Ahmad shah-1748 to 1754

His period witness attacked by abadali. Therefore Punjab in1749
and NWFP 1751 were given to abdali but still attack is continued.
But administration is control by queen mother udambai, but both
emperor & queen mother were killed by wazir ………………..
[imad],who had also forced 2nd nawab of Safdarjung [also known
as nawab wazir because tey were acting as wazir for mughal
emperor] to back to awadh.where he was facing fight with rohilah
whose chief is ahamad han bangus is tough leader, therefore
safdarjung enter to subsidiary alliance to Maratha with leader like
Malhar Rao,jayapa sindiya by 1754.he also entered with alliance
with jat leader, So on one had Punjab was being overrun by
afghan on other side Maratha is visible force in north India’s they
had acquired malwa, overrun Gujarat, plunder bhihar,WB,Orissa
also ran rajputana, by 1752 they had acquired outpost in ganga
doab region.Imad put on throne Aziz-ud-din Alamgir II [17541759],all power in tis time was concentrated on imad,who went to
sign subsidiary treaty with Maratha, in which important role is
played by malhar rao, raghunath.now Maratha was given
responsibility of security NWFP & mughal empire against attacked
by ahmad shah, who during his frequent evasion recognize
almagir II & imad as wazir, also appointed
Rohilla
chief Nazibudaula as Mir Bakshi [The head of the military was
called the mir baksh] & supreme agent.abadali envasion is pain
ful for many religious including Mathura,those these place of
governership
of
Maratha,only
jatt
leader
offer
some
resistance,from Delhi Maratha force under malhar rao march into
Punjab, they only reappointed adina baigh as mughal governer of
Punjab, they also expel Timur Shah son of abdali from Lahore,they
had already expel khan from delhi, thereby creating sufficient
condition for abdali, Maratha force under sadha shiva rao bhau,
nana shaheb symbolic command under peshwas son vishwas
Rao.

The matter is more significant than panipat is already fought that is battle of plasi [1691] which have long term consequence. also we had different alliance with British.Maratha troop under Ibrahim khan Gardi. however came to throne price ali gauhar or shahaalam II Shahalam II [1759-1786] He was forced to live at mercy of different forces because he was expecl from delhi by imad. Imad kill Aziz-uddin Alamgir II place on throne shahajahan II.1772 got agreement with rohilla who are expecting Maratha invasion they promise suja 40 lakes if he succeed in compelling them to withdraw. they have number of difference within their rank. so panopat war is disatar of high magnitude but it was decisive because for abdali it was empty victory.1764]& with him British sign a treaty of Allahabad 1765 & took away from district of Allahabad & kora. Who never any step against Afghani. they were not having stable revenue system to sustain empire there was no binding principle among different Maratha chief e. when raghav ji bhosle extracted charge from Easter part of India including Orissa he came with conflict with baji rao similar balaji baji rao also criticized him. they had artillery trainee under French general.g. But Maratha have no single friend alliance in north. Annual tribute of 26 lakes of dewani rights that is right of revenue . Another treaty of Allahabad 1765 was sign with shahaalm II who are given two districts Allahabad & kora. so in term of analysis it can be said that Maratha polity was already cracking up before 1761 they had week basic of home government. his successor were busy to fight rebellion back home & sikkha army broke afghan out of Punjab.shahalam II was given shelter by shujauduala of awadh who was third nawab. defeated of battle of buxor [bihar. two fatal mistakes committed by Maratha along the line of communication cut & abandoning traditional war [gurulla] trait. company troop maintained & subsidized by nawab.

akbar II send raja ram mohan sendt England as ambesdor.after him was his son influence zabita khan than grandson ghula khan .was shahaalma II was 1 st emperor to give pension till he passed away 1806. poet of urdu patronized mirza galib another urdu poet [asha dula begh].meer takim among other.in tis perod there was of mass production of old script including name of original artist. In terms of literature a new style is emerged in 18 th century known as sharre show having its roots in Turkish & Persian literature . 3rd panipat Maratha was defaetd abdali appointed nazim khan as supreme regulator of affairs. mughal governor acquired formal recognition from mughal rule only.1770 all this happening when Maratha leader mahajiv sindhiya place shalalam II back to delhi. Delhi was influence of Maratha till 1803 when it was capture by British .beacsue mugal authority is visible in no. who was asked by lord hesting give all ceremonial title which proclaim supremecy of mughal emperor over the company . meerja sauda.he was caught at humaun tomb.later mughal period symbolized weaking of centralized mughal empire disperseing of power. 1837-1858 Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafarwas the last Mughal emperor . . 1806-1837 Akabar II [phool walo ki sher. Though they functioned independent manner.administration. there was royal stamp paste them to look like them authentic copy.that is transfeomation of polity rather than completety collapse.during Aurangzeb time & afterward some important poet were zafar zatalli. of way.put on military trial & exile to rangur [mynamar]. He zafar was proclaimed as mugal of Hindustan as rebel. revolutionary 1857.secularism ] This period reflected rule of Akbar 2 nd confine to red fort.there was a person najafkhan who had military experience in Bengal with English also control affaris of delhi.

Maratha spiritual poetry also retain its position when supported by peswa like famous poet tukaram who known for devotion poetry known as abhanga poetry. plant crafting. Ag.spectale.hockey. pearl harvesting [hyd] there was no coal mining. India have also ship building industry. In terms of sport chaugan [polo]. badminton and . cherry in J & K. In term of social economy & culture ideas during mughal india is already knowning hand loom weaving. chess.hour glass.Vernacular language it was Italian who started Hindi language .purtagal started regular use of fire arm. cultivation of saffron. sericulture.boxing. Au mining.sand watch. no mention of maize cultivation in aine akabar . potassium nitrate (saltpeter). Cu.wrestling.english introduce glass item telescope. During jahagir time a faestival similar to holy. spices in Malabar region.