You are on page 1of 2


What is Policy?

Rules to establish, control or change behavior of institutions/

individuals in order to solve a problem

Principles that govern action directed towards given ends

Types of Policies

Implicit (Latent)
example: Routine use of diagnostics exams upon admission
of patients

Explicit (Manifests)
example: Magna Carta for Public Health Workers

Personal Power
Expert Power

**Politics is the use of different sources of power to shape policy and

achieve desired ends
RP: Person has control of the resources valued by the potential
recipient and has the power to reward those who comply with his
PP: a position entitles you to all the rights of that role
CP: Having the ability to punish, withdrawal of privileges
Personal: Charisma. Resides in the person and in their personality
EP: power invested to someone because of his expertise; Public
Health Professional

**Implicit: Are unwritten policies and are not publicly debated. Emerge
from informal policy making processes and do not contain public
enforcement instruments
Explicit: Are written and may be debated in public. Made with a formal
process and are officially enforced
Classification of Policies

Public Policy

Social Policy

Institutional Policy

Health Policy
**PP: are Substantive decisions, commitments and actions made by
those who hold or affect government positions of authority
SP: are directives that promote the welfare of the public ex: water and
sanitation code of the phil
IP: All business offices have IP. Govern workplaces. How the
institutions will treat its employess. Ex: anti-sexual harassment policy
HP: Directives and goals for promoting the health of citizens, ex:
generic Drug act
All these policies are shaped by politics. And the Aim of politics is to
influence the behavior of others.
Politics and Policy Making

- Understand the rationale of the prevailing policies
- The actual consequences of the policies
- The origins of these policies
- The forces that have shaped both their ratification and
How to be an Influential Individual


**3 Cs of political Influence:

Communication: applying the entire repertoire of interpersonal
communication( verbal and behavioral)
Collectivity: Individuals can become more effective in politics and
policy development by joining w/ others; collaborate
Collegiality: A spirit of cooperation and solidarity w/ associatesis
central to political process. It is an attitude of mutual respect and
shared convictions and values, expression of caring for each other
POWER: The capacity to get others to do things they might not
otherwise do. Effective Mangement requires appropriate use of power
Types of Power

Resource/Reward Power

Position/Legislative Power

Coercive Power

Reflects a comprehensive process through which policies are made.

Follows 4 main stages:
1. Needs assessment stage
2. Policy making stage
3. Policy implementation and evaluation stage
4. Policy revision stage
Policy Memo

A step to start bringing to attention policy changes to Policy


1. Single page
2. Straightforward but respectful

1. Date, To, From, Regarding
2. Situationer
3. Policy Concerns
4. Recommendation
5. Ending or punchline

This is the first step to undertake in changing a policy. You

will write a letter to the policy maker usually single page and
convince them of the need to revise a policy

Typology of Health Laws
Republic Acts by Congress (R.A. #)
Department of Health Administrative Orders (DOH A.O. #)
Presidential Executive Order (E.O. #)
Presidential Proclamation Order (P.O. #)
Health Laws Crafting: Where do legislations, A.O.s, E.O.s
Legislative and Health Policy Agenda of the DOH
Legislative Agenda of the President and Cabinet
Legislative Agenda of the Senate and Lower House of
Legislative and Health Policy Agenda of Civil Society Groups
But How are Legislative and Health Policy Agenda Formulated?
The Rational Way
1. Analysis of the National Health Situation
2. Conduct of health policy researches
3. Nation-wide consultations, round table discussions and
workshops to identify health policy and legislative gaps
Consensus Building on Priorities
The Irrational Way
Lobbying by vested interests
Personal agenda of a Senator or Congress Representative
Agitation by special interest groups, social activists and
development organizations
1.Congressional Decision Making
Filing of Senate and Lower House Bills
Committee on Health Hearings and Consultations
Floor debates
Passing of the Bill by both Houses
Bicameral Sessions
Submission to the President for signature
2. Presidential Decision Making on E.O.s and P.O.s
Upon recommendation of the Secretary of Health or any
Cabinet Secretary
Processing and staff work by the Presidential Management
Staff (PMS)
Personal lobbying by the Cabinet Secretary with the
President signing the Executive Order or Presidential
3. DOH Health Policy Decision Making
Health researches and consultations spearheaded by
Bureau of Health Policy Planning and Research
Submission of finished staff work to the Management
Committee of the DOH for deliberations and decision making
Signing of the DOH Executive Order by the Secretary of
Implementation Drawbacks
Lack of funds to implement the law
Lack of political will to implement by the DOH Secretary and
heads of respected agencies mandated to implement the law
Continued pressure of vested interest groups not to
implement the law with capture of the Agency Head by the
vested interest groups

Monitoring & Evaluation of the Law

No official system and procedure
Sometimes done with support from an interested
international donor agency or pressure by civil society
At best done only when there is an amendment to the law
and an evaluation is done before the amendments are made
Check and balance by Congress of the Executive Branch
Significant Health Laws in Public Health Reform
R.A. 8172 Asin Bill (1995) Mandates iodization of all food
grade salt and making this available to all communities

R.A. 8976 Philippine Food Fortification Act (2000).

Establishes the program for food fortification esp. Vitamin A,
iron and zinc
R.A. 7432 (1992) An Act to maximize the contribution of
Senior Citizens to nation building, grant benefits and special
R.A. 7876 (1995). Senior Citizens Center Act. Establishes
senior citizens centers in all cities and municipalities

Significant Health Laws in Public Health

R.A. 8423 Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (1997).

Creates the Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative
Health Care (PITAHC).
R.A. 7277 Magna Carta for Disabled Persons (1992)
B.P. 344 Accessibility Law for Disabled Persons (1983)
R.A. 7600 The Rooming in and Breastfeeding Act (1992)
R.A. 8504 Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act

Significant Health Laws in Local Health Systems Reform

E.O. 102 Redirecting the Functions and Operations of the
Department of Health (1999)
E.O. 105 Providing for the Creation of a National Health
Planning Committee and the Establishment of Inter-Local
Health Zones (IHLZ) throughout the country. (2000)
Significant Health Laws in Health Care Financing & Management

R.A. 7875 An Act Instituting a National Health Insurance

Program for all Filipinos and establishing the Philippine
Health Insurance Corporation for the Purpose (1995)
R.A. 9241 An Act amending R.A. 7875 otherwise known as
the Philippine Health Insurance Act of 1995 (2004)

Significant Health Laws in Health Regulation Reform

R.A. 6675 The Generics Act (1988). An act to promote,
require and ensure the production of an adequate supply,
distribution, use and acceptance of drugs and medicines
identified by their generic names.
R.A. 7719 The National Blood Services Act of 1994 (1994).
Promotes voluntary blood donation, provides for an
adequate supply of safe blood, regulating blood banks and
providing penalties for violation
R.A. 8749 Clean Air Act (1999). Provides for a
comprehensive air pollution control policy.
E.O. 51 National Code of Marketing Breastmilk Substitutes,
Breastmilk Supplements and other related products (1986)
R.A. Organ Donor Act (1994)

R.A. Newborn Screening Act (2004)

Significant Laws in Health Human Resource Development