Basel Committee

on Banking Supervision

Consultative document
A framework for dealing
with domestic systemically
important banks
Issued for comment by 1 August 2012

June 2012

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Brief excerpts may be reproduced or translated provided the source is cited.bis.This publication is available on the BIS website (www. © Bank for International Settlements 2012. ISBN 92-9131-141-3 (print) ISBN 92-9197-141-3 (online) .org). All rights reserved.

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............... Comments should be submitted by Wednesday 1 August 2012 by email to: baselcommittee@bis.................... Bank for International Settlements............... Alternatively............................................................................. Assessment methodology .......................................... A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks ................7 The Basel Committee welcomes comments on this consultative document............... CH-4002 Basel................... The principles .............................org...4 B.................................................................... All comments may be published on the Bank for International Settlements's website unless a commenter specifically requests confidential treatment...................... Introduction .......2 A...1 II....................................Contents I...... comments may be sent by post to the Secretariat of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision................ Switzerland........... Higher loss absorbency ..

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and further increase the probability of distress in the future. the costs associated with moral hazard add to any direct costs of support that may be borne by taxpayers. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the Committee)1 issued the rules text on the assessment methodology for global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) and their additional loss absorbency requirements in November 2011. Mexico.htm. France. Luxembourg. It usually meets at the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in Basel. There are many banks that are not significant from an international perspective. Spain. 3. interconnected global financial institutions that can send shocks through the financial system which. Switzerland. Japan. Italy. Moreover. it was considered appropriate to review ways to address the externalities posed by D-SIBs. 2 See Basel Committee. is intended to limit these cross-border negative externalities on the global financial system and economy associated with the most globally systemic banking institutions. 4. Switzerland. Indonesia. reduce market discipline. Singapore. China. which applies over and above the Basel III requirements that are being introduced for all internationally-active banks. the Netherlands. Russia. As such. Australia. Sweden. from a system-wide level. Global systemically important banks: assessment methodology and the additional loss absorbency requirement (November 2011) at http://www. Canada. Similar to the case of G-SIBs. The additional requirement applied to G-SIBs. Introduction 1. Saudi Arabia. The G20 Leaders also asked the Committee and the Financial Stability Board to work on modalities to extend expeditiously the G-SIFI framework to domestic systemically important banks (D-SIBs). where its permanent Secretariat is located. A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks 1 . Hong Kong SAR. 3 See Cannes Summit Final Declaration – Building Our Common Future: Renewed Collective Action for the Benefit of All. Turkey. Germany. even if the effects are not global in nature. the moral hazard costs associated with direct support and implicit government guarantees may amplify risk-taking. But similar externalities can apply at a domestic level. Belgium. As a result. create competitive distortions.org/publ/bcbs207. are sub-optimal because they do not take into account these externalities. Some of these banks may have cross-border externalities. can harm the real economy.bis.3 2. In maximising their private benefits. India. the United Kingdom and the United States.A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks I. 2 The G-SIB rules text was endorsed by the G20 Leaders at their November 2011 meeting. Brazil. The rationale for adopting additional policy measures for G-SIBs was based on the “negative externalities” (ie adverse side effects) created by systemically important banks which current regulatory policies do not fully address. it is based on the 1 The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision consists of senior representatives of bank supervisory authorities and central banks from Argentina. A D-SIB framework is best understood as taking the complementary perspective to the G-SIB regime by focusing on the impact that the distress or failure of banks (including by international banks) will have on the domestic economy. Korea. South Africa. but nevertheless could have an important impact on their domestic financial system and economy compared to non-systemic institutions. 4 November 2011. in turn. individual financial institutions may rationally choose outcomes that. These negative externalities include the impact of the failure or impairment of large.

9.htm. The 12 principles can be broadly categorised into two groups: the first group (Principles 1 to 7) focuses mainly on the assessment methodology for D-SIBs while the second group (Principles 8 to 12) focuses on HLA for D-SIBs. This point has two implications. the effectiveness of local authorities in addressing risks posed by individual banks is of interest to a wider group of countries. ie from January 2016.org/publ/bcbs216. which ensures that it is complementary with the G-SIB framework. 5 HLA refers to higher loss absorbency relative to the Basel III requirements for internationally active banks.5 4 See Basel Committee. who are best placed to evaluate the impact of failure on the local financial system and the local economy. The first is that in order to accommodate the structural characteristics of individual jurisdictions.bis. The Committee would like to emphasise that other policy tools. 2 A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks . 7. the Committee considers that it would be appropriate if banks identified as D-SIBs by their national authorities are required by those authorities to comply with the principles in line with the phase-in arrangements for the G-SIB framework. including the possibility for countries to go beyond the minimum D-SIB framework and impose additional requirements based on the specific features of the country and its domestic banking sector. addresses adequately cross-border externalities and promotes a level-playing field. This contrasts with the prescriptive approach in the G-SIB framework. The Committee intends to add the D-SIB framework to the scope of the Basel III regulatory consistency assessment programme.assessment conducted by the local authorities. The Committee has developed a set of principles that constitutes the D-SIB framework. 4 This will help ensure that appropriate and effective frameworks for D-SIBs are in place across different jurisdictions. therefore. can also play an important role in dealing with DSIBs. the assessment and application of policy tools should allow for an appropriate degree of national discretion. The principles proposed by the Committee for D-SIBs would allow for appropriate national discretion to accommodate structural characteristics of the domestic financial system. HLA is relative to requirements for domestic banks. For domestic banks that are not internationally active. The principles 10. The implementation of the principles will be combined with a strong peer review process introduced by the Committee. 5. should establish a minimum set of principles. 6. The principles set out in the document focus on the higher loss absorbency (HLA) requirement for D-SIBs. Basel III regulatory consistency assessment programme (April 2012) at http://www. Given that the D-SIB framework complements the G-SIB framework. 8. II. A framework. The second implication is that because a D-SIB framework is still relevant for reducing cross-border externalities due to spillovers at regional or bilateral level. particularly more intensive supervision.

such as size of the domestic economy. Principle 3: The reference system for assessing the impact of failure of a D-SIB should be the domestic economy. Principle 4: Home authorities should assess banks for their degree of systemic importance at the consolidated group level. be assessed having regard to bank-specific factors: (a) Size. Principle 6: National authorities should undertake regular assessments of the systemic importance of the banks in their jurisdictions to ensure that their assessment reflects the current state of the relevant financial systems and that the interval between D-SIB assessments not be significantly longer than the G-SIB assessment frequency. In the case where there are multiple D-SIB buckets in a jurisdiction. Principle 10: National authorities should ensure that the application of the G-SIB and D-SIB frameworks is compatible within their jurisdictions. for their degree of systemic importance. as identified under Principle 5. in principle. Principle 9: The HLA requirement imposed on a bank should be commensurate with the degree of systemic importance. this could imply differentiated levels of HLA between D-SIB buckets. (c) Substitutability/financial institution infrastructure (including considerations related to the concentrated nature of the banking sector). Principle 7: National authorities should publicly disclose information that provides an outline of the methodology employed to assess the systemic importance of banks in their domestic economy. The 12 principles are set out below: Assessment methodology Principle 1: National authorities should establish a methodology for assessing the degree to which banks are systemically important in a domestic context. The level of HLA calibrated for D-SIBs should be informed by quantitative methodologies (where available) and country-specific factors without prejudice to the use of supervisory judgement. a bank’s failure. Home authorities should impose HLA A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks 3 .11. (b) Interconnectedness. Principle 5: The impact of a D-SIB’s failure on the domestic economy should. while host authorities should assess subsidiaries in their jurisdictions. In addition. Higher loss absorbency Principle 8: National authorities should document the methodologies and considerations used to calibrate the level of HLA that the framework would require for D-SIBs in their jurisdiction. or externality imposed by. Principle 2: The assessment methodology for a D-SIB should reflect the potential impact of. national authorities can consider other measures/data that would inform these bank-specific indicators within each of the above factors. and (d) Complexity (including the additional complexities from cross-border activity). consolidated to include any of their own downstream subsidiaries.

or externality imposed by. Principle 3: The reference system for assessing the impact of failure of a D-SIB should be the domestic economy. The rationale for focusing on the domestic context is outlined in paragraph 16 below. a bank’s failure. Assessment methodology Principle 1: National authorities should establish a methodology for assessing the degree to which banks are systemically important in a domestic context. home and host authorities should make arrangements to coordinate and cooperate on the appropriate HLA requirement. they should primarily relate to “impact of failure” measures and not “risk of failure” measures. Principle 2: The assessment methodology for a D-SIB should reflect the potential impact of. One implication of this is that to the extent that D-SIB indicators are included in any methodology.requirements that they calibrate at the parent and/or consolidated level. A starting point for the development of principles for the assessment of D-SIBs is a requirement that all national authorities should undertake an assessment of the degree to which banks are systemically important in a domestic context. The home authority should test that the parent bank is adequately capitalised on a standalone basis. 13. system-wide.” Consistent with the G-SIB methodology. loss-given-default (LGD) concept rather than a probability of default (PD) concept. consolidated to include any of their own downstream subsidiaries. In addition. A. Principle 11: In cases where the subsidiary of a bank is considered to be a D-SIB by a host authority. Principle 4: Home authorities should assess banks for their degree of systemic importance at the consolidated group level. This can be thought of as a global. and  what is the appropriate unit of analysis (ie the entity which is being assessed)? 4 A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks . Paragraph 14 of the G-SIB rules text states that “global systemic importance should be measured in terms of the impact that a failure of a bank can have on the global financial system and wider economy rather than the risk that a failure can occur. national authorities should put in place any additional requirements and other policy measures they consider to be appropriate to address the risks posed by a D-SIB. 12. and host authorities should impose HLA requirements that they calibrate at the sub-consolidated/subsidiary level. for their degree of systemic importance. Two key aspects that shape the D-SIB framework and define its relationship to the G-SIB framework relate to how it deals with two conceptual issues with important practical implications:  what is the reference system for the assessment of systemic impact. 14. the Committee is of the view that D-SIBs should also be assessed in terms of the potential impact of their failure on the relevant reference system. Home authorities should impose the higher of either the D-SIB or G-SIB HLA requirements in the case where the banking group has been identified as a D-SIB in the home jurisdiction as well as a G-SIB. while host authorities should assess subsidiaries in their jurisdictions. within the constraints imposed by relevant laws in the host jurisdiction. including cases in which a D-SIB HLA requirement is applied at the subsidiary level. Principle 12: The HLA requirement should be met fully by Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1).

When it comes to the host authorities. 16. 18. subsidiaries of foreign banking groups would be considered from a local or sub-consolidated basis from the level starting in country Y. For example. for a cross-border financial group headquartered in country X. also consolidated to include any of their own downstream subsidiaries. in principle. the authorities in country Y would only consider subsidiaries of the group in country Y plus the downstream subsidiaries. the Committee is of the view that home authorities should consider banks from a (globally) consolidated perspective. (b) Interconnectedness.15. Principle 5: The impact of a D-SIB’s failure on the domestic economy should. This is because the activities of a bank outside the home jurisdiction can. This is important since there exist several jurisdictions that are dominated by foreign subsidiaries of internationally active banking groups. Thus. Jurisdictions that are home to banking groups that engage in cross-border activity could be impacted by the failure of the whole banking group and not just the part of the group that undertakes domestic activity in the home economy. In terms of the unit of analysis. This is in line with the concept of the G-SIB framework. such as size of the domestic economy. given the focus on cross-border spillovers and the negative global externalities that arise from the failure of a globally active bank. The outcome would be an assessment of banks active in the domestic economy in terms of their systemic importance. the appropriate reference system is the global economy. some of which may be in country Z. The unit of analysis was naturally set at the globally consolidated level of a banking group (paragraph 89 of the G-SIB rules text states that “(t)he assessment of the systemic importance of G-SIBs is made using data that relate to the consolidated group”). and their impact on the economy Y. This is particularly important given the possibility that the home government may have to fund/resolve the foreign operations in the absence of relevant cross-border agreements. some of which may be in other jurisdictions. As such this allowed for an assessment of the banks that are systemically important in a global context. national authorities can consider other measures/data that would inform these bank-specific indicators within each of the above factors. In addition. when the bank fails. For the G-SIB framework. be assessed having regard to bank-specific factors: (a) Size. 19. the Committee is of the view that the appropriate reference system should be the domestic economy. have potential significant spillovers to the domestic (home) economy. Thus. and (d) Complexity (including the additional complexities from cross-border activity). the Committee is of the view that they should assess foreign subsidiaries in their jurisdictions. ie that banks would be assessed by the national authorities for their systemic importance to that specific jurisdiction. (c) Substitutability/financial institution infrastructure (including considerations related to the concentrated nature of the banking sector). Correspondingly. A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks 5 . 17. The assessment of foreign subsidiaries at the local consolidated level also acknowledges the fact that the failure of global banking groups could impose outsized externalities at the local (host) level when these subsidiaries are significant elements in the local (host) banking system. a process for assessing systemic importance in a domestic context should focus on addressing the externalities that a bank’s failure generates at a domestic level.

If the size of a bank is relatively large compared to the domestic GDP. substitutability/financial institution infrastructure and complexity. 22. The G-SIB methodology identifies five broad categories of factors that influence global systemic importance: size. may not be identified as a D-SIB. 24. given the focus is on the domestic impact of failure of a bank and the wide ranging differences in each jurisdiction’s financial structure hinder such international comparisons being made. interconnectedness. for example. A national authority’s assessment process and methodology will be reviewed by the Committee’s implementation monitoring process. Alternatively. A good example is the size of a bank relative to domestic GDP. It is also desirable that the interval of the assessments not be significantly longer than that for G-SIBs (ie one year). This is one of the reasons why the D-SIB framework is being proposed as a principle-based approach. it is appropriate to list. since it measures the degree of global (cross-jurisdictional) activity of a bank which is not the focus of the D-SIB framework. 21. based on updated data submitted by each participating bank. It is expected that the names and buckets of G-SIBs and the data used to produce the scores will be disclosed. The indicator-based approach and weighting system in the G-SIB methodology was developed to ensure a consistent international ranking of G-SIBs. size. a merger of major banks. The Committee is of the view that this degree of detail is not warranted for D-SIBs. it would make sense for the national authority of the jurisdiction to identify it as a D-SIB whereas a same-sized bank in another jurisdiction. In order to keep a consistent approach in these cases. may not be as directly relevant. national authorities may choose to also include some country-specific factors. a G-SIB could drop from the G-SIB list and become/continue to be a D-SIB. interconnectedness. the remaining category. Cross-jurisdictional activity. The list of G-SIBs (including their scores) is assessed annually. 25. substitutability/financial institution infrastructure and complexity are all relevant for D-SIBs as well. 6 A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks . 23. cross-jurisdictional activity. the broad category of factors (eg size) that jurisdictions should have regard to in assessing the impact of a D-SIB’s failure. In addition. 26. but measured against a global sample that is largely unchanged for three years. at a high level. a SIB could be identified as a G-SIB but also a D-SIB in the same jurisdiction or in other host jurisdictions. Among the five categories in the G-SIB framework. For example. The assessment should also be conducted if there are important structural changes to the banking system such as.20. Principle 6: National authorities should undertake regular assessments of the systemic importance of the banks in their jurisdictions to ensure that their assessment reflects the current state of the relevant financial systems and that the interval between D-SIB assessments not be significantly longer than the G-SIB assessment frequency. which is smaller relative to the GDP of that jurisdiction. it would be sensible to have a similar frequency of assessments for the two frameworks. National authorities should have national discretion as to the appropriate relative weights they place on these factors depending on national circumstances. The Committee believes it is good practice for national authorities to undertake a regular assessment as to the systemic importance of the banks in their financial systems. Consistent with this view.

30. Specifically. even if it is likely to vary across jurisdictions given differences in frameworks and policy tools used to address the systemic importance of banks. to be based on a transparent and well articulated assessment framework to ensure the implications of the requirements are well understood by both the home and the host authorities. the Committee sought to ensure that banks. reflecting the greater impact a D-SIB failure is expected to have on the domestic financial system and economy. The Committee believes that transparency of the assessment process for the D-SIB framework is also important. having regard to the differences in national circumstances. A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks 7 . 28.Principle 7: National authorities should publicly disclose information that provides an outline of the methodology employed to assess the systemic importance of banks in their domestic economy. The level of HLA calibrated for D-SIBs should be informed by quantitative methodologies (where available) and country-specific factors without prejudice to the use of supervisory judgement. there needs to be some form of analytical framework that would inform policy judgements. regulators and market participants would be able to understand how the actions of banks could affect their systemic importance score and thereby the required magnitude of additional loss absorbency.6 31. The level of HLA for D-SIBs should be subject to policy judgement by national authorities. Higher loss absorbency Principle 8: National authorities should document the methodologies and considerations used to calibrate the level of HLA that the framework would require for D-SIBs in their jurisdiction. countries that have a larger banking sector relative to GDP are more likely to suffer larger direct economic impacts of the 6 Annex 2 of the G-SIB rules text sets out the various empirical analysis conducted by the Committee. The Committee intends to assess the implementation of the framework by the home and host authorities for its degree of cross-jurisdictional consistency. The policy judgement on the level of HLA requirements should also be guided by country-specific factors which could include the degree of concentration in the banking sector or the size of the banking sector relative to GDP. 29. at both the parent and subsidiary level. By taking these measures. That said. The assessment process used needs to be clearly articulated and made public so as to set up the appropriate incentives for banks to seek to reduce the systemic risk they pose to the reference system. B. that informed the policy judgement of the Committee. The purpose of an HLA requirement for D-SIBs is to reduce further the probability of failure compared to non-systemic institutions. This was the case for the policy judgement made by the Committee on the level of the additional loss absorbency requirement for G-SIBs. In order to increase the consistency in the implementation of the D-SIB framework and to avoid situations where banks similar in terms of the level of domestic systemic importance they pose in the same or different jurisdictions have substantially different D-SIB frameworks applied to them. such as the expected impact approach. 27. It is important for the application of a D-SIB HLA. it is important that there is sufficient documentation provided by home and host authorities for the Committee to conduct an effective implementation review assessment. This was the key aspect of the G-SIB framework where the assessment methodology and the disclosure requirements of the Committee and the banks were set out in the G-SIB rules text.

7 32. currently have the capacity to set and impose capital requirements they consider appropriate to banks within their jurisdictions. In the G-SIB framework. To be consistent with this approach. the Basel Committee will apply the additional loss absorbency requirement to the consolidated group. G-SIBs are grouped into different categories of systemic importance based on the score produced by the indicator-based measurement approach. including cases in which a D-SIB HLA requirement is applied at the subsidiary level. whereby more foreign wholesale funding could increase the transition costs (deleveraging) facing both the financial sector and the domestic economy in the event of a crisis. application at the consolidated level does not rule out the option for the host jurisdictions of subsidiaries of the group also to apply the requirement at the individual legal entity or consolidated level within their jurisdiction. However. The use of these factors in calibrating the HLA requirement would provide justification for different intensities of policy responses across countries for banks that are otherwise similar across the four key bank-specific factors outlined in Principle 5. as with the minimum requirement and the capital conservation and countercyclical buffers. 34. 35. In the case where there are multiple D-SIB buckets in a jurisdiction. Although the D-SIB framework does not produce scores based on a prescribed methodology as in the case of the G-SIB framework. In setting the HLA requirement. The home authority should test that the parent bank is adequately capitalised on a stand-alone basis. 33. Principle 10: National authorities should ensure that the application of the G-SIB and D-SIB frameworks is compatible within their jurisdictions. and host authorities should impose HLA requirements that they calibrate at the subconsolidated/subsidiary level. Home authorities should impose HLA requirements that they calibrate at the parent and/or consolidated level. as identified under Principle 5. including host authorities. The G-SIB rules text states that host authorities of G-SIB subsidiaries may apply an additional loss absorbency requirement at the individual legal entity or consolidated level within their jurisdiction. Home authorities should impose the higher of either the D-SIB or G-SIB HLA requirements in the case where the banking group has been identified as a D-SIB in the home jurisdiction as well as a G-SIB. national authorities can set multiple buckets with different requirements.failure of a D-SIB than those with smaller banking sectors. the Committee is of the view that the HLA requirements for D-SIBs should also be decided based on the degree of domestic systemic importance. While size-to-GDP is easy to calculate. this could imply differentiated levels of HLA between D-SIB buckets.’’ 8 A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks . Principle 9: The HLA requirement imposed on a bank should be commensurate with the degree of systemic importance. the concentration of the banking sector could also be considered (as a failure in a medium-sized highly concentrated banking sector would likely create more of an impact on the domestic economy than if it were to occur in a larger. Different additional loss absorbency requirements are applied to the different buckets (G-SIB rules text paragraphs 52 and 73). This is to provide the appropriate incentives to banks which are subject to the HLA requirements to reduce (or at least not increase) their systemic importance over time. 8 Paragraph 89 of the G-SIB rules text states “the assessment of the systemic importance of G-SIBs is made using data that relate to the consolidated group.8 The Committee has no intention to change this aspect of the status quo when 7 Another factor that could be relevant is the funding position of the banking sector. National authorities. more widely dispersed banking sector).

This will ensure the overall consistency between the two frameworks and allows the D-SIB framework to take the complementary perspective to the G-SIB framework. which are minima rather than maxima. for example through a solo capital requirement. 39. home and host authorities should make arrangements to coordinate 9 Paragraph 74 states that “the additional loss absorbency requirement set out above is the minimum level. it is essential to ensure that capital recognised in capital adequacy measures is readily available for those depositors. This should be maintained in cases where a bank might not be (or might be less) systemic at home. national authorities would have the capacity to apply the same D-SIB HLA requirement to both. but its subsidiary is (more) systemic in the host jurisdiction. paragraph 23 of the Basel II rules text states “(f)urther.’’ A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks 9 . In such cases. It is also consistent with the G-SIB rules text that is explicit in stating that home authorities can impose higher requirements than the G-SIB additional loss absorbency requirement (G-SIB rules text paragraph 74). are subject to the same HLA requirements. but where one is a G-SIB and the other is not. supervisors should test that individual banks are adequately capitalised on a stand-alone basis. Accordingly. For example. they are free to do so. If national jurisdictions wish to impose a higher requirement to their banks. National authorities should ensure that banks with the same degree of systemic importance in their jurisdiction. or subsidiaries of G-SIBs. in a jurisdiction with two banks that are roughly identical in terms of their assessed systemic nature at the domestic level. unless it already holds an adequate capital buffer in the host jurisdiction or the additional capital raised by the subsidiary is from outside investors. it is important that the home authority continues to ensure there are sufficient financial resources at the parent level. ceteris paribus. in the case of substantial or large subsidiaries. Principle 11: In cases where the subsidiary of a bank is considered to be a D-SIB by a host authority. the ability of the host authorities to implement a D-SIB HLA on local subsidiaries does not raise any new home-host issues. Indeed. The objective of the host authorities’ power to impose HLA on subsidiaries is to bolster capital to mitigate the potential heightened impact of the subsidiaries’ failure on the domestic economy due to their systemic nature. Banks in a jurisdiction should be subject to a consistent.” 38. applying the D-SIB framework to both G-SIBs and non-G-SIBs will help ensure a level playing field within the national context.introducing the D-SIB framework. the home authorities could face a situation where the HLA requirement on the consolidated group will be the higher of those prescribed by the G-SIB and D-SIB frameworks (ie the higher of either the D-SIB or G-SIB requirement). 36. coherent and non-discriminatory treatment regardless of the ownership. as one of the principal objectives of supervision is the protection of depositors. The Committee is of the view that any form of double-counting should be avoided and that the HLA requirements derived from the G-SIB and D-SIB frameworks should not be additive. This approach is also consistent with the Committee’s standards. An imposition of a D-SIB HLA by a host authority is no different (except for additional transparency) from their current capacity to impose a Pillar 1 or 2 capital charge. Within a jurisdiction. regardless of whether they are domestic banks.9 40. This could. subsidiaries of foreign banking groups. 37. Therefore. Under such cases. An action by the host authorities to impose a D-SIB HLA requirement leads to increases in capital at the subsidiary level which can be viewed as a shift in capital from the parent bank to the subsidiary. materially decrease the level of capital protecting the parent bank.

43. The host authority should provide a rationale for their decision. within the constraints imposed by relevant laws in the host jurisdiction. In addition. and the amount of the requirement. national authorities should put in place any additional requirements and other policy measures they consider to be appropriate to address the risks posed by a D-SIB. national authorities should put in place any additional requirements and other policy measures they consider to be appropriate to address the risks posed by a D-SIB. and an indication of the steps the bank would need to take to avoid/reduce such a requirement. (ii) available resolution strategies and any specific resolution plan in place for the firm. it is important that arrangements to coordinate and cooperate on the appropriate HLA requirement between home and host authorities are established and maintained. The Committee considered the use of CET1 to be the simplest and most effective way to increase the going concern loss-absorbing capacity of a bank. before taking any action. on the other hand. HLA requirements for D-SIBs should also be fully met with CET1 to ensure a maximum degree of consistency in terms of effective loss absorbing capacity. as stated in the G-SIBs rules text (paragraph 87). In these circumstances. In addition. The Committee recognises that there could be some concern that host authorities tend not to have a group-wide perspective when applying HLA requirements to subsidiaries of foreign banking groups in their jurisdiction. an element that is considered desirable given the fact that most of these banks will have cross-border operations being in direct competition with each other. and (iii) the extent to which such arrangements should influence HLA requirements. The additional loss absorbency requirement for G-SIBs is to be met by CET1. This has the benefit of facilitating direct and transparent comparability of the application of requirements across jurisdictions. within the constraints imposed by relevant laws in the host jurisdiction. 10 A framework for dealing with domestic systemically important banks . Principle 12: The HLA requirement should be met fully by Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1). Home and host authorities should coordinate and cooperate with each other on any plan to impose an HLA requirement on a subsidiary bank. when formulating HLA requirements. The home and host authorities should also discuss (i) the resolution regimes (including recovery and resolution plans) in both jurisdictions. 42. clearly need to know D-SIB HLA requirements on significant subsidiaries since there could be implications for the allocation of financial resources within the banking group.and cooperate on the appropriate HLA requirement. 41. The home authorities. This is particularly important to make it possible for the home authority to test the capital position of a parent on a stand-alone basis as mentioned in paragraph 37 and to prevent a situation where the home authorities are surprised by the action of the host authorities.