You are on page 1of 27

Prof Harry Tan

CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011

CE5101 Lecture 3
Seepage through Soils
by
Prof Harry Tan
SEP 2011

1

Outline



Seepage Theory
P t ti l and
Potential
d St
Stream F
Functions
ti
Flow Nets and FEM models
Seepage through Dams and
Embankments
• Seepage in Anisotropic Soils
• Instability due to Seepage
• Seepage and Effective Stress
2

1

Prof Harry Tan

CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011

Seepage Theory – Continuity Equation

3

Seepage Theory – Continuity Equation

d
dx

4

2

the head difference between any two adjacent equipotentials is constant. 6 3 .Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Graphical Picture of Two Equations 5 Graphical Picture of Two Equations Similarly.

equipotentials must be perpendicular to fl flow lilines 7 Properties of Flow Nets 8 4 .Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Graphical Picture of Two Equations Comparing the two equations.

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Properties of Flow Nets 9 Flow Net Construction 10 5 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Flow Net Construction 11 Example 1 – Sheetpile Wall 12 6 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Example 1 – Sheetpile Wall = 8m = 7m 13 Example 1 – Sheetpile Wall 14 7 .

4*0.7 m HQ = 17.7 m 15 EX 1 – Plaxis Result H=17.8m Hq=13.5m Hp=16.6m Closed flow boundaries 16 8 .5 – 8.5m H=12.455 = 13.Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Example 1 – Sheetpile Wall = 16.

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 EX 1 Plaxis Results Total discharge = 15.7e-6 m3/s per m 17 EX 1 Plaxis Results Pp=88 kPa Pq=66 kPa 18 9 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Example 2 – Gravity Dam 19 Example 2 – Gravity Dam 20 10 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Example 2 – Gravity Dam 21 EX 2 Plaxis Results 22 11 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 EX 2 Plaxis Results Discharge = 1.63e-4 m3/s per m 23 EX 2 Plaxis Results Uplift pressures 33 kPa 90 kPa 24 12 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Dams and Embankments 25 Dam Seepage Entry and Exit Boundary Conditions 26 13 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 27 28 14 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 29 EX 3 Dam Seepage 30 15 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 EX 3 Dam Seepage 31 EX 3 Plaxis Results 32 16 .

1e-6 m3/s per m 33 Horizontal flow in Stratified Soils 34 17 .Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 EX 3 Plaxis Results Discharge = 17.

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Vertical flow in Stratified Soils 35 Ex 4 Flow in Stratified Soils 36 18 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Flow Net in Anisotropic Soil 37 Flow Net in Anisotropic Soil 38 19 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Flow across Soil Interface 39 Piping Instability of Sheetpile Wall iavg  hm D 40 20 .

volume 42 21 .Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Piping Instability of Sheetpile Wall 41 Piping Instability of Sheetpile Wall =im ic  ' w Seepage force = i.γw.

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Measures against Piping 43 Seepage and Effective Stress Darcy’s law is v=ki (average seepage velocity) 44 22 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Seepage and Effective Stress 45 Seepage and Effective Stress Seepage force in soils is: Fs  j. w .volume 46 23 .volume  i.

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 Quick condition and critical gradient Buoyant unit weight =  '   sat   w 47 Quick condition and critical gradient 48 24 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 EX 4 Effective Stress and Seepage Determine effective stresses at A and B 49 50 25 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 51 52 26 .

Prof Harry Tan CE5101 Seepage SEP 2011 53 54 27 .