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03/07/2016 Lecture ppt

Hetero-structure lasers
Semiconductors with different band
-gaps: improved e/h confinement

Improved
waveguide
because the
semiconductors
have different
refractive index

5-24 Silfvast .Heterogunction semiconductor laser h(1)>h(2) waveguide E (AlGaAs)> E (GaAs) Fig.

Double Hetero-structure (DH) laser diodes Improved photon confinement in the GaAs active region due to the larger index of refraction of GaAs (n = 3. •Improved carrier confinement in the GaAs active region due to the smaller band gap (Eg ≈ 1.cladding layers (Eg ≈ 1.4).and n.and n.5 eV) of the GaAs compared to the p.8 eV).cladding layers (n = 3.6) compared to the p. .

5-25 Silfvast .GaAs double heterostructure laser Fig.

Diode lasers: electrical to optical power conversion Injected electrical current Carrier density: electrons and holes in the active region In modern lasers the efficiency approaches one output photon for each injected electron Photon density .

S) : Gain (stimulated emission – absorption) sp : Spontaneous emission rate . rate equation dS S  sp N  GS   dt p N Stimulated emission & absorption Cavity losses Spontaneous emission p : Photon lifetime ~ 10-12 s 1/ = k is the cavity loss.Photon density . G (N.S.

Rate equation for the carrier density N dN 1 N    GS dt eV  N Pump: Injection of carriers N Recombination of carriers Stimulated emission & absorption : Carrier lifetime. e/h radiative and non-radiative recombination I : Injection current: I/eV is the number of electrons injected per unit volume and per unit time G (N.S) : Gain .

Initial conditions for lasing  sp dS 1  ( N  1)S  dt  p  • At t=0 there are no photons in the cavity: S(0) = 0 • Without noise ( sp=0): if S=0 at t=0 dS/dt=0 S remains 0 • Without spontaneous emission noise the laser does not turn on .

Cleaved facets . •Bright output considering their small size. diode lasers are very efficient (100% for the output photons with respect to the injected electrons).diode lasers The semiconductor medium has huge gain & does not require fragile enclosures or mirror alignment (the laser cavity is composed by the two facets of the semiconductor). •Low cost fabrication because of existing semiconductor technology. low energy consumption. •Compared to other lasers. •Low threshold current.

as lattice-matched layers of one semiconductor material over another.Fabrication techniques Heterostructures are grown epitaxially. –liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) uses the cooling of a saturated solution containing the constituents in contact with the substrate (but layers are thick) –vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) use gases in a reactor. . by –molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) uses molecular beams of the constituent elements in a high-vacuum environment.

5-26 Silfvast .Quantum well laser levels Fig.

Etot  EG  En EG En is the band gap energy energy of holes .2.…) Setting energy at top of valence band equal to zero The possible electron energies in the conduction band are.For infinite depth well () n En  2 2mc L 2 2 L layer thickness N quantum number ( n=1.

Quantum well laser .

Semiconductor laser Characteristics Fig. 5-28 Silfvast .

Novel Lasers .

Molecular-beam epitaxy MBE growth reactor The compositions and dopings of the individual layers are determined by manipulating the arrival rates of the molecules and the temperature of the substrate surface Individual layers can be made very thin (atomic layer accuracy) .

Optical spectra .

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. a photodiode at the back is used to control output power.packaging Packaging allows integrating laser diodes in devices –Mechanical and optical coupling to an optical fiber –Temperature stabilization –Photodiode for monitoring of the optical power. –Optical Isolation (avoid back reflections from the fiber) •But: significantly increases the fabrication cost. The laser diode chip is the small black chip at the front. laser diode with the case cut away. with respect to pump current level.