In the Shadow of the Canon

Author(s): Lydia Goehr
Source: The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 86, No. 2 (Summer, 2002), pp. 307-328
Published by: Oxford University Press
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Music and Culture




of the



Das ist die Not der schwerenZeit!
Das ist die schwereZeit der Not!
Das ist die schwereNot der Zeit!
Das ist die Zeit der schwerenNot

This poem, entitled "Kanon,"asksus, as a musicalcanon would, to sing
out its lines not in sequence but in overlappingvoices. And although
it exhausts its logical possibilitiesof variationbetween time and need,
one has the feeling, as in a children'sround,that it could go on forever.
However, I am less interestedin the poem'sform than in its historical
time of authorship,because I shall write about the canon not as a particular musicalform,but, rather,as an authoritativeconcept of cultural
formation.I am interestedin diedeutscheKlassik,the Germancanon
of musicalworkswhere the belated development of Germanyas a modem nation is indispensableto the account, even though the history
neither of music nor of the canon belongs solely to Germany.Yet my
themes are well investigatedby focusing on Germanyand the anxiety
it has shown towardits own status as a nation and its canon of works.
The poem was penned as the Germanmusicalcanon was fast
taking shape. The canon became a dominant culturalformationwhen
music became autonomous,historical, and disciplined in tandem with
the rise of the work'sconcept and absolutemusic. This was also the start
of the bourgeoisage of public concert halls and commissionedworks,
with new roles definedfor composers,performers,audiences,and critics.
Much of this familiarstoryhas to do with the dominance of romanticism
and idealismin Germanyaround 1800 and with how secularcanonic
worksassumedan atavistic characterof sacredness,or, more broadly,
with how secularformsof culturalauthoritydisplayedthe canonic
aspirationsand anxieties of earlierformsof religiousauthority.1
The poem'sexact yearwas 1814, the year of Beethoven'srevisedFidelio. Indeed, that there is a German musicalcanon is usuallyexplained
by referenceto the Beethoven cult, accordingto which Beethoven was
The Musical Quarterly 86(2), Summer 2002, pp. 307-328; DOI: 10.1093/musqtl/gdg012
? 2004 Oxford University Press
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with this.a congressthatsoughtto reorderEuropeafterthe determinedterritorial clusionandexclusion.308 The MusicalQuarterly chosenas the paradigmatic composerforthe newsymphonicage.the contributionto Germanromanticism of a powerfulKunstthe storyof "theshadow. aboutthe undoubtedgreatnessof its masterworks than historywithoutmortality.248.Though1814markeda momentof releasedfromFrance's of time and as the need.8 on Sun.Haydn. period poemsays.becausealthoughhe acquiresa happypurse(Fortunati it costshimhis humanness.andno wisdomwithoutthe recog- This content downloaded from 132.a Germanicderivationof a muchlongerFrenchname. Bornin theseuncertaintimes.Butthe promise. whatwouldstandin theirplace.the Germancanontellsa aristoin craticwriterborn France.who.andMozartwerecounted andincludedas at leastthreeof Beethoven'sgreatpredecessors. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . YetChamissowasknownlessforthispoemthanforhis authorshipin 1813(published1814)of PeterSchlemihls wundersame Geschichte individualcontentmentwithoutcommunity.This doesnot meanGermanmusicbeganwithBeethoven.As Thomas Mannmadeexplicitin 1933.fledthe RevolutionaryWarsandsettledin Berlin." However. happinesswithoutsuffering.However.myessayattendsto the composerwho so desperately soughthis canonicstatusin the musicalParnassus onlyto saysomething aboutthe markedalsoa critical rope.onlythe conscious processof canonization.he quickly learns.Likethe emergingcanon. and over aboutGermany's anxieties this essayI referto a marchen.the aspirations andanxietiesthathadlain behindGermany's its music into a historicallincanonizing particular wereinextricably boundupwith thosethathadlain eageof masterpieces behindGermany's nationalizingits people. Chamisso's storyis abouta manwho sellshis shadowforthe promiseof immediatehappinessandassimilationinto a community wherehe hasjustarrivedas foreigner.if not.2 The poem"Kanon" waspennedby an inveteratetraveler. The year1814wasalsothe startof the Congressof Vienna.the sortthatsaysthereis no Gliickssdckel).it promptedmorenationalseparationthanEuropean bordersof inunity.Conservativein direction.of uncertaintyas to whether Frenchidealsof libertyandequalitywereanylongersupportable and.withhis parents.Therehe cameto be knownas Adalbert von Chamisso. dualimageof Chamissoso thatwheneverone thinksof the writerof the shadowone thinksalsoof the poetof difficulttimesandneeds. sufferings The languageof sufferingandgreatness(LeidenundGrosse)ought naturallyto evokeThomasMann'smostfamouslectureon Richard Wagner.becauseBach.

He offersthe maneverlastingwealthto maintainthe deceit.3 Andersen'sfableof 1847mosthelpfully linksthe themeof the shadowto thatof the canon.Arrivthe shadowis immediately ing at the sanatorium.andforthishe mustconvincethe learnedmanpermanently to swapidentities.The storyis the man'salone:it is he This content downloaded from 132.the good. the shadowcastsitselfcanoniDieElexiere desTeufels.The learned manfindshis redemptionin his execution.butonly if he will acceptthe reversalof theirrolesas manandshadow.4 It wouldbe wrongto thinkthatthereis morethanone maleagent in this storyor that it wasthe shadow'sfaultthathe assumedthe rich clothesof apparentknowledge.the princessis left withfar lessthanshe bargained for." it is too late. T. to Richard Strauss's DieFrauohneSchatten.In theShadowof theCanon 309 nition that therearelimitson whatwe can know.Fearingthe loss.Despondent.248. also the entire court of but Poetry. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Hoffmann's HansChristianAndersen'sfable"TheShadow"[Skyggen]. A.The shadow knowsthatto keepthe princesshappyhe mustsustainthe illusionthat he is a man.the learnedman wonderswhetherhis pursuitof "thetrue. the shadowoffersto take the learnedmanon a restorativetrip.the shadowreturnsonlyyearslater.However.becausehe hasso little of whathis shadownowhas. pursuedby a sharpsightedprincessto whomhe quicklybecomesengaged.latenessandbelatednessgradually becomethe overarof themes: the lateness or German music as an decay interpreted ching of the belatedness the modem nation-all worked of German expression out throughthe themeof the shadow.9.8 on Sun. Andersentellsof a youngbutlearnedmanfromthe north(Berlin) who.)On this basis.richin wealth andconvincingin his new suitof clothes.Opportunistically.andthe beautiful" hasnot justbeena wasteof his time.When the shadow he claims to havelearnednot onlythe woman'sidentity.whiletravelingin warmsouthernclimes. leavingthe learnedmanmeanwhilefearfulthathe hasbecomethe man of the story(Chamisso's story)who losthis shadow.he wastesawayandbecomesa mere shadowof his formerself.the learnedmanis silenced.As with the Faustian bargain(or Plato'sparableof the cave).the shadowclaimsfurtherto havebecomea man.Butthe learnedmanrefusesandthreatensto revealall.throughE.(The eveningfindshis curiosityso aroused(bythe magicalstrainsof musicandthe imageof a beautifulwoman)thathe sendshis shadowoff to seekthe knowledgehe cannothimselfacquire. The princessandthe shadowmarry. finallyreturns.It tellsof a scholar who. callylongandwide.andthe beautiful.havingbetrayedhis commitmentto the canonicvaluesof "the triesto redeemhimselfbutfindsthat true. In this essay.the good.The learnedmanagrees.

"Thewholelittle bookis of nothingbuta profoundly experienceddescriptionof the sufferings the markedandsolitaryindividual.In the latenessof the times.the "impotent" manwho mustkeepthe secret of his deficit.with the shadowreattachedto the man.Mannwrites.310 The MusicalQuarterly who.Whydoesthe storynot havea happyending.losthis ground.Eitherhe couldget his shadowbackbutnowonly in exchangeforhis soul.doesthe shadowserveas an allegoryto elucidatethe of the Germannation?The firstthingto stressis the transition sufferings of focusthatwill takeplacefromthe individual's lossto the community's.andmore.who in his storychoseto wanderthe earthforthe restof his daysseekingonlythe ("dehumanized") knowledgeof science.young Chamissowonders-perhapslikeGoethe'syoungWertherorWagner's youngWalthervon Stolzing-how he will fulfillhis dutyto art. alongwithhis shadowlife.findshimselfin a strangelandand immediatelyloseshis shadow-becausea manwithouta countryis a manwithouta shadow."6But.Thusthe of the inhumanmanthe detachedshadowassumesthe appearance learnedmanbecomes. andhe chosethe latter.Butin 1911he usedChamisso's estrangement to focuson the youngwriter'stendencyto glorifyhis sufferingof separation not onlyfromhis nativecountryandlanguage.or he couldlive withhis soulintactbutseparated forevermore fromhis shadow.with the man'shumanityrestored? BecauseAndersenmustmirrorChamisso's PeterSchlemihl.But This content downloaded from 132. onlythe reflectionof a man-strewn acrossthe ground.9. "Chamisso. becauseof his genius.248." who.whilethosewhokepttheirsoulslivednowonly in shadowlessexile? Exileis preciselyThomasMann'sconcerntoo when. but it wasworse. if individualschooseeitherto losetheirsoulsor to sacrificetheirlivesas partof a community.fromhis community. life in communitywithothermen.butalso." Sufferingfromhis greatness.thesewere the onlychoicesleft.5 How.havingleft his losinghis shadow.Hadhe no otherchoice?Yes.Schlemihlor Chamissohimself.8 on Sun.ButPeterSchlemihlstillhasa choicebetweengiving the Devilhis soulandsacrificing.Then he regretsit andnow the Devildemandshis shadowas a ransom.the communityis affectedtoo. "It the seems to me thatthe storyof Wittgensteinbegins argument: PeterSchlemihlshouldreadlike this:He makesoverhis soulto the Devilformoney."TheShadowis in PeterSchlemihl a HadMann symbolof all his essay he describesa solitaryman." writtenhis essayin 1941.he wouldhaveknownfirsthandthe anxieties of livingin a strangeland. Forwhatwoulda communitybe like if it reacheda pointwherethe memberswho stayed Wittgensteinwellknew(in 1931).Fora shadowis nothingat all. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .now.

To be a poet.sangat differentfromWagner's in Dunstdasheil' ge rom'sche the end of DieMeistersinger. in orderto keephis soul.therewill be timeswhenthe communitylets the a man. mightcapitulate community's best.7 choosea differentkindof stayingat home.However.As GoethesurvivedWerther.theywouldlive up to theirownproclaimedvalueseven whena communitywasin crisis.asThomasMannwouldwitness.the questionwaswhether.he hadanyotherchoice.9.Butstill.At the lateness of the times.YetwasMannreallyhopingforanything Naziappropriation HansSachs.Herewasa transitionin Mann'sviewbetween 1911and 1933:thougha youngwriteroughtnot celebratethe sufferings of his exilinggreatnessandchooseto join the ChamissomustsurviveSchlemihl:"One cannotbe interestingforever. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .or that it becamecaught Faustianbargainsregarding history.into humancommunity.becauseforhim.thatwhenhe moved to Americahe tookGermanculturewithhim to preserveit againstits andabuse.248.suchthathe is forced. Mannwrites. I hesitateto statethe harshtruthnow thatthe Germancanonof Germanmusichas in darktimesentered." Onlyeternalbohemianswouldresentan that artist'smaturation.8 on Sun.ButI thinkone up in the mostcatastrophic periodof Europe's This content downloaded from 132.howevercalamitous. "[t]obe a German. preferring he ratherdie in obscurity"fromhis own interestingness" rather ("gehtan seinerInteressantheit zugrunde") Foran artistto havea thanjoin the communityandbecome"amaster.unsbliebegleichdie heil'gedeutscheKunst!"("evenif the Holy RomanEmpirewereto go up in smoke[throughthe "decay" brought aboutbyforeignrule].holyGermanartmightstill remainwithus!") WagnerwasneverfarfromMann'sthoughts.thatalmostmeantto be a poet.he refusesto glorifythe geniusof his youth." shadowis alsoforan artistto havean impact-to casta shadow-on art'sfuture.becominga masterwasnot forthe communityas a whole.who.then wasnot was about problem Mann'shopeto saveits culturein exile quitefutile. if the andrationalization all whatwasgoingon insidea country. RecallnowMann'smostfamousclaimof exile. that"zerging' Reich.thatalWhereasManngrantsChamissohis sucmostmeantto be a German.whatMann mademoreexplicitthanSachswasthata threatto a nationthatis taken to be fromwithout(orfrom"theforeign")is usuallyonlya projection of a causefromwithin(fromoneself).In theShadowof theCanon 311 Chamissofeelsalsoa dutyto if one couldtake the cultureout of a country-as if a culture." cessas a Germanpoet.masters withoutramifications to a at demands.couldsurviveas a detachedshadow?Of course.

wherethe dialecticalaimis to disentanglethe truthsof suffering thatlie in the shadowof the canonandareconcealedpreciselybyassertions of its I am aware that strike an American readgreatness." They haveseentheirtaskas defendingunprejudiced judgmentandvalue.or beenforcedto confrontso much"atthe extreme"whata dialecticalapproachto the canonshowsmostseriously to be at stake.or individuality it is treatedasopenandrevisable. Letme saysomethingquicklyaboutthe debateoverthe canon thathastakenplacein the lasttwodecadesin mainstream America.contrarily.Dehavecriticizedthe canonforits elitismandchauvintractors.whyshouldit in the New? Mostlythe debatehaskeptthe ideaof a canonin place. butsomethingjustaboutthe fairlycrudesplitthathasemergedbetween the canon'sso-calledconservativedefendersandthe liberaldetractors. agreementaboutthe characterandextentof the standard's Whencriticsaskthat a greaterdiversityof worksbe includedin the canon.andthe beautiful" maywellcapturethe mosthumanandenlightenedof ourvalues.andthe beautiful. as theyusuallydo.the good.andnot only its so-called(European)aestheticor intellectual This content downloaded from 132.andnot. The formerhavetendedto defendcanonicworksas rightlybelonging to the canon.butone of America.butit doesso only if it remainstrueto itselfandis not usedto eclipsethe voicesof its detractors or furtherto ostracizea society'srepressed groups.unlikeGermany.or forits claimedpurity.Suchcommitmentdid not workin the OldWorld.8Mosttheoristsgivepriorityto individualworksoverthe canonto whichthe worksbelongandagree that if a givenworkdoesnot fit the canon'sstandardof value. andaestheticism.becauseinvestigatinga culturalphenomenon underextremeor abnormalconditionscan serveto showus with condition frighteningclaritywhatis alwaysat stakeeven in a purported of virtueof theirrepresentingthe noblevaluesof "thetrue. likePolykleitos's statueor Moses'stablets.or ashavingstoodthe test of time.9.Buttherehasbeenfarless eternallyset in stone.criticspointout.the good.say.Detractors havejusturgeddefendersto a Germanone.has mypointsis explicitlythatmainstream not chosen.needed.wanted.8 on Sun. mentto "thetrue.whattheyalsodemandis thatmoreof society's(orAmerica's) is better to revisethe standardthanrejectthe opposed. Myargumentnow assumessomepoliticalresonancesfromcritical theory. myapproachmight ership. as ratherextreme.I makethemexplicitlessto enteran immediatepoliticaldebate thanyet furtherto encouragea dialecticalapproach to the musicalcanon.Commitism. that a if canonwill remaintrueto the spiritof truth.genius.nonpoliticality.248.312 The MusicalQuarterly shouldnot avoidthis truth. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

comeinto play.the firstis morefragileandtoo often becomes the second. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .as seenfromthe conservativedefenders'standpoint. The anxietymaybe illustratedby two dialecticallycontrastingimlessironicthanthe second.into a placeof havingtoo much.theirmediationby andwithsocimelodrama"?9 A deep-seatedfearthat ety.8 on Sun.Defendersbalkat the suggestionforfearthat the canon(orresultingcanons)will. detractors.butalsowith the transitionfrom authoritarian to democraticpoliticalforms.9.In theShadowof theCanon 313 ones.Forboththesedilemmas leavetheoristscontentjustto argueendlesslyoverwhichworkshouldor shouldnot be includedwithoutfurtherreflectingon the argument's preOr.not even on the basisof the works.unfortunately the coverof a deservedlyinfluentialAmericanbookentitledDisciplining Musicthatshowsthe would-befallenminiaturestatuesof canoniccomThe secondcomesfromthe posersas chesspieceson a chessboard.butbecauseof the composers' personalcommitmentsto all mannerof illiberalviews.badworks. according require However. lic gameof canonbusting.Stressingthe latter.worse.orbetweennewforms of expressionandethnocentrism. criticalthinkingaboutcanonizationis unlikely. to the an does not servethe debatewell to thinkit solvedbykeepingsomecomposers This content downloaded from 132.canoniccomposersfromthe concerthalls. as seenfromthe liberalstandpoint.becomejust the mirrorof a society'sfluctuatingideologies.theyfurtherencouragewhathasbecomea pubsuppositions. pluralism.10 of a Czech its tellsof ill-educatedSS novel. Defendersretreatinto a placeof havingno politicsat all.relativism. defenders. Jiri opening instructed to Mendelssohn's bustfromthe roof guards.11 Althoughthe demandfortoleranceandpluralismmotivatesthe firstimageand"obedience andlonglegs"the longas the debateoverthe canonis drivenby highly polarizeddilemmasbetweenlastingvaluesandfluctuatingideologies.who. Weil."Bad takenfrom ages.Whatencouragesthis "tawdry the shadeof the Commendatore will appearto sendthe actorsto hell.haddifficultyidentifyingthe JewishcomposerandalmosttoppledWagneras a result.buteitheronlyfurthersanctionsthe anxiety.248.wheredetractorsremovethe bustsof canonic authorsor. author. topple of the formerGermanTheatrein Prague.The first.The purismof lastingaestheticandintellectualvaluesis accordingly heldup as the antidoteto the of Nationalism or extremes democratization."Defendersthen tryto savethe worksagainstthe adthatthe worksare mittedly"bad"composerson groundsso aestheticized effectivelystrippedof theirshadows.12 The recentdebateoverthe canonhasobviouslyto do with the politicsof inclusionandexclusion. standsto a nationas democratization standsto democracy: both.betterforthe presentargument.

248.8 on Sun.we runthe riskof missingthe authoritarianism that threatensthe constructionon the other. Lookingat how oppressed peopleshavewrittentheirhistoriesand constructedtheirmythsis a powerfulandoptimisticwayto illuminate of canonbuilding.confidence.Justbecausenationsandcanonsdo not alwaysshowthemselvesat theirextremes.andsole future.A dialectithatnationsandcanonsmayexistundera socal modelacknowledges calledconditionof normality.or anyother"foreign" lineage.Thus.the factof inclusionthat the generationof an illusionof comfortable repression.a conditionhavingsignsof productively unclearinclusions(in Germanytoo).The pointdoesnot rest with the banalclaimthatcanonizingworks." lineages.It wasnot even an extremeversionof thisclaimto hearabout thatwhichdidnot belongas beingconsignedto dasFalscheanddas Feuer.andauthorityof particular groups. but it refusesto takethe normality of anynation'scanonat facevalueor as riskfree.still.the separationassumeda terroristcharacterpreciselywhenthe electedworkscameto be identifiedwithmusic'sessence.But.314 TheMusicalQuarterly on the roofandtopplingothers.In the early movetowardnationhood(officiallyestablishedin of stages Germany's 1871).andnonconformist mentsareconsignedto the darknessin orderto promotethe illusionof a canon'suniquelypureandnaturalgreatness. Post-WorldWarII theoristsinfluencedby wasobviousthat its historyof composerswouldbe separated (moreor less)fromthe French. reasonsdo not beliethe claimthatthe specificprocessof canonizing worksis inextricablytiedto howwritingandmakinghistoriesshape the politicalidentity.likenationalizing peoples. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . butaboutconstructinga canon andhow thatprocessis boundupwithbuildinga nationor a group's collectiveidentity.whenthinkingaboutthe canon.truth.rules.the debateis not aboutthe composersor worksat all. cannottrackits groupingtendencieswithoutthreateningto repressits opposition.The pointis ratherto the extreme.Criticaltheoryis preciselythe refusal to jumpoverits shadowor to assumea safeplaceoutsidetimeandneed This content downloaded from 132. someof the complexanxietiesandaspirations by lookingat historyfromthisside.9.we oughtto moveawayfromfocusingon its criteriaforbelongingtowardan investithatmotivatethe gationof the nationalistanxietiesandaspirations of in And the first althoughthereareclearly a deepsense.Hereis a wayto thinkaboutthe shadow:as the dialecticalunderelesideof a canonwhenthe oppositional. masksthe sufferingof exclusion.andclassifications. process canonizing lessinnocuousreasonswhycountriesanddifferentspheresof production those havetheir"commontraditions. However.thereis the constant threatthattheymight-becauseat leastGermanyonce did.

when consideredagainstthe extremeconditionof Germany's past. considerswhathumanrightsanddemocracymeanat heart.butratherto pointout to Americanshow the self-evidentassertionof humanrightsprovesanythingbutself-evident.He wrote: "Thata liberalpoliticalculturecoulddevelopin a culturallyhighlycivilizedsocietysuchas GermanyonlyafterAuschwitzis a truthdifficult to grasp."14 In 1997SeylaBenhabibusedthe title "Inthe Shadowof the Wall" to reviewforthe suitablynamedNationmagazinea recentlytranslated underthe title A BerlinRepublic: collectionof essaysbyJurgenHabermas on his or herotherness.9. learningfromGermany's pastis a dialecticalmode whichpaysexplicit of self-evidence. willbe similarlyrespected" (164). This content downloaded from 132.likenormality. thatfew in Americawouldlikelyfindanything Benhabibremarked radicalin beingaskedto respecthumanrights.emptier.becauseof reif one is lessdifficultto understand flectionon the incomprehensible."Thistitle conveyedall the anxietyof an essaythatwasasking how one mightthinkaboutthe normalityof a futurefora BerlinRepubaskedus to consider lic in the shadowof its abnormalpast.perhapsit will beginto lose its selfevidentcharactereverywhere else.8 on Sun.The factthat it developedbecauseof Auschwitz.248.andthatthe integrityof each individual.betokensthe falseillusionthatwe no longerhaveto thinksomethingthrough.Butshe madethe point forbeingbehindthe timesnorto congratneitherto criticizeHabermas ulatethe Americansforbeingwiththe times.In theShadowof theCanon 315 whereshadowsareno longercast.Borrowing Rabinbach confined as an emotional Heller.thoughforthatreasonall the moreurgent.13 GermanIntellectuals between Apocalypse Catastrophe: andItsShadows" Rabinbachgavehis introductionthe title "Apocalypse to conjureupboththe apocalypticeventsof violenceandterrorof the in whichwe arecurlastcenturyandthe deepreflection(Andenken) fromthe workof rentlyengagedin the shadowsof the thatgenuinephilosophical propriate couldtakeplaceaboutthe ideasthatwerecomplicitin the catastrophe.Habermas whatfollowsfromthe factthat the terrorspreceding1945can be understoodas havinggivenwayto the doctrineof humanrights.In theShadowof andEnlightenment. ForHabermas.forself-evidence. herewasalreadyin Nietzscheasearlyas 1883:"Thoughts The separation arethe shadowsof ourfeelings-only darker.simpler.Thus.15Benhabibpaidspecialattentionto the finalessay.the simpleexpectationthatno one will be excludedfromthe politicalcommunity.the phrase"inthe shadow"was usedin 1997by AnsonRabinbachforhis bookof essays.namely. mourning responseapAgnes thinking onlyto thosewhodied. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .And if the assertionlacksself-evidencethere. as is the dismantling of interrogation. Writings "1989in the Shadowof 1945:On the Normalityof a FutureBerlinRepublic.

and via this relationshipon the vision it offersfor music's future.when Germanywas being shapedby dialectical proclamationsof its end. maskthe general anxiety.And yet. had reached its end. Here is a motivation for canon formation perfectlyillustratedby Germany'sexample."a decadent style that itself on the prides living relationshipit establishesto a two-hundredyear-oldpast. civil and political rights.8 on Sun. and place its productsin a museum."Without a today."Thiskind of music expresseswhat I consider true of the Germans:they are of the day beforeyesterdayand of the day aftertomorrow-they haveas yet no today.a mode of thinking about what is possible now againstthe catastrophicdarknessof what once provedpossible. the culminating point of self-realization.Only a vibrantcivil society and an energetic public sphere.9. it negates its own presence as present art. Habermasasks:What. Benhabibwrites: "ForHabermas.248. in which social movements create alternative associationsand spacesalongsiderepresentativedemocraticinstitutions." The optimismof Benhabib'swordsdoes not. a motivation basedon an obsessivepreoccupationwith the thought that Germany'smusic. "Wasbedeutet:Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit?"16 It is a reflectivemode of thinking throughconditions in and at the extremes. however. religion. including the social and economic rightsgained by the working classes in welfare-statedemocracies. can we learn fromhistory againstthe fatalistic Hegelian thought "thatlearningalwayscomes too late for those who act?"17But the question is also what we do to history in late times. inconceivable. if anything. and reasonhaving reached. Evidentlywe reify it. can guaranteethat liberal-democraticconstitutionalismbecomes a living cultureratherthan a dead tradition. Nietzsche articulatedthe fatalismin referenceto Wagnerwhen he describedDie Meistersinger's overtureas "lateart.Germany was somehow no longer living or makingone. canonize it.The notion that a living culturecan become a dead tradition derivesfrom the earlynineteenth century. even though it prove it alive. of its priorand living historyof art. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .paradoxically. in what do Germansput their hope? In finding an answerto the most fatal of all questions:"Wasist deutsch?"18 This content downloaded from 132.The ironic fatalismthat accompanied such proclamationswas deep: having at last found its history. Nietzsche continues.learningfrom the past means that any futureGermanrepublic must anchor itself firmlyin the traditionsof liberaldemocratic constitutionalismand respectfor universalhuman.316 The MusicalQuarterly homageto Adoro's seminallectureof 1959.for example. then as now. and thereforeall a way. preciselybecauseof this Janusface. Here now is the anxiety of lateness or decay that throwsdoubt on the very idea of a living cultureunderthe belated condition of Germanmodernity.

then.8 on Sun."19begun in 1865 duringhis own repatriationto Bavariaafterexile and completed in the 1880s.All recent "revolutionsin Germanyare entirely unGerman.who pursueeverythingwith "interest. Once the problemwas Rome. Why do they do this?Becauseof their lack of success in reestablishingthemselves.and in a culturethat was freedfrom utilitarianconcerns.21For to seek the rebirthof Germanyin its culture.Only in the rebirth of spiritand culturewill Germanysave itself againstthe invasion not merelyof the external foreign. now it is France.In theShadowof theCanon 317 So considerWagner'sessay "Wasist deutsch. Goethe.the "suprememasterpieces"of Bach. Mozart.Only in this lineage does one find "the beautifuland the noble" pursueddisinterestedlyfor its own sake. And where does one find that?In just that partof Germany'shistorythat transcendsits political failure:its music. was also a mode of retreatfrom a society that was unable any more not to fail.deutsche Treue(fidelity). Only here does one find the unsulliedexpressionof that which transcendsall politics and even nationalities:the "purelyhuman"spiritof Christianity. Wagnerthinks: repeatingthe errorof allowing Germanpolitical reformto be dictated by formsand principlesforeign to it. Schopenhauerhad spoken of a retreatinto a will-freed worldof aesthetic and intellectual contemplation existing "outsideand This content downloaded from 132.and Beethoven-but also of Shakespeare. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in their insecurity.248. and philosophy.who spoke of the attempt no longer to "conquerthe world. deutscherErnst(seriousness). in suitablymodem form.have constantly to repeattheir own name with reverence:deutscheTiefe(depth).whom the Englishhave failed to understand. Hence Hans Sachs'smonologue. No one expressedthe pessimism for Wagnermore overwhelminglythan Schopenhauer."he writes."only to "overcome"it.9."20 BecauseWagnersaw political failureas the cause of both the invasion and the successof those elements that did not belong to the German Heimat. But Wagner'shope for idealized"burgherly" German culturewas also deeply tainted by the pessimismof lateness that had lain for so long (allegedlysince Luther) in Germany'sshadows. Should they want to do this.Wagneradds."What. given their failure the firsttime round?Only if it means not repeatingthe political errorsof the past. is appropriatefor Germany?Seeking Germany'sessence. aesthetics.22 As early as 1819. as the Holy Roman Empirethey once were. But this is exactly what Germanyis doing now.where he says that when politics fails a land one should seek to preservethe land's values throughits culture. It opens with the anxious observationthat it is only the Germans who. "'Democracy'in Germanyis entirely a translatedthing.but also of those "foreign"elements within-by which Wagnermeant the Jews.he turnedhis attention to spiritualand canonic reform. which predatesMann's.

"The being Republicis damagedif the integrativestrength of a nationis basedon a prepoliticalgiven.unlessof coursethe nationalproject is then alsoseparated frompoliticsby beingsomehowuniversalized or naturalized too. Butis thisnot a decadentprocess.on separating culturefrompolitics.first.and. simply.or betweenpolitics This content downloaded from 132.t overcome peanism.23 Wagnerhimselfmorbidlyspoke of seekingconsolationfromthe ruinsof the present.and human-which was of the to Reichpurely preciselypart "condescending sdeutsch" recallnow the imaginesitselfto havegrownorganicallyandunderstands itselfby contrastwith the artificial orderof positivelaw"(173-174). Euroor this would no.andof the natudescribesfora nationin the processof ralizingprocessthatHabermas nationalized.24 The pessimisticretreatfrompoliticalfailureinto a spiritualor culturalconsolationcertainlycontributedto givingGermanmusicandits canoniclineageof worksa greaterprominencein the country'spolitical life. its purported valuesof the true.on a factindependentof the formationof mightargue.318 The MusicalQuarterly of all the relations"thathadshapedthe worldinto a independently of battle-ground tormentandsuffering.A nationnaturalized in thiswayreplacesthe historicalcontingencyof the contextualizing of the communityandfortifiesartificially createdboundaries by lendingthemthe auraof the bringthe nation process's"artificial" backto life. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . automatically the difficultoppositionsbetweennatureandartifice.wouldnot havebeenso badhadit not assumedso collectivelynarcissisticor so obsessivelyself-conscious a mightthink.the worldjustified. naturally. on universalizing orpurifyingculturalvaluesuchthat it leavesculture's rolein the nationalprojecteclipsed.a recognitionof a deador late modeof living.Forin doingso. it too will be strippedof its groundingandmediationin the actualhistoryof the troubledcountry? Evenif one wereto seekan answerin cosmopolitanism.andthe beautifulwereprofoundly to sustaina mythof the Germisinterpreted manashavinga uniqueclaimto the authentically. multiculturalism. by being conceivedas artificialor abstract.the good.Althougha people'snationis largelyan artifact. Butis not the appealto politicsaspositivelawsubjectto the sameriskas the appealto the naturalness of culture-that. Germanybecomepurelyculturalentity. Whatis the argumentherethatdisturbsHabermas as it disturbs me?Wantingcultureto do a country'sworkgiventhe failureof political reformis an aestheticphenomenon?In the othersideof naturalism's coin.9.second.8 on Sun.politicsnowhasto be reintroduced as the naturalization antidote.a modeof livingwithouta shadow:Germanywithoutgeography.

is a criticalorhermeneutical one. increasingly ing its placein the globaleconomy. atedby the aspirations I havebeenarguingthat in the canondebate.the fearof whatit cannotget awayfrom(as whenone saysthatone canneverjumpoverone'sownshadow). Sonderweg now is not enoughfordefendersto proclaimpureaestheticvaluesin antiisolationfrompolitics. thatrequiresus constantlyto workthroughGermany's past.Butwouldit allowGermanyto is still the question:"Republicankeepits shadow?That." Habermas writes."doeshistoryserveas a teacher.rather. its truenatureto the extentthat it shakesoff ism. formas the directalternativeto unique ulatingthe bidformulticultural the idea of it genuinepoliticalreformthoroughlymedidestiny: keeps andanxietiesof a in the nationdebate.Germany's (a uniquedestiny). 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."realizes the ambivalentpotentialof nationalism.alsocontinuethe bestof Europe's democraticandsocialisttraditions.foronlythen will we cometo see whatit has thereis a deliberatepointin tellsushow we oughtnotto do it.she articulatesthe choicebetween two visionsavailableto contemporary Germany:Will "aunifiedGerwhich is an mosaicreflectbecoming ethno-cultural many.or will the newGermanyturninmulti-ethnicrepublic wardandawayfromthe projectof a multicultural.25 Butit wouldat leastavoidthe pitfallsof the naturalism of commitment to a nationalism.In theShadowof theCanon 319 Benhabib So this is the answertowardwhichHabermas noteswhen. towardthe idealsof a thirdwayfora nationwith a supposedly unique What would be the of the destiny?" advantage pluralistoption?That it wouldnot askGermanyto sell its soul. Habermas usefullydrawsan analogyto the canon:If the canonis still to exerta usefulauthorityoverus. The multicultural underthe wingof the nation-statemuststillproveitselfoutsideand (176).the changing keep fearof whatit it could become in the fears of what focus (again).248. althoughHabermas speakshereof moving"outsideand beyond"the nation-state.whichonce servedas its vehiformof socialintegrationthathasbeenhatched cle. beyondthe nation-state" And yet."he writes. butas somethingconstantly demandingourrevision.the fear of whatmayhappenlest we if suchvalueswereideology'sguaranteed concludeherreview.His demand.8 on Sun.At best. It is fromexperiencesof a negativekindthatwe learn"(180-81).thatdemandwouldfailwereit understood simplyas a declarationof ourhavinggottenoverthe pastor simply givenup on nationhood.we haveto treatit not as "apetrifiedguestof the past"(12).norshouldcriticsthinkthatpoliticsas artificiallawwill do all the This content downloaded from 132."Onlyas a criticalauthority.

Considerjust at the historicallevel of fact the incongruencebetween Germany'spolitical and geographicalrelationshipto Austria (the problem of Germany'sbeing kleinor gross)and Austria'slong-termdomination of Germanmusic.or religiousgroundsbut whose music is nonetheless pronounced"German. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .As Wagnerarguedin Die the masters. albeit indirectly. there is Germanculture!For. was he not just stressingthe lonely burdenthat had now been placed on the exiled and individualwriterto producethose saving and redemptiveworks? Why impose a gap now between the canon and its individual works?Becausewhen one thinks of a canon. der the idea of fittingnessto a rule. where I am. how then could Sachs appealto the canon to save a countryagainst itself when its politics had purportedlyfailed it? Perhapshis appealwas not reallyto the canon afterall. And when one thinks about would be wrongto conclude that a canon is merelya shadow of a nation (or vice versa). The relationshipis much more complex.the continued obsessionwith the canon as an authoritativeculturalformationmight show us thinks more about their enigmatic qualitiesand individualconstructionthan merelytheir canonic This content downloaded from 132. by so focusing.248. not just the correctfollowing of rules.9.despite this argumentof analogy. for what producesa beautifulsong is that enigmatic or even spiritual qualityof genius. not to confront the anxieties head on. ratherthan claiming to preserveGermancultureper se. However.dialectical point: that even when a countryclaims to be in a state of political normality. one thinks about how the worksstand in relation to one another to give the canon its authority. racial. But is not the control of differencejust part of what contributesto a canon'sbecoming collectively narcissisticor authoritarian?And if so. or the deep tension between composerswho are pronounced"foreign"on political.ratherthan subsumingthe value of a song unMeistersinger.of the false confidence of that claim. although now in a completely differentway.Why should a mastercare more for the enigmatic qualityof songs than for a tradition's rules?To keep the traditionfromsufferingdeath by pedantryor Beckmesserei.Recall the worryfrom that debate regardingthe dangersof judgingnew worksaccordingto an alreadyfixed standard. And what is death by pedantry?Exactlythe attempt to maskthe differentiaof songs to maintain the orderof the day.perhapsit is time to reintroducethis focus. And perhapsthis was what Mann reallymeant too when he proclaimed in English in 1938.However.8 on Sun. but only to its potentially constitutive songs.becauseone tends. I also suggestedearlierthat to engage in the canon debate was not to focus on composersor their works.320 The MusicalQuarterly workof a canon'sor a nation'sreform."And then think of the deeper. should ratheradaptthe rule to the song.

and/orincreasinglyto the tendentiousdictatesof Nazism'sofficialculture.9. When wouldthis resistanceprovemostimportant? One mightsay"always" if one wantedto glorifythe sufferingactsof greatness. Again.andto whatdoesit amount?Considerthe so-calledKiinstleropem of the early twentiethcentury-althoughI thinktheymightbetterbe called assumedmanyof the anxietiesof art'sauthorityto Kanonopern-which detrackthe pathof music'sfuturein the faceof Germany's purported MathisderMaler. At the continuation of as level.impotent.or in the anxietyor the nation.therefore.248.desperate.theircomposersalsousedthe topicto affirm the statusof theirworksandthemselvesas canonic.Whatis sharedamongtheseotherwiseverydifferentworksis howfareachnegotiatedthe relationshipbetweenmusicandpoliticsby callingattentionto taskof the mightrathersaythatresistanceis appropriate only as havingsuccumbedto samecollective whenthe canonis interpreted dictateas the nationitself.Ernst PaulHindemith's cline." calledcomparable werecomposedanxiouslyforcanonicstatus. per whatit wantedto conceal-the anxietyor reliefthat in demonstrated timesthe canonof Germanworks. Butwhatdoesthe resistanceof individualworksmean.silent.The relationshipbetweena canonandits worksbecomesa mirrorof thatbetweena communityandits individuals. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Butfollowing Mann'slaterstep.andmelancholic gesturesof theirendings.Butone mightstill note theirsharedconof Germanmusic ceit to composeforthe continuationor transformation another this conceitonly music se. andArnoldSchoenberg's all exemplaryof worksthatfaceda declineattributedat the differentextremesto technology. Butif thesewerethe anxiousextremesor partof the intensification to whichGermany's modemoperaseither of Germanness (Steigerung) This content downloaded from 132.RememberMann's earlyworryaboutthe bohemianpretensionsof youth. thateach in factmightbe theverylastGermanwork.or charismatic the self-appointed an exemplary(musical)pastandthereby leaderto continueor transform a futurecommunity.In theShadowof theCanon 321 fit.madeincreasingly antagonisticby the artist'sdeeplyfelt modemloneliness. thesecatastrophic wasat an end.artist.8 on Sun. to continueor transform TheseKanonopernot onlyassumedas theirverytopicthe question of canonicheritage.One couldnot judgethese works.whyimposea gapbetweena canonandits works?To allow individualworksto resisteven the jazz. MosesundAronare Krenek's techniquesof the pedantic.Wherein the actualworksdidthis conceitundermineitselfmost?In the violent. HansPfitzner's Palestrina.As ThomasMann one mightsaythattheseoperas novels"confessional.

then note once morehow muchthe anxietyof Parnassus wasalreadyin place I havementionedrein the operain whoseshadowtheywerewritten.not onlyrefusedto becomea masterbutalso.butJonny'sTriumphSongof "Amerikanismus.thatartwasthe lastrefuge of truthfulness.andcountry?Doesthe appealto exile.not alsorunthe sameriskof lossas purifyingculture. singingnow no longerthe PrizeSong.or makinglawpositive? Do anyof theseappeals(andthis is whatI havebeenaskingall along) reallygiveus whatwewantof them.Butit is also possiblethatWaltherwantednothingfurtherto do with a traditionthat he thoughthadalreadydiedits death. Fora work(an autonomous onlyif it alsorefusedpreciselythe claimit wasmakingon behalfof it- This content downloaded from 132.8 on Sun. followingKrenek.Buthe neverclaimedthis resistancewithoutalsodialecticallyundowork)couldprovidesucha refuge ing it. WhenAdornowrotein "Aufdie Frage:Wasist deutsch?" that "[t]heGoodandthe Betterin everypeopleis surelythatwhichdoesnot integrateitself into the collective subjectand if a lonelytraveler. becausethe ambiguityof the phraseallowsit-"[Ich] will ohne Meister Sachsthen seligsein"-refusedanyfurtherrelationto mastersinging.asThomasManndid.27FollowingPeterSchlemihl."Butstill we areleft with Wagner's thoughtthatthe traditionwasno longerworthsupporting becausethe songWalthersangfrom"Paradies" to win Evawastoo the demands of With ThomasMann.perhumancommunityaltogetherand hapshe shouldhaverelinquished continuedhis life ashe enteredthe story." Butdo we nowhavean adequatesolutionto ourproblem. he alsosoundedas if he wereclaimingthat individual pursuitsor singularworksof artcouldresista nation'scollectiveauthority.Walthershouldhave takenthe next boatto America. particular whohavingwon the prize.Perhaps.politics.248. andeveryone"wavedtheirhatsandscarves."28or whenhe argued.9. I think.a solution wherewe putourhope.universalizing values.Butagainstwhatforcewashis hopeexpressed? Preciselythe youngWalthervon Stolzing. lecturedhim andeveryoneelse on whymastersinging hadto continue.a safeandsecureplacefromwhichto savea nationfromitself?I do not the thoughtthat we can preservethe valueof songin the exile or escapeof the artist awayfromcorruptedtradition.26 peatedlyHansSachs'shopethat in timesof politicalcrisisGermanart mightpreservethe truevaluesof the the shadowof "Parnassus." by compromised mightworrythatyoungWaltherwasjustmorereadyto die of his interestingnessthanwillingto workhardto becomea master. andno one. or to the individualandhis songs.better explainedwhythanAdomo. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .322 The MusicalQuarterly contributedor resistedin the shadowof its emergingcatastrophe.

ratheron a deepandcriticalrethinkingof humanity's This."makeslegiblethe horrorof whattimehas lost.32In Heine's 1851 poem "Jehudaben Halevy"we This content downloaded from 132.9.but.Withthe anxietyof not belonginguncurbed. but. backinto themselves.he left himselfsolelywith the meansof art."hopingto findthe voice of the outcastwho so desperately wantsto belong?This at lastreturnsus to the Schlemihl-however.but reasonandpolitics. theyarein some sensealienatedoperastoo. standingwithhis handon his breastandpalmsat his feet. as a ghostin 1911in TheMusicalHallof Fame.shoutingout its truthwithno one shipwrecked to hearit-what couldthe meaningof thiswork'sdoublerefusalthen futurewasstill firmlyin the be?ThatpresentthinkingaboutGermany's of its muthe "greatness" on the one of its hand. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .30 impossibly Looknow at Wagner(seeFig. of the chair"he wantsnothing youngWalther.fortheirlost shadows.The geniusthen madethe foreignerwhathe fearedhe was himself.8 on Sun. grip true that modem the fateful on the other.he wasright to do so.not justto express his anxietyaboutpolitics.tryingto convinceBeethovento giveuphis throne. anxiety Germany's wansince had citizenhadonlyeverbeen the lonelymanwho. He namedno safeplaceto counterthe.froma political perspective.31 Whatdoeshe say?Doeshe repeatthe limitedchoicesof lateness:HansSachs.buta possibilitypremisedneveragainon a redemptiveretreatby the geniusinto the puresphereof culture." Wagner's operasmaybe readas lateworksof non-belongingthatlookexactlyin the wishesWagnerhadnot givenup on so quicklyafter the politicalfailuresof 1848.Greatoperashe mighthaveproduced.248.In theShadowof theCanon 323 self."Adorno wrotewhilethinkingaboutautonomous works. in myview.Adorno sawthe possibilityof change.becauseof PeterSchlemihlhis shadow.a shadeof the non-belonging.In this secondrefusal.likethe Kanonopern. 1813.Inextricably of and later an ideology "greatness suffering.falseillusionthatone couldorhadbeenfound."29 Adomonamedthe extremeconclusionto an ideologyof belatednessandlatenessby namingno safeplace-as. deredthe worldwithouthis wouldrevealthe conditionof the world withwhichin the firstrefusalit claimedto havenothingto do." sic.Bynamingthe extreme.tellingthe "composers moreto do with them?OrdoesWagnerjuststill speakof "wasist deutsch. no longernowjustto Chamisso's figure. whichtryto aestheticizethe politicalin their tied to apparent(butonly apparent)refusalof the political.butalsoto seekin artits resolution. Being somewhereor nowhere.At this extreme. to Heinrich Heine's.1).butalso.wasjustthe sortof thinking. by past.he revealedthe deepestanxiety forthe Germannationandcanon:thateven the Germangeniusdid not belong. shadowed.

indeed.Bach.. deadlygadfly Of Apollo's sons. What a big divine Schlemihl! Ja. Der so stolz die Stime kronet.Meyerbeer. Fromleft to right:Chopin.Schubert.Brahms. What a fate reservedfor poets! Star of evil. Gluck.9." Apollo. MusicalHall of Fame..December 1911. Mozart. and one that Did not even sparetheir father.Grieg.Gounod. Ist ein Zeichen des Schlemihltums."he demonstrates his desire also to belong. hinter Daphnen laufend. Reproducedfrom Etude. finds his voice. Verdi. Statt des weiBenNymphenleibes Nur den LorbeerbaumerfaBte. und sogar Ihren Vaternicht verschont hat. by being given companionship with the "the big. Weber. Schumann. . Handel. Als er.. the laurel That enwreatheshis browso proudly Is a sign of this Schlemihldom. finally meet the figure who has been hiding in the shadows of Germany's modem tradition: the outcast Jewish poet who. Der die Sohne des Apollo Todlich nergelt. This content downloaded from 132. Er. Yes. Haydn.8 on Sun. Wagner. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the highbor Delphic God is A Schlemihl. Dichterschicksal!boserUnstem. der hohe Delphier ist Ein Schlemihl. chasing Daphne He reachedout for her white body And insteadembraceda laurel. Bruckner.248.. .324 The MusicalQuarterly Figure1. And though the smaller Schlemihl regrets that he must sing only in Apollo's "shadow. Beethoven-the reigningfigure(Apollo) in this Europeanmusical Parnassus-Mendelssohn.Liszt.der gottliche Schlemihl! On that day when. und garder Lorbeer. divine Schlemihl.

Wortenamlich.33 Not incidentally. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ThomasPogge.ErnstOsterkamp.SusanH.andLeoTreitler."Chamissoremarks." Symposium zuBerlin UnterdenLindenundthe Humboldt-Universitat presentedat the Staatsoper forthe (Wagner)Festtage2002.A Germanversionof thisessaywillappearin the Thanks EditionArgus(Schliengen). Notes "Thatis the needof the diretimes. in the modem German of lateness anxiety one cannot help but see the deep anxiety of non-belonging that has sustainedone of Germany'smost profoundand tragiccontradictions.all of whomwillfindthemselvesin the shadowsof my thoughts..Thisessaywas Wissenschaftliches writtenforthe Intemationales "Kunst-Fest-Feier.Chamisso Wissenwir. Nachgegriibelt Butits originis stillas Farfromknownas arethe sources Of the HolyNile."seemsto have gone unnoticed. WiedesheilgenNiles Quellen.Longsince. ManyyearsagoI traveled To Berlinto see Chamisso Ourgoodfriend... Gillespie).GreggHorowitz. he also links him to the Germangenius who has alwayslooked to the same god for his inspirationand belonging. Whatthe wordSchlemihldenotesis Knownto us.suchteAuskunft BeimDekanederSchlemihle." "That he had no shadow. AnselmGerhard. SusanGillespie. IstseinUrsprung.forinformation Fromthe dean of the Schlemihls. habdaruber mancheNacht.In theShadow of theCanon 325 WasdasWortSchlemihlbedeutet. I'vepondered Manya nightuponthissubject.late in Chamisso'sstory is the man "ohne Schatten" also identifiedas a Jew with the non-name "NumeroZwolf. Hannah Arendt once expressedthe point perfectly:"Thoughthey dub its author'unknown." What a paradoxicalcompanionshipHeine thus forms.9./ Thatis the timeof direneed"(trans. "the Nazis cannot eliminate [Heine's]Loreleifrom the repertoire of German song"(71). of assimilationand exclusion by too many of a country'speople who feel they do not belong. What follows fromthis affinityof difficultneed?A difficulttime. This content downloaded from 132.../ Thatis the diretimeof need.In linking the Jewishpoet to Apollo. Civicrights-I meanthe worddid. HermannDanuserundHerfriedMuenkler.NormanManea. to recall Chamisso'spoem./ Thatis the direneed of the times.8 on could not find a more appropriateKunstmdrchen by which to understandthe nation.248. ZuBerlinvorvielenJahren Wandtich michdeshalban unsem FreundChamisso. And in this lateness. With the Schlemihl. therefore..'" she wrote. to manycolleaguesandfriends. Aberunbekanntgeblieben.BrigitteHilmer.butespeciallyto BorisGasparov.HatdochChamisso IhmdasBiirgerrecht in Deutschland Saw to it that it got German dem Langstverschafft.

but."Essaysof ThreeDecades."Canonand Power in the HebrewScriptures. Tales.Peter Winch (Oxford:Blackwell. separatedfromhis shadow.trans. again. Anselm Gerhard. 1995).also to sustainhis poweror "charismaticauthority"over and above any of the religion'sfuturescribes. trans. 4.2001). no. it is too late for each to find the other. Disciplining Music:Musicologyand Its Canons(Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Goehr.does so by learningabout poetry. Lowe-Porter(New York:Knopf. Thomas Mann. 11. 307-52. 8.vol..1992). 1983)."in Canons. 7."in Essaysof ThreeDecades."Archivfiir Musikwissenschaft 58. 6. The Birthof Tragedyand The Case of Wagner.248. "Chamisso.1978). Anson Rabinbach. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Cf.In theShadowof Catastrophe:GermanIntellectuals betweenApocalypseand Enlightenment (Berkeley:University of CaliforniaPress. 2. left skepticallypursuinga knowledgehe thinks has lost its humanity. eds. 41.MarieWinn (New York:Penguin.there is also an explicit class theme in this story. The ImaginaryMuseumof MusicalWorks(Oxford:ClarendonPress. 5. 179. The learnedman. 1983). See also Gero von Wilpert.I thank Gregg Horowitzfor this point. afterwhich he went on his travelsand produceda travelogueentitled ShadowPictures.conservativelyexpressedin termsof an aristocraticman who findshimself threatenedby a poor man (the shadow) who has assumedthe appearance.but the appearanceonly. 1974). CultureandValue. Robertvon Hallberg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press.HarvardClassics 1909-14 (New York:HarvardUniversity Press. no. Bruns. 12. This is a phraseused by CharlesAltieri in "An Idea and Ideal of a LiteraryCanon. 9.Helen T. 177-95. 1948). of wealth. Bohlman. 65-83.Thus. both man and shadow are left with the sort of knowledge the other needs. Der verloreneSchatten:Varianteneinesliterarischen (Stuttgart:Kroner. Andersen met Chamisso in Berlin in 1831.but fails to use his poetryfor noble ends.WalterKaufmann(New York:Vintage Books. 21. 1997).in assumingthe pretensionsof knowledge. JosephKerman's"A Few Canonic Variations. Robertvon Hallberg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ed.Note that Andersen'sstorysayssomething about the relationshipbetween poetry and science. This content downloaded from 132. 4."in Essays. 1992).1992). This phraseis taken fromNietzsche'sdefinition of "Germanen"in The Case of Wagner. 1 (2000): 18-30. 1980). HermannKurzkeand Stephen Stachorski(Frankfurt:Fischer.trans.WalterKaufmann(New York:Vintage. 11-72. ed. 1983). book 3. For more on canons and charismaticauthority.9."in Canons. 13. The shadow.trans. no. MendelssohnIs on theRoof. 1967). 2-9.see GeraldL.326 The MusicalQuarterly 1. Achtung." 'Kanon' in der Musikgeschichtsschreibung: Nationalistische Gewohnheiten nach dem Ende der nationalistischenEpoche.241-59." in Canons.8 on Sun. The Gay Science. Moses arguablysmashesthe tablets the firsttime aroundto prove "the law"as eternal and thus separablefrom any particularinscription. "Leidenund GrosseRichardWagners. Publishedin Englishas "Sufferingsand Greatnessof RichardWagner. Motivs 3. Europa!1933-1938. Finally. 11. Robertvon Hallberg(Chicago:University of Chicago Press. KatherineBergeronand Philip V. 14. ed.

1998). Cf. Wagner's:to be German means to do something for its own sake.17ff. 1984).A Berlin Republic:Writingson Germany. Press. Adorno: "Recallthe most famousformulationof Germancollective narcissism. which had been lost graduallyin the seeking regenerates and claiming of power.Cf."in Critical Models:Interventions and Catchwords. 1997. Dec.""On the Question: 'What is German?'"in CriticalModels. The Worldas WillandRepresentation (New York:Dover.Cultureowes its highest achievements to politically weakened times". trans. Cf.trans. 244.1995]). vol."A Look at the State. Mann..Nation. It is important to note now that canon formationin the arts. Here I am disagreeingwith the view that whereasDie Meistersinger are backward Thomas the Cf. 23. Cf. Benhabib. also Anselm Gerhard. 1997.7.Wis. 19."in of Giirgen Habermas. Pickford(New York:Columbia 89-103. Kunstreligion. 21. Man. biirgerlichen 1959). nos. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."Musikwissenschaft-eine verspateteDisziplin. This content downloaded from 132. 149-69.Mann. 20. 240.MarionFaberwith Stephen Lehmann (Lincoln: University of NebraskaPress. 22. Cf. 18-22.Thus the development of what was called I thank Anselm Gerhardfor makingthis connection explicit.248. trans. 36. Morris(New York:Ungar. 1993). Resurrection of theSpirit. trans.1996).WalterKaufmann(New York:Vintage.Pfitzner. no.9.A BerlinRepublic:Writingson Germany. no. One may also usefullycompareMann's 1945 lecture "Germanyand the Germans"(Libraryof Congress)for an exemplarystatement of this German'scanonic anxiety as expressedthroughthe author'shaving now become an American. Mann got into troublefor EuropeanizingWagnerin his 1933 Wagneressay. 18. "The Rivalryfor Wagner's Mantle: Strauss. Reinhold Grimm and Jost Hermand(Madison.see Hans Rudolf Vaget.Die verspdtete Nation: iber diepolitischeVerfiihrbarkeit Geistes(Stuttgart:Kohlhammer. 25."in Musikwissenschaft-eine und zwischenFortschrittsglauben verspdteteDisziplin?Die akademische Musikforschung Modemitdtsverweigerung (Stuttgart:Metzler. For more on this connection back to Luther."On its political sickbed. is forwardlook26. University 17. 24.207. "The Meaning of Workingthroughthe Past. "EineMusikohne Zukunft. Nietzsche. 4. 1966)." in Human.8 on Sun. Habermas.All TooHuman.ed.trans. 16. Art and Politics(New York:Broude.Adorno. To stressthe lineage."in NietzschecontraWagner. looking.Henry W. 465. Reflections of a Nonpolitical Kanonopem ing. Habermas. 136-58. "CanWe Learnfrom History?"in A BerlinRepublic.trans. 1987).: Publishedfor Monatshefte[by]University of Wisconsin Press.William Ashton Ellis.In theShadowof theCanon 327 15.2000)."345). publishedin German as Die NormalitateinerBerliner Republik[Frankfurt:Suhrkamp. "What is German?"in RichardWagner'sProseWorks.see Helmuth Plessner. 1958). BeyondGoodandEvil. 1-30.which quickly led to his leaving Germany.a people usually and itself finds its spiritagain. was deeply tied to the theological debate over kanonischeSchriftenand the possibilitiesof Protestant ritual to define a unique Germanyidentity.Steven Rendall (Lincoln: University of NebraskaPress. I am here quoting Mann quoting Wagnerquoting Schopenhauer ("Sufferingsand Greatness.Walter D. 302 and 311.especially in the 1870s.

" ed. trans."in MusicologyandDifference:GenderandSexualityin MusicalScholarship. Vazsonyi(Rochester: History. 33. as part of the anxiety about the Germannation. Rehearsals. Solie (Berkeley:University of demonstratingthe lateness of German music as a whole. This content downloaded from 132.a story.248.Representation: (Re)ViewingWagner'sMeistersinger. SdmtlicheSchriften. I am thereforedepartingfromAdomo here. of how a nobody becomes a somebody. This link to Heine is taken from Hannah Arendt.ed. In Victor I. 1993). c1982). N. Mahler:A MusicalPhysiognomy (Chicago:University of Chicago Press."Journalof theRoyal MusicalAssociation116 (1992).Hal Draper(Cambridge. 31. Heinrich Heine. 29. KlausBriegleb. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .2003.Mass. 153.8 on Sun. 280-98.Heine met Chamisso in 1822 as a student and Hans ChristianAndersen in Parisin 1833.vol. The CompletePoems:A ModernEnglishVersion. Formore on readingthe opera'sending this way. Treitler. tion: On Songs. I thank RichardBernstein for alertingme to this discussion.see my "The Dangersof Satisfacin Performance. 6/1 (Munich: Hanser.:Suhrkamp/InselPublishersBoston."in TheJew as Pariah. it is also noted that Chamisso'sstoryfollows Achim von Amim's Jemandund Niemand. who thinks more specifically about particularlate worksof composersin termsof "latestyle. 1985). Note that I am thinking about these works.ed.328 The MusicalQuarterly 27. Ron H. 56-70).9.205. Feldman(New York:Grove. "TheJew as Pariah. 32. A ShortHistoryof theShadow(London:Reaction Books. Ruth tory. 23-45.and Repetition in Wagner'sDie Meistersinger.with their canonical obsession. English translationfromHeine. CriticalModels. RochesterUniversity Press.relevantlynow. 1997). 30. 162. and "Genderand Other Dualities of Music Hised. Stoichita. 1992)."The Politics of Reception:Tailoringthe Presentas Fulfillmentof a DesiredPast. Thanks to Leo Treitlerfor introducingme to this picture. 1978). two yearsafterAndersen had met Chamisso in Berlin."I thank Jay Bernstein for makingthis differenceexplicit.Cf. 28.