DOSE ASSIGNMENT IN ELECTRON BEAM LITHOGRAPHY.

Project student: Adeleye Adetunji Oluwaseye
Supervisor: Dr. Stephen Thoms
Introduction

Conceptual
Design

Layout Editor
Software

Layout Beamer
Software

Belle Software

Sample
Preparation

Exposure (VB 6)

Development

Sputter Coating

Desired Pattern

One of the challenges that hamper the resolution of the Electron
Beam Lithography is the Proximity Effect occurrence, which is
experienced during the exposure of sample materials.

Proximity Effect
The two main types of interaction in the Proximity Effect are:
Forward scattering (small angle) and Back scattering (large
angle) [1].

Fig.2. Process Flow of an Electron Beam Lithography Pattern.

Result & Discussion
DOSE 475µC cm-2 of 0.5µm lines
380

width (nm) 370

Fig. 1a. Effect of Forward & Backward Scattering [2].
There are two types of Proximity Effect namely the IntraProximity Effect and the Inter-Proximity Effect.

360

350

NO PEC
OLD PEC
340

NEW PEC

330

320

310
centre

Intraproximity effect

Fig. 1b. An Illustration of both the Inter-Proximity Effect and
Intra-Proximity Effect [2]
The following are methods of compensating for Proximity Effect
viz.: Dose modification, Shape modification, Equalization of
background dose correction (GHOST) and Multilayer resist
technique, [1],[3] [4].

join

end

region

Fig. 3. Image analysis of the NO PEC, OLD PEC and NEW PEC
with the error bar analysis.
The NO PEC reviews the variations of line widths, line edge
roughness, Intra-Proximity Effect and the dosage assigned is
unevenly distributed. The OLD and NEW PEC, both
compensated for the Proximity Effect as there is uniformity in the
allocation of dose for pattern fracturing and improvement in the
line edge roughness.

Experimental Methods
This experiment was carried out on the three categories on the
substrate: NO Proximity Effect Correction (NO PEC), OLD
Proximity Effect Correction (OLD PEC) and New Proximity Effect
Correction (NEW PEC).
The NO PEC has no Point Spread Function (PSF), the OLD
PEC contains the PSF generated through the Monte Carlo
Simulation, while the NEW PEC contains the PSF generated
through the Modern Version of the Monte Carlo Simulation.
For the Vector Beam 6 (VB6) Electron Beam Tool to write on a
substrate, it passes through the processes in Fig. 2., as each
process plays a vital role in the effectiveness of the desired
pattern.

References
[1] Van de Kraats A and Murali R , ‘Proximity Effect in E-beam
Lithography’ Atlanta Georgia: Nanotechnology Research Centre,
Georgia Institute of Technology (2005).
[2] Chen. B and Ren, ‘Proximity Effect in Electron Beam
Lithography’ , IEEE, 0-7803-8511-X/04/$20.00:578, (2004).
[3] Harafuji.K, Misaka.A.,Kawakita.K, Nomura, N., Hamaguchi,H
and Kawamoto, M, ‘ Proximity Effect Correction Data Processing
System For Electron Beam Lithography’, , Journal of Vacuum
Science and Technology B, Vol.10(1):133-142, (1992).
[4] Owen,R and Rissman,P ‘ Proximity Effect Correction for
Electron Beam Lithography by Equalization of Background Dose’
, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol.54(6):3573-3581 (1983).
University of Glasgow, charity number SC004401