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In the Shadow of the Canon

Author(s): Lydia Goehr
Source: The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 86, No. 2 (Summer, 2002), pp. 307-328
Published by: Oxford University Press
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Music and Culture




of the



Das ist die Not der schwerenZeit!
Das ist die schwereZeit der Not!
Das ist die schwereNot der Zeit!
Das ist die Zeit der schwerenNot

This poem, entitled "Kanon,"asksus, as a musicalcanon would, to sing
out its lines not in sequence but in overlappingvoices. And although
it exhausts its logical possibilitiesof variationbetween time and need,
one has the feeling, as in a children'sround,that it could go on forever.
However, I am less interestedin the poem'sform than in its historical
time of authorship,because I shall write about the canon not as a particular musicalform,but, rather,as an authoritativeconcept of cultural
formation.I am interestedin diedeutscheKlassik,the Germancanon
of musicalworkswhere the belated development of Germanyas a modem nation is indispensableto the account, even though the history
neither of music nor of the canon belongs solely to Germany.Yet my
themes are well investigatedby focusing on Germanyand the anxiety
it has shown towardits own status as a nation and its canon of works.
The poem was penned as the Germanmusicalcanon was fast
taking shape. The canon became a dominant culturalformationwhen
music became autonomous,historical, and disciplined in tandem with
the rise of the work'sconcept and absolutemusic. This was also the start
of the bourgeoisage of public concert halls and commissionedworks,
with new roles definedfor composers,performers,audiences,and critics.
Much of this familiarstoryhas to do with the dominance of romanticism
and idealismin Germanyaround 1800 and with how secularcanonic
worksassumedan atavistic characterof sacredness,or, more broadly,
with how secularformsof culturalauthoritydisplayedthe canonic
aspirationsand anxieties of earlierformsof religiousauthority.1
The poem'sexact yearwas 1814, the year of Beethoven'srevisedFidelio. Indeed, that there is a German musicalcanon is usuallyexplained
by referenceto the Beethoven cult, accordingto which Beethoven was
The Musical Quarterly 86(2), Summer 2002, pp. 307-328; DOI: 10.1093/musqtl/gdg012
? 2004 Oxford University Press
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fledthe RevolutionaryWarsandsettledin Berlin.becausealthoughhe acquiresa happypurse(Fortunati it costshimhis humanness. whatwouldstandin theirplace.the contributionto Germanromanticism of a powerfulKunstthe storyof "theshadow.the sortthatsaysthereis no Gliickssdckel).andno wisdomwithoutthe recog- This content downloaded from 132. and over aboutGermany's anxieties nationhood.withhis parents.the Germancanontellsa storyless. dualimageof Chamissoso thatwheneverone thinksof the writerof the shadowone thinksalsoof the poetof difficulttimesandneeds.Therehe cameto be knownas Adalbert von Chamisso.308 The MusicalQuarterly chosenas the paradigmatic composerforthe newsymphonicage.Conservativein direction.However. Bornin theseuncertaintimes.becauseBach.Haydn.As Thomas Mannmadeexplicitin 1933.a congressthatsoughtto reorderEuropeafterthe determinedterritorial clusionandexclusion.Likethe markedalsoa critical rope.Butthe promise.if not.the aspirations andanxietiesthathadlain behindGermany's its music into a historicallincanonizing particular wereinextricably boundupwith thosethathadlain eageof masterpieces behindGermany's nationalizingits people. happinesswithoutsuffering.who. period releasedfromFrance's of time and as the need. The year1814wasalsothe startof the Congressof Vienna.This doesnot meanGermanmusicbeganwithBeethoven. YetChamissowasknownlessforthispoemthanforhis authorshipin 1813(published1814)of PeterSchlemihls wundersame Geschichte and.2 The poem"Kanon" waspennedby an inveteratetraveler. sufferings The languageof sufferingandgreatness(LeidenundGrosse)ought naturallyto evokeThomasMann'smostfamouslectureon Richard Wagner.Though1814markeda momentof reliefforEudomination. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .248. aboutthe undoubtedgreatnessof its masterworks than paradoxically.of uncertaintyas to whether Frenchidealsof libertyandequalitywereanylongersupportable and. Chamisso's storyis abouta manwho sellshis shadowforthe promiseof immediatehappinessandassimilationinto a community wherehe hasjustarrivedas foreigner.a Germanicderivationof a muchlongerFrenchname.he quickly learns.8 on this essayI referto a marchen." aristoin craticwriterborn false.andMozartwerecounted andincludedas at leastthreeof Beethoven'sgreatpredecessors.onlythe conscious processof canonization.myessayattendsto the composerwho so desperately soughthis canonicstatusin the musicalParnassus onlyto saysomething aboutthe individualcontentmentwithoutcommunity.9. with promptedmorenationalseparationthanEuropean bordersof historywithoutmortality.

The shadow knowsthatto keepthe princesshappyhe mustsustainthe illusionthat he is a man.3 Andersen'sfableof 1847mosthelpfully linksthe themeof the shadowto thatof the canon.However.the shadowreturnsonlyyearslater.the learnedmanis silenced.the good.becausehe hasso little of whathis shadownowhas.the princessis left withfar lessthanshe bargained for.The storyis the man'salone:it is he This content downloaded from 132.Opportunistically.andthe beautiful" hasnot justbeena wasteof his time.As with the Faustian bargain(or Plato'sparableof the cave). 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . also the entire court of but Poetry.)On this basis. pursuedby a sharpsightedprincessto whomhe quicklybecomesengaged.In theShadowof theCanon 309 nition that therearelimitson whatwe can know.He offersthe maneverlastingwealthto maintainthe deceit.the learnedman wonderswhetherhis pursuitof " eveningfindshis curiosityso aroused(bythe magicalstrainsof musicandthe imageof a beautifulwoman)thathe sendshis shadowoff to seekthe knowledgehe cannothimselfacquire.Fearingthe loss.The learned manfindshis redemptionin his execution.Butthe learnedmanrefusesandthreatensto revealall.The learnedmanagrees. A. In this essay.havingbetrayedhis commitmentto the canonicvaluesof "the triesto redeemhimselfbutfindsthat true.248.butonly if he will acceptthe reversalof theirrolesas manandshadow." it is too late.9. finallyreturns.It tellsof a scholar who.Despondent. The princessandthe shadowmarry.(The womanwasjustPoetry.throughE.andforthishe mustconvincethe learnedmanpermanently to swapidentities.4 It wouldbe wrongto thinkthatthereis morethanone maleagent in this storyor that it wasthe shadow'sfaultthathe assumedthe rich clothesof apparentknowledge.he wastesawayandbecomesa mere shadowof his formerself.andthe beautiful. T. callylongandwide. to Richard Strauss's DieFrauohneSchatten.Arrivthe shadowis immediately ing at the sanatorium.When the shadow he claims to havelearnednot onlythe woman'sidentity. Andersentellsof a youngbutlearnedmanfromthe north(Berlin) who. Hoffmann's HansChristianAndersen'sfable"TheShadow"[Skyggen].richin wealth andconvincingin his new suitof clothes.the shadowclaimsfurtherto havebecomea man.whiletravelingin warmsouthernclimes. leavingthe learnedmanmeanwhilefearfulthathe hasbecomethe man of the story(Chamisso's story)who losthis shadow.latenessandbelatednessgradually becomethe overarof themes: the lateness or German music as an decay interpreted ching of the belatedness the modem nation-all worked of German expression out throughthe themeof the shadow. the shadowcastsitselfcanoniDieElexiere desTeufels.8 on Sun. the shadowoffersto take the learnedmanon a restorativetrip.the good.

by losinghis shadow.Fora shadowis nothingat all. but it wasworse.the communityis affectedtoo. life in communitywithothermen. onlythe reflectionof a man-strewn acrossthe ground.thesewere the onlychoicesleft.Then he regretsit andnow the Devildemandshis shadowas a ransom. "It the seems to me thatthe storyof Wittgensteinbegins argument: PeterSchlemihlshouldreadlike this:He makesoverhis soulto the Devilformoney. becauseof his genius.losthis ground.Hadhe no otherchoice?Yes.with the shadowreattachedto the man.Eitherhe couldget his shadowbackbutnowonly in exchangeforhis soul."TheShadowis in PeterSchlemihl a HadMann symbolof all bourgeoissolidityandhumanbelongingness.ButPeterSchlemihlstillhasa choicebetweengiving the Devilhis soulandsacrificing.248." Sufferingfromhis his essay he describesa Wittgensteinwellknew(in 1931). alongwithhis shadowlife." writtenhis essayin 1941.9.In the latenessof the times.butalso.310 The MusicalQuarterly who.who in his storychoseto wanderthe earthforthe restof his daysseekingonlythe ("dehumanized") knowledgeof 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .young Chamissowonders-perhapslikeGoethe'syoungWertherorWagner's youngWalthervon Stolzing-how he will fulfillhis dutyto art. Forwhatwoulda communitybe like if it reacheda pointwherethe memberswho stayed hadsoldtheirsouls." who.Whydoesthe storynot havea happyending. if individualschooseeitherto losetheirsoulsor to sacrificetheirlivesas partof a community.whilethosewhokepttheirsoulslivednowonly in shadowlessexile? Exileis preciselyThomasMann'sconcerntoo when.Thusthe of the inhumanmanthe detachedshadowassumesthe appearance learnedmanbecomes.he wouldhaveknownfirsthandthe anxieties of livingin a strangeland.Schlemihlor Chamissohimself."6But. andhe chosethe latter.findshimselfin a strangelandand immediatelyloseshis shadow-becausea manwithouta countryis a manwithouta shadow.fromhis community.andmore.with the man'shumanityrestored? BecauseAndersenmustmirrorChamisso's PeterSchlemihl.Mannwrites."Thewholelittle bookis of nothingbuta profoundly experienceddescriptionof the sufferings the markedandsolitaryindividual.or he couldlive withhis soulintactbutseparated forevermore fromhis shadow.doesthe shadowserveas an allegoryto elucidatethe of the Germannation?The firstthingto stressis the transition sufferings of focusthatwill takeplacefromthe individual's lossto the community's.8 on Sun. "Chamisso.But This content downloaded from 132.havingleft his nativecountry.Butin 1911he usedChamisso's estrangement to focuson the youngwriter'stendencyto glorifyhis sufferingof separation not onlyfromhis nativecountryandlanguage.the "impotent" manwho mustkeepthe secret of his deficit.5 How.

ButI thinkone up in the mostcatastrophic periodof Europe's This content downloaded from 132.thatalmostmeantto be a ChamissomustsurviveSchlemihl:"One cannotbe choosea differentkindof exile.Butstill.holyGermanartmightstill remainwithus!") WagnerwasneverfarfromMann'sthoughts.then wasnot was about problem Mann'shopeto saveits culturein exile quitefutile. that"zerging' stayingat home.Herewasa transitionin Mann'sviewbetween 1911and 1933:thougha youngwriteroughtnot celebratethe sufferings of his exilinggreatnessandchooseto join the the lateness of the a man.or that it becamecaught Faustianbargainsregarding history.unsbliebegleichdie heil'gedeutscheKunst!"("evenif the Holy RomanEmpirewereto go up in smoke[throughthe "decay" brought aboutbyforeignrule].thatwhenhe moved to Americahe tookGermanculturewithhim to preserveit againstits andabuse. if the andrationalization all whatwasgoingon insidea country.8 on Sun.therewill be timeswhenthe communitylets the masterdown.masters withoutramifications to a at demands.whatMann mademoreexplicitthanSachswasthata threatto a nationthatis taken to be fromwithout(orfrom"theforeign")is usuallyonlya projection of a causefromwithin(fromoneself).asThomasMannwouldwitness.becominga masterwasnot forthe communityas a whole." Onlyeternalbohemianswouldresentan that artist'smaturation.In theShadowof theCanon 311 Chamissofeelsalsoa dutyto Germanart.As GoethesurvivedWerther." cessas a Germanpoet." shadowis alsoforan artistto havean impact-to casta shadow-on art'sfuture.However.7 Yet. I hesitateto statethe harshtruthnow thatthe Germancanonof Germanmusichas in darktimesentered.At worst. "[t]obe a German.sangat differentfromWagner's in Dunstdasheil' ge rom'sche the end of DieMeistersinger.who.theywouldlive up to theirownproclaimedvalueseven whena communitywasin crisis.howevercalamitous.withdireconsequences. if one couldtake the cultureout of a country-as if a culture.he refusesto glorifythe geniusof his youth.To be a poet. in orderto keephis soul.thatalWhereasManngrantsChamissohis sucmostmeantto be a German. mightcapitulate community's best.YetwasMannreallyhopingforanything Naziappropriation HansSachs.he hadanyotherchoice. preferring he ratherdie in obscurity"fromhis own interestingness" rather ("gehtan seinerInteressantheit zugrunde") Foran artistto havea thanjoin the communityandbecome"amaster.the questionwaswhether.suchthathe is forced.couldsurviveas a detachedshadow?Of course. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .9.into humancommunity.248.becauseforhim. RecallnowMann'smostfamousclaimof exile.

contrarily. The formerhavetendedto defendcanonicworksas rightlybelonging to the canon.needed.Dehavecriticizedthe canonforits elitismandchauvintractors. wherethe dialecticalaimis to disentanglethe truthsof suffering thatlie in the shadowof the canonandareconcealedpreciselybyassertions of its I am aware that strike an American readgreatness.becauseinvestigatinga culturalphenomenon underextremeor abnormalconditionscan serveto showus with condition frighteningclaritywhatis alwaysat stakeeven in a purported of normality.whyshouldit in the New? Mostlythe debatehaskeptthe ideaof a canonin place.andthe virtueof theirrepresentingthe noblevaluesof "thetrue. agreementaboutthe characterandextentof the standard's Whencriticsaskthat a greaterdiversityof worksbe includedin the canon.Commitism.butone of America. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Myargumentnow assumessomepoliticalresonancesfromcritical theory.andnot only its so-called(European)aestheticor intellectual This content downloaded from 132.criticspointout.andnot.8Mosttheoristsgivepriorityto individualworksoverthe canonto whichthe worksbelongandagree that if a givenworkdoesnot fit the canon'sstandardof value.has mypointsis explicitlythatmainstream not chosen.nonpoliticality.Buttherehasbeenfarless revision.say.312 The MusicalQuarterly shouldnot avoidthis truth.248. andaestheticism. as theyusuallydo.butit doesso only if it remainstrueto itselfandis not usedto eclipsethe voicesof its detractors or furtherto ostracizea society'srepressed groups.or individuality it is treatedasopenandrevisable.or beenforcedto confrontso much"atthe extreme"whata dialecticalapproachto the canonshowsmostseriously to be at stake.or ashavingstoodthe test of eternallyset in stone. as ratherextreme.andthe beautiful" maywellcapturethe mosthumanandenlightenedof ourvalues.or forits claimedpurity.wanted." They haveseentheirtaskas defendingunprejudiced judgmentandvalue. butsomethingjustaboutthe fairlycrudesplitthathasemergedbetween the canon'sso-calledconservativedefendersandthe is better to revisethe standardthanrejectthe work.Detractors havejusturgeddefendersto acknowledge.9.the good.Suchcommitmentdid not workin the OldWorld. myapproachmight ership.8 on Sun.genius.I makethemexplicitlessto enteran immediatepoliticaldebate thanyet furtherto encouragea dialecticalapproach to the musicalcanon. likePolykleitos's statueor Moses'stablets. that a if canonwill remaintrueto the spiritof truth.the good. Letme saysomethingquicklyaboutthe debateoverthe canon thathastakenplacein the lasttwodecadesin mainstream America.whattheyalsodemandis thatmoreof society's(orAmerica's) a Germanone. mentto "thetrue.

is takenfrom ages.12 The recentdebateoverthe canonhasobviouslyto do with the politicsof inclusionandexclusion.relativism. detractors.into a placeof havingtoo much. to the an antidote. pluralism. as seenfromthe liberalstandpoint.becomejust the mirrorof a society'sfluctuatingideologies. criticalthinkingaboutcanonizationis unlikely.9.theyfurtherencouragewhathasbecomea pubsuppositions. Defendersretreatinto a placeof havingno politicsat all.not even on the basisof the works.Stressingthe latter.11 Althoughthe demandfortoleranceandpluralismmotivatesthe firstimageand"obedience andlonglegs"the second. defenders.betterforthe presentargument. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . author."Bad man. Jiri opening instructed to Mendelssohn's bustfromthe roof guards.badworks.unfortunately the coverof a deservedlyinfluentialAmericanbookentitledDisciplining Musicthatshowsthe would-befallenminiaturestatuesof canoniccomThe secondcomesfromthe posersas chesspieceson a chessboard.haddifficultyidentifyingthe JewishcomposerandalmosttoppledWagneras a result.wheredetractorsremovethe bustsof canonic authorsor.canoniccomposersfromthe concerthalls. Weil. lic gameof canonbusting.butbecauseof the composers' personalcommitmentsto all mannerof illiberalviews.Defendersbalkat the suggestionforfearthat the canon(orresultingcanons)will."Defendersthen tryto savethe worksagainstthe adthatthe worksare mittedly"bad"composerson groundsso aestheticized effectivelystrippedof theirshadows.theirmediationby andwithsocimelodrama"?9 A deep-seatedfearthat ety. according require longas the debateoverthe canonis drivenby highly polarizeddilemmasbetweenlastingvaluesandfluctuatingideologies.8 on Sun.underthesepluralistterms.the firstis morefragileandtoo often becomes the second. standsto a nationas democratization standsto democracy: both.Forboththesedilemmas leavetheoristscontentjustto argueendlesslyoverwhichworkshouldor shouldnot be includedwithoutfurtherreflectingon the argument's preOr.who.Whatencouragesthis "tawdry the shadeof the Commendatore will appearto sendthe actorsto hell.orbetweennewforms of expressionandethnocentrism.The seenfromthe conservativedefenders'standpoint.butalsowith the transitionfrom authoritarian to democraticpoliticalforms. The anxietymaybe illustratedby two dialecticallycontrastingimlessironicthanthe second. topple of the formerGermanTheatrein Prague.In theShadowof theCanon 313 ones.248.comeinto play.buteitheronlyfurthersanctionsthe does not servethe debatewell to thinkit solvedbykeepingsomecomposers This content downloaded from 132.worse.The purismof lastingaestheticandintellectualvaluesis accordingly heldup as the antidoteto the of Nationalism or extremes democratization.10 of a Czech its tellsof ill-educatedSS novel.

Italian. However.Hereis a wayto thinkaboutthe shadow:as the dialecticalunderelesideof a canonwhenthe wasobviousthat its historyof composerswouldbe separated (moreor less)fromthe French." lineages. but it refusesto takethe normality of anynation'scanonat facevalueor as riskfree.truth. process canonizing lessinnocuousreasonswhycountriesanddifferentspheresof production those havetheir"commontraditions.still.314 TheMusicalQuarterly on the roofandtopplingothers. Lookingat how oppressed peopleshavewrittentheirhistoriesand constructedtheirmythsis a powerfulandoptimisticwayto illuminate of canonbuilding.andauthorityof particular groups.radical.It wasnot even an extremeversionof thisclaimto hearabout thatwhichdidnot belongas beingconsignedto dasFalscheanddas Feuer.the debateis not aboutthe composersor worksat all.A dialectithatnationsandcanonsmayexistundera socal modelacknowledges calledconditionof normality.rules.the factof inclusionthat the generationof an illusionof comfortable repression.But.In the early movetowardnationhood(officiallyestablishedin of stages Germany's 1871).we runthe riskof missingthe authoritarianism that threatensthe constructionon the other. cannottrackits groupingtendencieswithoutthreateningto repressits opposition.9.the separationassumeda terroristcharacterpreciselywhenthe electedworkscameto be identifiedwithmusic'sessence.Criticaltheoryis preciselythe refusal to jumpoverits shadowor to assumea safeplaceoutsidetimeandneed This content downloaded from 132.andclassifications. masksthe sufferingof exclusion.likenationalizing peoples.The pointis ratherto emphasize.we oughtto moveawayfromfocusingon its criteriaforbelongingtowardan investithatmotivatethe gationof the nationalistanxietiesandaspirations of in And the first althoughthereareclearly place.Justbecausenationsandcanonsdo not alwaysshowthemselvesat theirextremes. someof the complexanxietiesandaspirations by lookingat historyfromthisside.andnonconformist mentsareconsignedto the darknessin orderto promotethe illusionof a canon'suniquelypureandnaturalgreatness. Post-WorldWarII theoristsinfluencedby a deepsense.thereis the constant threatthattheymight-becauseat leastGermanyonce did. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . reasonsdo not beliethe claimthatthe specificprocessof canonizing worksis inextricablytiedto howwritingandmakinghistoriesshape the politicalidentity.Indeed.or anyother"foreign" lineage. butaboutconstructinga canon andhow thatprocessis boundupwithbuildinga nationor a group's collectiveidentity.andsole future.The pointdoesnot rest with the the extreme.Thus.confidence.8 on Sun.248.whenthinkingaboutthe canon.a conditionhavingsignsof productively unclearinclusions(in Germanytoo).

"Thistitle conveyedall the anxietyof an essaythatwasasking how one mightthinkaboutthe normalityof a futurefora BerlinRepubaskedus to consider lic in the shadowof its abnormalpast.248.thoughforthatreasonall the moreurgent. learningfromGermany's pastis a dialecticalmode whichpaysexplicit of self-evidence. his or herotherness.forself-evidence. thatfew in Americawouldlikelyfindanything Benhabibremarked radicalin beingaskedto respecthumanrights.Borrowing Rabinbach confined as an emotional Heller.namely.betokensthe falseillusionthatwe no longerhaveto thinksomethingthrough.when consideredagainstthe extremeconditionof Germany's past.15Benhabibpaidspecialattentionto the finalessay. as is the dismantling of interrogation.In theShadowof theCanon 315 whereshadowsareno longercast.andthatthe integrityof each individual."14 In 1997SeylaBenhabibusedthe title "Inthe Shadowof the Wall" to reviewforthe suitablynamedNationmagazinea recentlytranslated underthe title A BerlinRepublic: collectionof essaysbyJurgenHabermas on Germany.Habermas whatfollowsfromthe factthat the terrorspreceding1945can be understoodas havinggivenwayto the doctrineof humanrights.Butshe madethe point forbeingbehindthe timesnorto congratneitherto criticizeHabermas ulatethe Americansforbeingwiththe times. considerswhathumanrightsanddemocracymeanat heart. willbe similarlyrespected" (164). This content downloaded from 132.9.the simpleexpectationthatno one will be excludedfromthe politicalcommunity.8 on Sun.simpler.The factthat it developedbecauseof Auschwitz.Thus.13 GermanIntellectuals between Apocalypse Catastrophe: andItsShadows" Rabinbachgavehis introductionthe title "Apocalypse to conjureupboththe apocalypticeventsof violenceandterrorof the in whichwe arecurlastcenturyandthe deepreflection(Andenken) fromthe workof rentlyengagedin the shadowsof the past. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . mourning responseapAgnes thinking onlyto thosewhodied.becauseof reif one is lessdifficultto understand flectionon the incomprehensible. herewasalreadyin Nietzscheasearlyas 1883:"Thoughts The separation arethe shadowsof ourfeelings-only darker.He wrote: "Thata liberalpoliticalculturecoulddevelopin a culturallyhighlycivilizedsocietysuchas GermanyonlyafterAuschwitzis a truthdifficult to grasp.likenormality.emptier. Writings "1989in the Shadowof 1945:On the Normalityof a FutureBerlinRepublic.In theShadowof andEnlightenment.perhapsit will beginto lose its selfevidentcharactereverywhere else.the phrase"inthe shadow"was usedin 1997by AnsonRabinbachforhis bookof thatgenuinephilosophical propriate couldtakeplaceaboutthe ideasthatwerecomplicitin the catastrophe.butratherto pointout to Americanshow the self-evidentassertionof humanrightsprovesanythingbutself-evident.And if the assertionlacksself-evidencethere.

a mode of thinking about what is possible now againstthe catastrophicdarknessof what once provedpossible. the culminating point of self-realization. "Wasbedeutet:Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit?"16 It is a reflectivemode of thinking throughconditions in and at the extremes. even though it seemed. and place its productsin a museum.The notion that a living culturecan become a dead tradition derivesfrom the earlynineteenth century.for prove it alive. it negates its own presence as present art. including the social and economic rightsgained by the working classes in welfare-statedemocracies.Only a vibrantcivil society and an energetic public sphere. had reached its end."Thiskind of music expresseswhat I consider true of the Germans:they are of the day beforeyesterdayand of the day aftertomorrow-they haveas yet no today.when Germanywas being shapedby dialectical proclamationsof its end.learningfrom the past means that any futureGermanrepublic must anchor itself firmlyin the traditionsof liberaldemocratic constitutionalismand respectfor universalhuman.Germany was somehow no longer living or makingone.The ironic fatalismthat accompanied such proclamationswas deep: having at last found its history. civil and political rights. however. inconceivable." The optimismof Benhabib'swordsdoes not.316 The MusicalQuarterly homageto Adoro's seminallectureof 1959. in which social movements create alternative associationsand spacesalongsiderepresentativedemocraticinstitutions. canonize it.And yet.9. Habermasasks:What. and via this relationshipon the vision it offersfor music's future. of its priorand living historyof art.248. preciselybecauseof this Janusface. Here is a motivation for canon formation perfectlyillustratedby Germany'sexample. can we learn fromhistory againstthe fatalistic Hegelian thought "thatlearningalwayscomes too late for those who act?"17But the question is also what we do to history in late times."a decadent style that itself on the prides living relationshipit establishesto a two-hundredyear-oldpast. Nietzsche articulatedthe fatalismin referenceto Wagnerwhen he describedDie Meistersinger's overtureas "lateart. Here now is the anxiety of lateness or decay that throwsdoubt on the very idea of a living cultureunderthe belated condition of a way. a motivation basedon an obsessivepreoccupationwith the thought that Germany'smusic. can guaranteethat liberal-democraticconstitutionalismbecomes a living cultureratherthan a dead tradition. then as now. maskthe general anxiety. in what do Germansput their hope? In finding an answerto the most fatal of all questions:"Wasist deutsch?"18 This content downloaded from 132.paradoxically. and reasonhaving reached."Without a today. Evidentlywe reify it. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . if anything. and thereforeall music. religion. Nietzsche continues.8 on Sun. Benhabibwrites: "ForHabermas.

And where does one find that?In just that partof Germany'shistorythat transcendsits political failure:its music. which predatesMann's.the "suprememasterpieces"of Bach.21For to seek the rebirthof Germanyin its culture. Once the problemwas Rome. But Wagner'shope for idealized"burgherly" German culturewas also deeply tainted by the pessimismof lateness that had lain for so long (allegedlysince Luther) in Germany'sshadows. then. No one expressedthe pessimism for Wagnermore overwhelminglythan Schopenhauer. But this is exactly what Germanyis doing now. Should they want to do this."19begun in 1865 duringhis own repatriationto Bavariaafterexile and completed in the 1880s. in their insecurity. aesthetics."What. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Schopenhauerhad spoken of a retreatinto a will-freed worldof aesthetic and intellectual contemplation existing "outsideand This content downloaded from 132.deutsche Treue(fidelity)."he writes.All recent "revolutionsin Germanyare entirely unGerman. Why do they do this?Becauseof their lack of success in reestablishingthemselves. Hence Hans Sachs'smonologue."only to "overcome"it. Wagnerthinks: repeatingthe errorof allowing Germanpolitical reformto be dictated by formsand principlesforeign to it.Only in the rebirth of spiritand culturewill Germanysave itself againstthe invasion not merelyof the external foreign. as the Holy Roman Empirethey once were.where he says that when politics fails a land one should seek to preservethe land's values throughits culture. Goethe. is appropriatefor Germany?Seeking Germany'sessence.248. was also a mode of retreatfrom a society that was unable any more not to fail.In theShadowof theCanon 317 So considerWagner'sessay "Wasist deutsch. Only here does one find the unsulliedexpressionof that which transcendsall politics and even nationalities:the "purelyhuman"spiritof Christianity.whom the Englishhave failed to understand. given their failure the firsttime round?Only if it means not repeatingthe political errorsof the past."20 BecauseWagnersaw political failureas the cause of both the invasion and the successof those elements that did not belong to the German Heimat.who pursueeverythingwith "interest.Wagneradds.9. It opens with the anxious observationthat it is only the Germans who. and philosophy.have constantly to repeattheir own name with reverence:deutscheTiefe(depth).and in a culturethat was freedfrom utilitarianconcerns. in suitablymodem form. Mozart.who spoke of the attempt no longer to "conquerthe world.22 As early as 1819.but also of those "foreign"elements within-by which Wagnermeant the Jews.8 on Sun. now it is France.he turnedhis attention to spiritualand canonic reform.Only in this lineage does one find "the beautifuland the noble" pursueddisinterestedlyfor its own sake. deutscherErnst(seriousness). "'Democracy'in Germanyis entirely a translatedthing.and Beethoven-but also of Shakespeare.

and. multiculturalism.politicsnowhasto be reintroduced as the naturalization antidote.A nationnaturalized in thiswayreplacesthe historicalcontingencyof the contextualizing of the communityandfortifiesartificially createdboundaries by lendingthemthe auraof the natural. it too will be strippedof its groundingandmediationin the actualhistoryof the troubledcountry? Evenif one wereto seekan answerin cosmopolitanism. Butis not the appealto politicsaspositivelawsubjectto the sameriskas the appealto the naturalness of culture-that.248.a modeof livingwithouta shadow:Germanywithoutgeography.second.andthe beautifulwereprofoundly to sustaina mythof the Germisinterpreted manashavinga uniqueclaimto the authentically.23 Wagnerhimselfmorbidlyspoke of seekingconsolationfromthe ruinsof the present.andof the natudescribesfora nationin the processof ralizingprocessthatHabermas nationalized. automatically the the othersideof naturalism's coin.on a factindependentof the formationof politicalwill.318 The MusicalQuarterly of all the relations"thathadshapedthe worldinto a independently of battle-ground tormentandsuffering.wouldnot havebeenso badhadit not assumedso collectivelynarcissisticor so obsessivelyself-conscious a character. by being conceivedas artificialor abstract.Forin recallnow the earlyNietzsche.the good.on separating an aestheticphenomenon?In thatcase.the worldjustified.and human-which was of the to Reichpurely preciselypart "condescending sdeutsch"thatfinallyledNietzscheawayfromWagner.24 The pessimisticretreatfrompoliticalfailureinto a spiritualor culturalconsolationcertainlycontributedto givingGermanmusicandits canoniclineageof worksa greaterprominencein the country'spolitical life.or betweenpolitics This content downloaded from 132. Germanybecomepurelyculturalentity.8 on Sun.t overcome peanism. Butis thisnot a decadentprocess.first.Althougha people'snationis largelyan artifact. Euroor this would imaginesitselfto havegrownorganicallyandunderstands itselfby contrastwith the artificial orderof positivelaw"(173-174). "The being Republicis damagedif the integrativestrength of a nationis basedon a mightthink.a recognitionof a deador late modeof mightargue. on universalizing orpurifyingculturalvaluesuchthat it leavesculture's rolein the bringthe nation process's"artificial" backto life.9. simply. its purported valuesof the true.unlessof coursethe nationalproject is then alsoseparated frompoliticsby beingsomehowuniversalized or naturalized too. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Whatis the argumentherethatdisturbsHabermas as it disturbs me?Wantingcultureto do a country'sworkgiventhe failureof political reformis premised. naturally.

the fear of whatmayhappenlest we everforget.alsocontinuethe bestof Europe's it could become in the fears of what focus (again)."Onlyas a criticalauthority.His demand.In theShadowof theCanon 319 andculture. Sonderweg now a criticalorhermeneutical one. increasingly ing its placein the globaleconomy.or will the newGermanyturninmulti-ethnicrepublic wardandawayfromthe projectof a multicultural.thatdemandwouldfailwereit understood simplyas a declarationof ourhavinggottenoverthe pastor simply givenup on tellsushow we oughtnotto do it.whichonce servedas its vehiformof socialintegrationthathasbeenhatched cle. towardthe idealsof a thirdwayfora nationwith a supposedly unique What would be the of the destiny?" advantage pluralistoption?That it wouldnot askGermanyto sell its if suchvalueswereideology'sguaranteed dote.8 on Sun. formas the directalternativeto unique ulatingthe bidformulticultural the idea of it genuinepoliticalreformthoroughlymedidestiny: keeps andanxietiesof a troubledcountry.foronlythen will we cometo see whatit has thereis a deliberatepointin articexcludedfromourview."he in the nationdebate. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Comparably.the changing keep fearof whatit couldlose.forHabermas. Habermas usefullydrawsan analogyto the canon:If the canonis still to exerta is not enoughfordefendersto proclaimpureaestheticvaluesin antiisolationfrompolitics. its truenatureto the extentthat it shakesoff ism.At best. butas somethingconstantly Benhabib So this is the answertowardwhichHabermas concludeherreview. beyondthe nation-state" And yet.25 Butit wouldat leastavoidthe pitfallsof the naturalism of commitment to a nationalism.norshouldcriticsthinkthatpoliticsas artificiallawwill do all the This content downloaded from 132. atedby the aspirations I havebeenarguingthat in the canondebate. althoughHabermas speakshereof moving"outsideand beyond"the nation-state.she articulatesthe choicebetween two visionsavailableto contemporary Germany:Will "aunifiedGerwhich is an mosaicreflectbecoming ethno-cultural many."realizes the ambivalentpotentialof nationalism.rather. The multicultural underthe wingof the nation-statemuststillproveitselfoutsideand (176).248.Butwouldit allowGermanyto is still the question:"Republicankeepits shadow?That." Habermas writes. It is fromexperiencesof a negativekindthatwe learn"(180-81).Germany's (a uniquedestiny).we haveto treatit not as "apetrifiedguestof the past"(12). thatrequiresus constantlyto workthroughGermany's past.the fearof whatit cannotget awayfrom(as whenone saysthatone canneverjumpoverone'sownshadow)."doeshistoryserveas a teacher.

there is Germanculture!For. not to confront the anxieties head on.perhapsit is time to reintroducethis focus.of the false confidence of that claim. I also suggestedearlierthat to engage in the canon debate was not to focus on composersor their works. not just the correctfollowing of rules. ratherthan claiming to preserveGermancultureper se. And perhapsthis was what Mann reallymeant too when he proclaimed in English in 1938. And when one thinks about works. Considerjust at the historicallevel of fact the incongruencebetween Germany'spolitical and geographicalrelationshipto Austria (the problem of Germany'sbeing kleinor gross)and Austria'slong-termdomination of Germanmusic. how then could Sachs appealto the canon to save a countryagainst itself when its politics had purportedlyfailed it? Perhapshis appealwas not reallyto the canon afterall."And then think of the deeper. but only to its potentially constitutive songs. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for what producesa beautifulsong is that enigmatic or even spiritual qualityof genius. der the idea of fittingnessto a rule.despite this argumentof analogy.As Wagnerarguedin Die the masters.320 The MusicalQuarterly workof a canon'sor a nation'sreform.or religiousgroundsbut whose music is nonetheless pronounced"German. However. by so focusing.However.Why should a mastercare more for the enigmatic qualityof songs than for a tradition's rules?To keep the traditionfromsufferingdeath by pedantryor Beckmesserei. The relationshipis much more complex. But is not the control of differencejust part of what contributesto a canon'sbecoming collectively narcissisticor authoritarian?And if so.dialectical point: that even when a countryclaims to be in a state of political normality.248.the continued obsessionwith the canon as an authoritativeculturalformationmight show us something. where I am. And what is death by pedantry?Exactlythe attempt to maskthe differentiaof songs to maintain the orderof the day.9. should ratheradaptthe rule to the song.ratherthan subsumingthe value of a song unMeistersinger. or the deep tension between composerswho are pronounced"foreign"on political. albeit would be wrongto conclude that a canon is merelya shadow of a nation (or vice versa).becauseone tends.8 on Sun. although now in a completely differentway. racial.Recall the worryfrom that debate regardingthe dangersof judgingnew worksaccordingto an alreadyfixed thinks more about their enigmatic qualitiesand individualconstructionthan merelytheir canonic This content downloaded from 132. one thinks about how the worksstand in relation to one another to give the canon its authority. was he not just stressingthe lonely burdenthat had now been placed on the exiled and individualwriterto producethose saving and redemptiveworks? Why impose a gap now between the canon and its individual works?Becausewhen one thinks of a canon.

01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . When wouldthis resistanceprovemostimportant? One mightsay"always" if one wantedto glorifythe sufferingactsof greatness. At the continuation of as level.artist.or charismatic the self-appointed an exemplary(musical)pastandthereby leaderto continueor transform a futurecommunity.and/orincreasinglyto the tendentiousdictatesof Nazism'sofficialculture. andArnoldSchoenberg's all exemplaryof worksthatfaceda declineattributedat the differentextremesto technology.The relationshipbetweena canonandits worksbecomesa mirrorof thatbetweena communityandits individuals.madeincreasingly antagonisticby the artist'sdeeplyfelt modemloneliness.9. Again.As ThomasMann one mightsaythattheseoperas novels"confessional. per whatit wantedto conceal-the anxietyor reliefthat in demonstrated timesthe canonof Germanworks. MosesundAronare Krenek's Jonnyspieltauf.Ernst PaulHindemith's cline.One couldnot judgethese works.desperate.248.therefore.Wherein the actualworksdidthis conceitundermineitselfmost?In the violent. thateach in factmightbe theverylastGermanwork. Butwhatdoesthe resistanceof techniquesof the new.theircomposersalsousedthe topicto affirm the statusof theirworksandthemselvesas canonic.impotent.Whatis sharedamongtheseotherwiseverydifferentworksis howfareachnegotiatedthe relationshipbetweenmusicandpoliticsby callingattentionto taskof the individualcomposer. to continueor transform TheseKanonopernot onlyassumedas theirverytopicthe question of the nation.Butfollowing Mann'slaterstep.or in the anxietyor reliefeachthusshowed.Butone mightstill note theirsharedconof Germanmusic ceit to composeforthe continuationor transformation another this conceitonly music se.whyimposea gapbetweena canonandits works?To allow individualworksto resisteven the canonwhentheyoughtto. HansPfitzner's Palestrina. Butif thesewerethe anxiousextremesor partof the intensification to whichGermany's modemoperaseither of Germanness (Steigerung) This content downloaded from 132." calledcomparable werecomposedanxiouslyforcanonicstatus.RememberMann's earlyworryaboutthe bohemianpretensionsof youth.In theShadowof theCanon 321 pedantic. thesecatastrophic wasat an mightrathersaythatresistanceis appropriate only as havingsuccumbedto samecollective whenthe canonis interpreted dictateas the nationitself.8 on Sun.silent.andto whatdoesit amount?Considerthe so-calledKiinstleropem of the early twentiethcentury-althoughI thinktheymightbetterbe called assumedmanyof the anxietiesof art'sauthorityto Kanonopern-which detrackthe pathof music'sfuturein the faceof Germany's purported MathisderMaler.andmelancholic gesturesof theirendings.

then note once morehow muchthe anxietyof Parnassus wasalreadyin place I havementionedrein the operain whoseshadowtheywerewritten.26 peatedlyHansSachs'shopethat in timesof politicalcrisisGermanart mightpreservethe truevaluesof the land.Butagainstwhatforcewashis hopeexpressed? Preciselythe youngWalthervon Stolzing.asThomasManndid. particular whohavingwon the prize.248.a solution wherewe putourhope. lecturedhim andeveryoneelse on whymastersinging hadto continue.better a lonelytraveler. I the shadowof Auschwitz.27FollowingPeterSchlemihl. Fora work(an autonomous onlyif it alsorefusedpreciselythe claimit wasmakingon behalfof it- This content downloaded from 132.9. andno one.Butit is also possiblethatWaltherwantednothingfurtherto do with a traditionthat he thoughthadalreadydiedits death. singingnow no longerthe PrizeSong. he alsosoundedas if he wereclaimingthat individual pursuitsor singularworksof artcouldresista nation'scollectiveauthority.8 on "Parnassus." Butdo we nowhavean adequatesolutionto ourproblem. or to the individualandhis songs.Buthe neverclaimedthis resistancewithoutalsodialecticallyundowork)couldprovidesucha refuge ing it.andcountry?Doesthe appealto exile. followingKrenek.butJonny'sTriumphSongof "Amerikanismus.Walthershouldhave takenthe next boatto America." by compromised mightworrythatyoungWaltherwasjustmorereadyto die of his interestingnessthanwillingto workhardto becomea master.322 The MusicalQuarterly contributedor resistedin the shadowof its emergingcatastrophe.perhumancommunityaltogetherand hapshe shouldhaverelinquished continuedhis life ashe enteredthe story. becausethe ambiguityof the phraseallowsit-"[Ich] will ohne Meister Sachsthen seligsein"-refusedanyfurtherrelationto mastersinging.universalizing values.not alsorunthe sameriskof lossas purifyingculture.or makinglawpositive? Do anyof theseappeals(andthis is whatI havebeenaskingall along) reallygiveus whatwewantof them."Butstill we areleft with Wagner's thoughtthatthe traditionwasno longerworthsupporting becausethe songWalthersangfrom"Paradies" to win Evawastoo the demands of With ThomasMann. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .in the thoughtthat we can preservethe valueof songin the exile or escapeof the artist awayfromcorruptedtradition. WhenAdornowrotein "Aufdie Frage:Wasist deutsch?" that "[t]heGoodandthe Betterin everypeopleis surelythatwhichdoesnot integrateitself into the collective subjectand if possibleresistsit. andeveryone"wavedtheirhatsandscarves.thatartwasthe lastrefuge of truthfulness.Perhaps.not onlyrefusedto becomea masterbutalso.a safeandsecureplacefromwhichto savea nationfromitself?I do not thinkso.politics."28or whenhe argued.

fortheirlost wishesWagnerhadnot givenup on so quicklyafter the politicalfailuresof 1848. standingwithhis handon his breastandpalmsat his feet. in myview.he revealedthe deepestanxiety forthe Germannationandcanon:thateven the Germangeniusdid not belong.butalsoto seekin artits resolution."29 Adomonamedthe extremeconclusionto an ideologyof belatednessandlatenessby namingno safeplace-as.The geniusthen madethe foreignerwhathe fearedhe was wouldrevealthe conditionof the world withwhichin the firstrefusalit claimedto havenothingto mayconclude. whichtryto aestheticizethe politicalin their tied to apparent(butonly apparent)refusalof the political.31 Whatdoeshe say?Doeshe repeatthe limitedchoicesof lateness:HansSachs.froma political perspective.Greatoperashe mighthaveproduced.shoutingout its truthwithno one shipwrecked to hearit-what couldthe meaningof thiswork'sdoublerefusalthen futurewasstill firmlyin the be?ThatpresentthinkingaboutGermany's of its muthe "greatness" on the one of its hand. but.but.32In Heine's 1851 poem "Jehudaben Halevy"we This content downloaded from 132.he left himselfsolelywith the meansof art.At this extreme.but reasonandpolitics.likethe Kanonopern.becauseof ourimage.he wasright to do so. 1813. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .tellingthe "composers moreto do with them?OrdoesWagnerjuststill speakof "wasist deutsch.buta possibilitypremisedneveragainon a redemptiveretreatby the geniusinto the puresphereof culture."hopingto findthe voice of the outcastwho so desperately wantsto belong?This at lastreturnsus to the Schlemihl-however.8 on Sun.30 impossibly Looknow at Wagner(seeFig. shadowed.tryingto convinceBeethovento giveuphis throne. to Heinrich Heine's. backinto themselves. anxiety Germany's wansince had citizenhadonlyeverbeen the lonelymanwho."makeslegiblethe horrorof whattimehas lost. theyarein some sensealienatedoperastoo."Adorno wrotewhilethinkingaboutautonomous works. deredthe worldwithouthis shadow.wasjustthe sortof thinking. grip true that modem the fateful on the other. by PeterSchlemihlhis shadow." Wagner's operasmaybe readas lateworksof non-belongingthatlookexactlyin the wrongplace.a shadeof the non-belonging.falseillusionthatone sic. He namedno safeplaceto counterthe. Being somewhereor nowhere. of the chair"he wantsnothing youngWalther.In this secondrefusal.Inextricably of and later an ideology "greatness suffering.1).not justto express his anxietyaboutpolitics. no longernowjustto Chamisso's figure.9. as a ghostin 1911in TheMusicalHallof Fame.Withthe anxietyof not belonginguncurbed.In theShadowof theCanon 323 self. ratheron a deepandcriticalrethinkingof humanity's This."Onlysymphonictime.Adorno sawthe possibilityof change.butalso.Bynamingthe extreme.

Grieg. chasing Daphne He reachedout for her white body And insteadembraceda laurel. Verdi. by being given companionship with the "the big."he demonstrates his desire also to belong. . divine Schlemihl.Gounod. finds his voice. and one that Did not even sparetheir father. hinter Daphnen laufend. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Bruckner. And though the smaller Schlemihl regrets that he must sing only in Apollo's "shadow.Meyerbeer. Statt des weiBenNymphenleibes Nur den LorbeerbaumerfaBte. Yes.. MusicalHall of Fame. Dichterschicksal!boserUnstem.December 1911. Wagner. .Liszt." Apollo. What a fate reservedfor poets! Star of evil.Brahms.. und sogar Ihren Vaternicht verschont hat. der hohe Delphier ist Ein Schlemihl. Schumann.8 on Sun. Handel.248. Beethoven-the reigningfigure(Apollo) in this Europeanmusical Parnassus-Mendelssohn. Gluck. Der die Sohne des Apollo Todlich nergelt. Fromleft to right:Chopin. Weber. Mozart.. Ist ein Zeichen des Schlemihltums.Bach. the laurel That enwreatheshis browso proudly Is a sign of this Schlemihldom.9.the highbor Delphic God is A Schlemihl.der gottliche Schlemihl! On that day when. What a big divine Schlemihl! Ja. Reproducedfrom Etude. finally meet the figure who has been hiding in the shadows of Germany's modem tradition: the outcast Jewish poet who. und garder Lorbeer. Der so stolz die Stime kronet.. This content downloaded from 132. indeed. deadlygadfly Of Apollo's sons. Haydn.Schubert. Als er. Er.324 The MusicalQuarterly Figure1.

SusanGillespie. Gillespie). habdaruber mancheNacht.NormanManea.SusanH. AnselmGerhard. Nachgegriibelt Butits originis stillas Farfromknownas arethe sources Of the HolyNile./ Thatis the timeof direneed"(trans. HermannDanuserundHerfriedMuenkler. Wortenamlich.Thisessaywas Wissenschaftliches writtenforthe Intemationales "Kunst-Fest-Feier.In theShadow of theCanon 325 WasdasWortSchlemihlbedeutet. Notes "Thatis the needof the diretimes. ZuBerlinvorvielenJahren Wandtich michdeshalban unsem FreundChamisso."seemsto have gone unnoticed. to recall Chamisso'spoem." Symposium zuBerlin UnterdenLindenundthe Humboldt-Universitat presentedat the Staatsoper forthe (Wagner)Festtage2002. Hannah Arendt once expressedthe point perfectly:"Thoughthey dub its author'unknown...HatdochChamisso IhmdasBiirgerrecht in Deutschland Saw to it that it got German dem Langstverschafft.. With the Schlemihl. Civicrights-I meanthe worddid. And in this lateness." What a paradoxicalcompanionshipHeine thus forms. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Chamisso Wissenwir. to manycolleaguesandfriends.suchteAuskunft BeimDekanederSchlemihle.248.late in Chamisso'sstory is the man "ohne Schatten" also identifiedas a Jew with the non-name "NumeroZwolf."Chamissoremarks.9.ErnstOsterkamp.. This content downloaded from 132. ManyyearsagoI traveled To Berlinto see Chamisso Ourgoodfriend.In linking the Jewishpoet to Apollo. I'vepondered Manya nightuponthissubject. Whatthe wordSchlemihldenotesis Knownto us.forinformation Fromthe dean of the Schlemihls. What follows fromthis affinityof difficultneed?A difficulttime. therefore.33 Not incidentally.Longsince.butespeciallyto BorisGasparov.8 on Sun.BrigitteHilmer. he also links him to the Germangenius who has alwayslooked to the same god for his inspirationand belonging./ Thatis the diretimeof could not find a more appropriateKunstmdrchen by which to understandthe nation. IstseinUrsprung..GreggHorowitz. WiedesheilgenNiles Quellen.'" she wrote." "That he had no shadow. of assimilationand exclusion by too many of a country'speople who feel they do not belong. Aberunbekanntgeblieben. "the Nazis cannot eliminate [Heine's]Loreleifrom the repertoire of German song"(71).all of whomwillfindthemselvesin the shadowsof my thoughts. in the modem German of lateness anxiety one cannot help but see the deep anxiety of non-belonging that has sustainedone of Germany'smost profoundand tragiccontradictions.A Germanversionof thisessaywillappearin the Thanks EditionArgus(Schliengen).ed. ThomasPogge../ Thatis the direneed of the times.

conservativelyexpressedin termsof an aristocraticman who findshimself threatenedby a poor man (the shadow) who has assumedthe appearance. See also Gero von Wilpert. 4. Bruns. Disciplining Music:Musicologyand Its Canons(Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 14.WalterKaufmann(New York:Vintage Books. MendelssohnIs on theRoof.HarvardClassics 1909-14 (New York:HarvardUniversity Press.see GeraldL.Note that Andersen'sstorysayssomething about the relationshipbetween poetry and science."in Canons.trans.Peter Winch (Oxford:Blackwell. Moses arguablysmashesthe tablets the firsttime aroundto prove "the law"as eternal and thus separablefrom any particularinscription. 1983)." in Canons. Robertvon Hallberg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press.241-59. 8.Thus. Lowe-Porter(New York:Knopf. "Chamisso. both man and shadow are left with the sort of knowledge the other needs."in Canons.trans. 1983).but the appearanceonly. This phraseis taken fromNietzsche'sdefinition of "Germanen"in The Case of Wagner. The Birthof Tragedyand The Case of Wagner.trans.MarieWinn (New York:Penguin. KatherineBergeronand Philip V. it is too late for each to find the other. 1967). Anson Rabinbach. afterwhich he went on his travelsand produceda travelogueentitled ShadowPictures. 4. no. 11. 1983). 5.trans.there is also an explicit class theme in this story. of wealth.but fails to use his poetryfor noble ends. 1948). 6. 10. The Gay Science. 307-52. ed. Motivs 3. This content downloaded from 132. separatedfromhis shadow. Bohlman. 12." 'Kanon' in der Musikgeschichtsschreibung: Nationalistische Gewohnheiten nach dem Ende der nationalistischenEpoche. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . JosephKerman's"A Few Canonic Variations. Europa!1933-1938.326 The MusicalQuarterly 1. 1997).vol. 179. again. book 3. This is a phraseused by CharlesAltieri in "An Idea and Ideal of a LiteraryCanon.1992). CultureandValue. Robertvon Hallberg(Chicago:University of Chicago Press. Thomas Mann.does so by learningabout assumingthe pretensionsof knowledge. 13. no.WalterKaufmann(New York:Vintage.also to sustainhis poweror "charismaticauthority"over and above any of the religion'sfuturescribes. 1 (2000): 18-30.In theShadowof Catastrophe:GermanIntellectuals betweenApocalypseand Enlightenment (Berkeley:University of CaliforniaPress. 65-83. 1980). but. eds.2001).8 on Sun. The ImaginaryMuseumof MusicalWorks(Oxford:ClarendonPress. 1974)."in Essays. 7. left skepticallypursuinga knowledgehe thinks has lost its humanity. The learnedman."Canonand Power in the HebrewScriptures.1978). 1995). Tales. Cf. 21.. HermannKurzkeand Stephen Stachorski(Frankfurt:Fischer. Andersen met Chamisso in Berlin in 1831.9. Robertvon Hallberg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Finally. Der verloreneSchatten:Varianteneinesliterarischen (Stuttgart:Kroner. Anselm Gerhard. Publishedin Englishas "Sufferingsand Greatnessof RichardWagner. 41.1992). ed. no. The shadow."in Essaysof ThreeDecades. trans.248. For more on canons and charismaticauthority."Essaysof ThreeDecades. "Leidenund GrosseRichardWagners. 11. 9. 177-95."Archivfiir Musikwissenschaft 58. ed.Helen T.I thank Gregg Horowitzfor this point. 1992). 2. 11-72. ed. 2-9.

Mann."On its political sickbed. 465. 149-69. publishedin German as Die NormalitateinerBerliner Republik[Frankfurt:Suhrkamp. vol. Reflections of a Nonpolitical Kanonopem ing. Man. 240.248. "CanWe Learnfrom History?"in A BerlinRepublic.see Helmuth Plessner.trans.A Berlin Republic:Writingson Germany. Resurrection of theSpirit.Steven Rendall (Lincoln: University of NebraskaPress. 1993).see Hans Rudolf Vaget. 21.1996).8 on Sun.Walter D.ed. is forwardlook26.which quickly led to his leaving Germany. Cf. Cf. Benhabib. 4."Musikwissenschaft-eine verspateteDisziplin.Mann. trans. Pickford(New York:Columbia 89-103.William Ashton Ellis. Dec."A Look at the State. "EineMusikohne Zukunft.. Habermas. Cf.9. was deeply tied to the theological debate over kanonischeSchriftenand the possibilitiesof Protestant ritual to define a unique Germanyidentity.trans."in Musikwissenschaft-eine und zwischenFortschrittsglauben verspdteteDisziplin?Die akademische Musikforschung Modemitdtsverweigerung (Stuttgart:Metzler. This content downloaded from 132.Nation. 1966). 1997. 18-22. 20. It is important to note now that canon formationin the arts.In theShadowof theCanon 327 15.All TooHuman.2000). Cf.Die verspdtete Nation: iber diepolitischeVerfiihrbarkeit Geistes(Stuttgart:Kohlhammer.especially in the 1870s.: Publishedfor Monatshefte[by]University of Wisconsin Press. no.1995])."in of Giirgen Habermas. 19.Cultureowes its highest achievements to politically weakened times". 25. For more on this connection back to Luther.trans. 23. trans. I am here quoting Mann quoting Wagnerquoting Schopenhauer ("Sufferingsand Greatness. 18. Adorno: "Recallthe most famousformulationof Germancollective narcissism. which had been lost graduallyin the seeking regenerates and claiming of power. looking. nos.WalterKaufmann(New York:Vintage. 1-30. 136-58."345). no. 36.Henry W.Wis. "What is German?"in RichardWagner'sProseWorks. Habermas."in Critical Models:Interventions and Catchwords." in Human.Thus the development of what was called I thank Anselm Gerhardfor makingthis connection explicit. To stressthe lineage. 1987). Here I am disagreeingwith the view that whereasDie Meistersinger are backward Thomas the Cf. 1997. "The Rivalryfor Wagner's Mantle: Strauss.17ff. trans. 302 and 311. BeyondGoodandEvil.A BerlinRepublic:Writingson Germany. Art and Politics(New York:Broude.Pfitzner.Cf. 1998). University 17. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .7. Morris(New York:Ungar. Nietzsche. Reinhold Grimm and Jost Hermand(Madison. One may also usefullycompareMann's 1945 lecture "Germanyand the Germans"(Libraryof Congress)for an exemplarystatement of this German'scanonic anxiety as expressedthroughthe author'shaving now become an American. "The Meaning of Workingthroughthe Past.MarionFaberwith Stephen Lehmann (Lincoln: University of NebraskaPress. 22. 16. Wagner's:to be German means to do something for its own sake. 1958). also Anselm Gerhard.""On the Question: 'What is German?'"in CriticalModels. 1984)."in NietzschecontraWagner.a people usually and itself finds its spiritagain. Press. 244. biirgerlichen 1959). Mann got into troublefor EuropeanizingWagnerin his 1933 Wagneressay. The Worldas WillandRepresentation (New York:Dover. Kunstreligion. 24.207.

N. as part of the anxiety about the Germannation. Note that I am thinking about these works. 1993)."Journalof theRoyal MusicalAssociation116 (1992). 28.205.ed. Treitler. This link to Heine is taken from Hannah Arendt. 162.:Suhrkamp/InselPublishersBoston. Formore on readingthe opera'sending this way. 56-70)."in MusicologyandDifference:GenderandSexualityin MusicalScholarship. RochesterUniversity Press. Solie (Berkeley:University of CaliforniaPress. A ShortHistoryof theShadow(London:Reaction Books. 33. Rehearsals. 153. In Victor I. 29.8 on Sun.2003.9. Ron H.and Repetition in Wagner'sDie Meistersinger. 1997). 1978). Heinrich Heine.vol. Thanks to Leo Treitlerfor introducingme to this picture.ed. tion: On Songs. English translationfromHeine. of how a nobody becomes a somebody.with their canonical obsession. Mahler:A MusicalPhysiognomy (Chicago:University of Chicago Press. "TheJew as Pariah.328 The MusicalQuarterly 27. Ruth tory.a story. 280-98. it is also noted that Chamisso'sstoryfollows Achim von Amim's Jemandund Niemand. 1985).Mass.Heine met Chamisso in 1822 as a student and Hans ChristianAndersen in Parisin 1833.Hal Draper(Cambridge. I am thereforedepartingfromAdomo here.248. and "Genderand Other Dualities of Music Hised. 6/1 (Munich: Hanser. 23-45. Feldman(New York:Grove."The Politics of Reception:Tailoringthe Presentas Fulfillmentof a DesiredPast. trans. c1982). KlausBriegleb."I thank Jay Bernstein for makingthis differenceexplicit. This content downloaded from 132. I thank RichardBernstein for alertingme to this discussion. 31. who thinks more specifically about particularlate worksof composersin termsof "latestyle. two yearsafterAndersen had met Chamisso in Berlin.see my "The Dangersof Satisfacin Performance."in TheJew as Pariah. Stoichita. 1992). Vazsonyi(Rochester: History.Representation: (Re)ViewingWagner'sMeistersinger. 01 Nov 2015 20:57:18 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 32. 30.relevantlynow. SdmtlicheSchriften.Cf. The CompletePoems:A ModernEnglishVersion. CriticalModels." demonstratingthe lateness of German music as a whole.