100   946.99) T04  1100  138.458 2. Maximum gas temperature 1200 K.6 2 )3.147 KJ/kg-K and kg .26    2. Cpg = 1.4.389 K T 0. Take Cpa = 1.631 bar P02  r (P01 )  4(0.31( )  1.26 bar T03 1100 nozzle pressure ratio : P04 P04 1.25  961.93 respectively.147(0.87 K 2C p 2(1005) T T02  T01  01 (r c T03  T04  k 1 k  1)  429.52  0.005(429.89 and 0.21  2.90 kg T ' k 1 946.25 K 1. Calculate the specific power output in KJ/kg of the unit taking mechanical efficiency of transmission as 98% and neglecting the losses other than specified.6 2 T01  Ta   248   272.

5405)  4.5497 bar Ta 258 P01   i ( P01 ' Pa )  Pa  0. turbine.82  271.5405 bar P02  r ( P01 )  9(0.55 bar.76 KJ/kg 3. A jet propelled plane consuming air at the rate of 18. The compressor pressure ratio is 5 and maximum temperature in the combustion chamber is 1273 K.60 K T02 'T01 509. Ta = 255 K). the gases continue to expand in the nozzle to a pressure of 0.915 respectively.60  271.82)  C pg (T03  T04 )  pa 02 01  1.87 K 9 T04  T03  T (T03  T04 ' )  1200  0.67 m/s 18 2 Ci 166. SOLUTION: .87)  731.458( )  0.82   539 K c 0.6. decreases the flow to a negligible velocity.5497  0.67 2 T01 '  Ta   258   271.81.69 bar. 0. The heating value of the fuel is 45870 KJ/kg.2 kg/s is to fly at a Mach number 0.005 KJ/kg-K. Calculate the power input to the compressor.248  695.85.005(539  271.5 )  0. Cpg = 1.16 K WN  WT  C (T  T ) WC 1. SOLUTION: 5 )  166.93(1200  695. at an altitude of 4500 m (Pa = 0.82(9) 0.33. The diffuser which has a pressure coefficient of 0.458)  0.147(1200  731. and nozzle are 0.865 bar T02 '  T01 (r ) T02  T01  k 1 k  271.286  509.98 WN  263.9. Assume C p = 1.89 P T04 '  T03 ( 04 ) P03 k g 1 kg 1  1200( ) 0.82 3. and 0. k = 1.82 K  T01 2C p 2(1005) Ci  C j  600( k P01 '  Pa ( T01 ' k 1 271.33.4. kg = 1.458  0.= 1.147 KJ/kg-K. After expanding in the turbine.9(0. The isentropic efficiencies of compressor.16)  m m 0.

4(287)(255)  192.9( P01 ' Pa )  Pa  0.005)(470.55  0.air ratio.9 P01 ' Pa P01 '  0.35 K 2C p 2(1005) k P01 ' T01 k 1 ( ) Pa Ta 273.701  0. From the previous problem.701 bar 255 P P  01 a  0.4 1 1.35[1  1 (50.686 bar P02 r 5 P01 P02  5(0.81 WC  ma C p (T02  T01 )  18.43 bar T02  T01[1  1 (r c 1.Ci  M i kRTa  0.26 kW 4. SOLUTION: .686)  3.2(1.55(  ram P01  0.6 1.35) WC  3608.286  1)]  470.62 K 0.35 3.55)  0.9(0.052  255   273.62  273.5 )  0. 4  1)]  273.05 m/s 2 T01 '  T01  Ta  Ci 192. determine the fuel .

Products of combustion enter the turbine at 815 OC and leave it at 650 OC to enter the nozzle.62) m f  0. and the power required to drive the compressor.373 kg/s f  mf ma  0. Calculate the isentropic efficiency of the compressor.33(1. k = 1.33. SOLUTION: T02  T01  T01 [r c 455  288  k 1 k  1] 288 0.air ratio  (ma  m f )(C pg )(T03  T02 )  m f CV m f CV  (18.005 KJ/kg-K. kg = 1.147)(1273  470.fuel . Assume Cp = 1.005)(455  288) ma  WC  5594 kW .0205 5.147 KJ/kg-K.373 18. Air enters a turbojet engine at a rate of 12x10 4 kg/h at 15 OC and 1. Cpg = 1.2  m f )(1.33 kg/s 3600 WC  m a C p (T02  T01 )  33.2 f  0.03 bar and is compressed adiabatically to 182 OC and four times the pressure.286 (4  1) c  c  84% Compressor Work : 12 x10 4  33.4.

with a volumetric flow rate of 5 m 3/s.325 kPa r=10 k =1.4−1 1.1 K )=678.67 kg kg kg .21 T 4=T 3 ( 1r ) ¿ 1400 K ( ) 579. Despi 1.4 kJ ( air std .005 Solution: (a) Thermal efficiency 1 r () η=1− 1 ¿ 1− 10 ( ) k−1 k 1.005 kJ kJ ( 300 K−579. and (c) net power developed.2 K−300 K 1400 K−725.4−1 1.GAS TURBINE SHAFT POWER CYCLES PROBLEMS Solved by: Kerstein Kylle P.60 =397.60 kg K kg W net =W T +W c =678.4 T 4=725. Assume air standard.4−1 1. (b) back work ratio.005 ( 1400 K−725. Given: BRAYTON CYCLE – AIR STANDARD T 1 =300 K T 3 =1400 K P1=100.2 K )=−280.1 K kJ kJ W T =c p ( T 3 −T 4 )=1. ) kg K (b) Back work ratio T 2 =T 1 ( r ) k−1 k ¿ 300 K ( 10 ) bwr= 1.27 kg K kg (a) Net power developed W c =c p ( T 1−T 2) =1.4( air std . The compressor pressure ratio is 10. In an ideal gas turbine.2 K η=48.27 kJ kJ kJ −280. 300 K air enters the compressor at 1 kPa below standard atmospheric conditions. Determine (a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.) c p=1.4 k−1 k 1 10 ¿ T 2−T 1 T 3 −T 4 1. The turbine inlet temperature was measured to be 1400K.4 T 2 =579.1 K bwr=41.

4(air std . Given: BRAYTON CYCLE – AIR STANDARD T 1 =300 K T 3 =1200 K k =1.005 (b) Turbine Work: W T =c p ( T 3 −T 4 )=1. In an air-standard Brayton cycle.3 =1200 K 1 r () k−1 k 1 11.4−1 1.0 kg K kg ( ) =1− 1 11.) Solution: To maximize work output: r= T3 T1 ( ) k 2 (k−1 ) ( = c p=1.4 =50 kJ ( air std . The pressure ratio is that which maximizes the net work developed by the cycle per unit mass of air flow.4−1 1. respectively. ) kg K .4 1.3 ( ) 1.005 1200 K 300 K T 2 =T 1 ( r ) T 4=T 1 1 r ) k−1 k () 1. Calculate the (a) compressor work. the minimum and maximum temperature are 300 K and 1200 K.4−1 1.4 2(1.4−1 ) =300 K (11.005 =11. (b) turbine work and (c) thermal efficiency of the cycle.3 ) k−1 k (a) Compressor Work: W c =c p ( T 1−T 2) =1.3 =600 K kJ kJ ( 300 K−600 K )=−301.2.5 kg K kg (c) Thermal Efficiency: η=1− 1.4 =600 K kJ kJ ( 1200 K−600 K ) =603.

33 T 1 =300 K k '=1. Given: k =1. For products of combustion c p=1.3. The fuel has a heating value of 44186 kJ kg K and the fuel-air kg of fuel kg of air . A gas turbine unit receives air at 1 bar.2 bar.4−1 1. 300 K and compresses it adiabatically to 6.25 K ηc 0.2 1 ( ) 1. Calculate the work of turbine ratio is 0. The turbine internal efficiency is 90%. kg K . The compressor efficiency is 88%.147 kg K c ' p=1.2 ¯¿ mf =0.147 kJ k =1.4 =505.33 .26−300 +T 1= +300=533.017 ma .017 and compressor per kg of air compressed and thermal efficiency.88 Heat added=mf × Heating value [( ) ] mf m × heating value= 1+ f c p T 3 −( c ' p T ' 2 ) ma ma ( ) P1=1 ¯ ¿ P2=P3=6.4 kJ c p=1.26 K T 2−T 1 505.005 kJ kg K ηc =88 Solution: T 2 =T 1 T '2 = P2 P1 ( ) ' k −1 ' k =300 K 6.

The air is then passed through a heat exchanger and heated by the turbine exhaust before reaching the combustion chamber.71−234.81 K )=414.005 kJ kgK ¿ 533. The maximum temperature after constant pressure combustion is 580°C and the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is 75%.017 ) 1.33−1 1.1.005 (b) Turbine Work: W T =c p ( T 3 −T ' 4 )=1.017 ) × 44186 +¿ kg K ( 1+0.81 K (a) Compressor Work: W c =c ' p ( T 1−T ' 2 )=1.37 K −701.2 ( ) 1.42 kg K kg kJ kJ (1103.147 [ T3= ] [( ) ] mf ×heating value + ( c ' p T ' 2 ) ma m 1+ f c p ma ( ) =¿ T 3 =1103. Assume air at standard conditions.64 K T ' 4=T 3−( T 3−T 4 ) ηt =1103.71 kg K kg (c) Thermal Efficiency: η= W c +W t 414.37 K T 4=T 3 P3 P4 ( ) k−1 k =1103.00 Heat supplied ( 0.37 K−741. In a gas turbine installation the compressor takes in air at a temperature of 20°C and compresses it to four times the initial pressure with an isentropic efficiency of 84%.147 kJ kJ ( 300 K−533. In the heat exchanger. Determine the overall efficiency of the plant. 80% of the available heat is given to compressed air.25 K )=−234.37 K 1 6.90=741.37 K −( 1103.25 K ¿× ¿ kJ kg K kJ ( 0.64 K ) 0.42 = =24.017 ) ( 44186) 4. .33 =701.

52 K−293 K ) =−170.17 kJ 246.52 K ηc 0.52 K Q¿ =c p ( T 3−T 5 )=1.03 K T 4=T 3−ηt ( T 3−T ' 4 )=853 K −0.Solution: k =1.52 K =607.71 kg K kg W c =c p ( T 2−T 1) =1.005 kJ kJ ( 853 K −607.005 kJ kJ ( 462.4 =435.4 −1 1.005 kJ kJ ( 853 K −643.03 K )=643.28 .005 kJ kg K ηc =84 ηt =75 ɛ =80 T 1 =20+273=293 K T ' 2 =T 1 (r ) T2= k−1 k =293 K ×(4) 1.84 T ' 4 =T 3 1 r () k −1 k =853 K × 1 4 () 1.40 K−293 K +T 1= +293 K =462.37 kg kg =16.52 K )=246.28 kg K kg W +W c η= t = Q¿ kJ kJ −170.80 ( 643.77 K−462.52 K ) + 462.71 kg 210.77 K T 5 =ɛ ( T 4−T 2 ) +T 2=0.75 ( 853 K −574.4 c p=1.37 kg K kg W t =c p ( T 3 −T 4 )=1.77 K )=210.40 K T ' 2−T 1 435.4−1 1.4 =574.

54 K T ' 2−T 1 420.005 kJ kg K ηc =84 ηt =75 ɛ =80 T 1 =10+273=283 K T ' 2 =T 1 (r ) T2= k−1 k =283 K ×(4) 1.77 K T 5 =ɛ ( T 4−T 2 ) +T 2=0.4 −1 1.54 K−283 K +T 1= +283 K=446.74 K ) +446.005 kJ kJ ( 853 K −643.80 ( 643.77 K−446.4 =420.36 K )=249.005 kJ kJ ( 853 K −604.28 kg K kg . Solution: k =1.03 K T 4=T 3−ηt ( T 3−T ' 4 )=853 K −0. calculate the percentage increase in the thermal efficiency if the air temperature at compressor inlet is 10o C and other parameters remain the same.77 K )=210.4−1 1.88 kg K kg W c =c p ( T 2−T 1) =1.75 ( 853 K −574.84 T ' 4 =T 3 1 r () k −1 k =853 K × 1 4 () 1.4 c p=1.36 K Q¿ =c p ( T 3−T 5 )=1.74 K =604.56 kg K kg W t =c p ( T 3 −T 4 )=1.5.74 K −283 K )=−164.74 K ηc 0.03 K )=643.005 kJ kJ ( 446.4 =574. From problem 4.

88 kg 210. Determine the thermal efficiency.17 =13.30 kJ 249. . The temperature at the inlet to the second compressor stage is 300 K.28 18. The regenerator effectiveness is 80%.30−16.17 16. the temperature is 1400 K. The pressure ratio across the two-stage turbine is also 10. Air enters the compressor at 100 kPa.807kg/s. At the inlets to the turbine stages.56 kg kg =18. The isentropic efficiency of each compressor and turbine stage is 80%. A regenerative gas turbine with intercooling and reheat operates at steady state. The pressure ratio across the two-stage compressor is 10. 300 K with a mass flow rate of 5.17 GAS TURBINE SHAFT POWER CYCLES PROBLEMS Solved by: Roy R.η= W t +W c = Q¿ △η= kJ kJ −164. Cudias 1. The intercooler and reheater each operate at 300 kPa.

1 +q ¿. The work for each of these devices can be determined from energy balances applied to the individual control volumes W net .The thermal efficiency of the system can be expressed as the ratio of the sytem’s net-work output to the system’s heat input ηth = W net q¿ .out can be determined from the difference between the work output of the turbines and the work input to the compressors.out =c p [ ( T 6−T 7 ) + ( T 8−T 9 ) ] −[ ( T 2−T 1 ) + ( T 4 −T 3 ) ] The heat input can be determined from energy balances applied to the individual control volumes q ¿. 2=( h6 −h5 ) + ( h8−h7 )=c p [ ( T 6−T 5 ) + ( T 8−T 7 ) ] Using the isentropic efficiency of the compressor ηc = h2 s −h1 c p ( T 2 s−T 1 ) = h2−h1 c p ( T 2−T 1 ) T 2 =T 1 + T 2 s −T 1 ηc .1 +q ¿.2 The wnet.1 + wc .1 +w t .out = [ wt .2 ]− [ wc .1 ]=[ ( h6−h7 ) + ( h 8−h9 ) ]−[ ( h2−h1 ) + ( h4 −h3 ) ] W net .

96 K 0.80 h 4 s−h 3 c p ( T 4 s−T 3 ) = h4 −h3 c p ( T 4 −T 3 ) T 4=T 3 + T 4 s−T 4 ηc T 4 s P4 = T3 P3 ( ) T 4 s=300 ( T 4=300+ ηt = T 2 s=300 k−1 k 1000 300 ) 0.62 K 410.80 h6 −h7 c p ( T 6 −T 7 ) = h6−h 7 s c p ( T 6−T 7 s ) T 7 =T 6 −ηt ( T 6−T 7 s ) T 7 s P7 = T6 P6 ( ) k−1 k 300 T 7 s=1400 1000 ( ) 0.17 K 423.51 K T 7 =T 6 −ηt ( T 6−T 7 s ) ¿ 1400−( 0.62−300 =438.51 )=1074 K .8 )( 140−992.3 K 0.4 =423.4 =410.2−300 =453.T 2 s P2 = T1 P1 ( ) T 2 =300+ ηc = k−1 k 300 100 ( ) 0.4 1.4 1.4 =992.4 1.

3−453.3 K To find T5 we can make use of the regenerator’s effectiveness ε r egen= q regen.4 1. act h5−h4 c p ( T 5 −T 4 ) = = q regen.ηt = h8 −h9 c p ( T 8 −T 9) = h8−h 9 s c p ( T 8−T 9 s ) T 9=T 8−ηt ( T 8−T 9 s ) T 9s P9 = T8 P8 ( ) T 9 s=1400 k−1 k 100 300 ( ) 0.8 ( 1098.62 300 453.43 K 1 2 2s 3 4 4s 5 6 7 7s 8 9 9s 10 T(K) 300 438.8 )( 1400−1023 )=1098.4 =1023 K T 7 =T 8 −ηt ( T 8−T 9 s ) ¿ 1400−( 0. max h9−h4 c p ( T 9 −T 4 ) T 5 =T 4 +ε regen ( T 9 −T 4 ) T 5 =453.96 423.3 410.96 )=969.51 1400 1098.2 969.43 1400 1074 992.96+ 0.3 1023 P(kPa) 100 300 300 300 1000 1000 1000 1000 300 300 300 100 100 100 .

8 W. with intercooling to 300 K between the stages at a pressure of 300 kPa.out =mair w net .ηth = [ ( T 6−T 7 ) +( T 8−T 9 ) ]−[ ( T 2−T 1 ) +( T 4 −T 3 ) ] [ ( T 6−T 7 ) +( T 8−T 9 ) ] ¿ [ 326+301. From the previous problem.7 ¿ 0.466∨46.7−292. The turbine inlet temperature is 1480 K and the expansion occurs in two stages.7 ] −[ 138.57 +326 ¿ 0. From the previous problem.443∨44. . wc . with reheat to 1420 K between the stages at a pressure of 300 kPa. solve for the back work ratio. solve for Wnet.26 ) ¿ 1957.3+153.out bwr=¿ ¿ 282.807 ( 1. Air enters the compressor of a gas turbine at 100 kPa. 300 K.26 627.6 4. W net . The compressor and turbine stage efficiencies are 84 and 82% respectively. The net power developed is 1. out ¿ 5.005 )( 627.3 2. Determine the volumetric flow rate entering the cycle.96 ] 430. The air is compressed in two stages to 900 kPa.∈¿ w t .6 kW 3. out.

42 kJ  0.26  300.84 h  h    aS 1  1.19  432.19   411.ha  h1   haS  h1   300.3860    ha  h1   pa 300  p  p   4.158 raS r1 p1 100  pr 2 S  prb p2 pb kg .

3860    h2 S  hb   h2  hb   h  hb   300.158  300   1.8    h3  hc   h3  hcS  hc  h3    h3  hcS   1611.60  900    568.4 kJ kg .19   411.84 prcS  pr 3 kg pc p3  300    189.42 kJ  2S  h2  hb  0.821611.26  300.19  432.5  1275.79   0.79  1201. 900    4.

821539.33  300    478.0     h4  hd   h4  hdS  h4  hd    hd  h4 S   1539.2870kJ / kg K   300 K     4.44   0.77 Determine the mass flow rate m3  AV  1  3.8kJ / s kJ kg .6 m&   4.94   1216.pr 4 S  prd p4 pd  100    159.44  1145.93 s  RT1  0.562kg / s m kg 394.6kJ / kg W cycle    h3  hc    hd  h4    ha  h1    h2  hb   m W&cycle  W&T 1  W&T 2  W&C1  W&C 2  1.6kJ / kg 394.8kJ / s  394.562kg / s  (105 / m 2 )  p1   AV  1  m& W&cycle W cycle kJ 1.

2734 Qin 1443. W cycle 394.W cycle kg m  4.41 kg 5.562    Qin s kJ Q in  m   h3  h2    hd  hc    1443.6     0. Determine the thermal efficiency and back work ratio.41 .

401 659.46  0.06 . W C  ha  h1    h2  hb  bwr  WC bwr   W T W T  h3  hc    hd  h4  bwr  264.