Vedic Foundation of Knowledge

-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, IPS, M.Sc., AIFC
C/47, Palaspalli, Bhubaneswar-751020
0674-2591172/ Mob-09437034172
Veda is world and its representation in words-both are beyond perception of a
man. It explains inter-relation between 3 world systems-cosmic, earth, man by 5
senses and 2 extra ones. As inter-link between all worlds, it is foundation of all
knowledge. Correct idea and measures of 7 cosmic structures evolved in 5 steps
was formed. All classifications of language and sciences are based on 3 (worlds)
and 7 (lokas). That is proper foundation for each subject and some aspects of
inter-link are still unknown. That provides guide for future research in cosmology
and other sciences.
1. Introduction- (a) How Veda is Foundation of Science-Veda indicates two
things- (i) The Brahma or world (1) itself, and (ii) The text in word form. Both forms
are apauruṣeya or ‘super human’. Veda Brahma is super human in the following
respects(1) Puruṣa is an entity living in Pura or closed structure. If we study hierarchy of
structures only, it does not amount to the whole world. There is dark matter,
energy field in seemingly empty space, and the space itself. Possibly, the
primordial material of creation-Rasa- is beyond all that. (2)
(2) Veda is vāk or measure of that puruṣa. It is vacant space between two puras
and size of
different levels of puras. Again the dynamics of creation-Yajña-is beyond measure
of vāk. Veda is word form is a representation of real world and so, it is foundation
of sciences.
This representation is achieved in following ways(1) Vāk in spoken or written form corresponds to real structure of universe.
Specially, Devanāgarī script (3) is perfect parallel to sizes of solar system and
galaxy and by extension to Brāhmī, it represents the whole of visible universe.
(2) Pure vāk represented in a language is distorted by personal bias or character,
knowledge, perception and angularities. Firstly, the vāk is to be perceived by a
Ṛṣi (4) who sees inner-relation between three environs-ādhidaivika (space,
cosmic), ādhibhautika (physical world), ādhyātmika (within human body). The
remaining traces of human bias are eliminated by considering the inner unity of
thought of several Ṛṣis.
(3) Relation between cosmic, physical and inner worlds is not observed by any
experiment, though it is expected as cosmic structure is source of other two.
There are some theories about link, called Anthropic Principles in modern astrophysics. Our normal perception is by 5 senses through 5 Prāṇas. But, there are 2
more prāṇas called Asat (beyond perception). There is not only sixth sense, but a
seventh also. So, Prāṇas are generally counted as5, but sometimes 7 also (4).
Perception by these extra senses is abnormal for any person,
Thus, vedas as world or word form-both are word (vāk) of God (Brahma) and are
(b) Why Veda is preferred to other scriptures-Tora. Bible, Koran and Avesta
also are word of God and God does not speak falsehood anywhere. But the style
of other scriptures is story like purāṇas meant for masses. The language, script
or manner of presentation is not classified in scientific style.
Vedas are science of world in following manners-(i) There is six fold
correspondence between Brahma and vāk through Devanāgarī and Brāhmī

scripts extended to 172 symbols of Vijñāna vāk (scientific letters and symbols) of
(ii) Vedas are classified four-fold by 3 parts including one originalVeda Element Meaning of verb vid (5)
to exist
Yajur Motion
to gain
Sāma Knowledge to know
Atharva Foundation to consider
(b) Universe - Scattered galaxies - Collection of mantras in Samhitā
(Start of motion, vāyu) (Procedures)
Solar system Fire energy (araṇi) Āraṇyaka (Link with cosmic energy, devotion)
Earth Base to sit (Creation) Upaniṣad (= to sit)-settled principles
(c) Whether Vedas contain superior knowledge-Ludwig Feuerbach in his
books “Philosophy of Religion” and The “Essence of Christianity” has explained
faith in scriptures as the surrender of primitive illiterate man to supernatural
mysteries. In the era when the top-most physicists and mathematicians
perceived their theories of inherent unity and connectedness of universe,
persons facing difficulty in science and math since school days think that earlier
men were more ignorant. Superior knowledge existed all over the world in Vedic
age is evident from the following facts(1) People of Mexico were able to calculate solar eclipse 7000 years ago for
which there is no exact method till today. But historians ascribe only pictorial
script to them, though in modern scientific era, no new language has been
(2) Vedic literature read with Sūrya-siddhānta (Book of Enoch in Ethiopian version
of Bible, Ina=sun) accurately describes the size of universe, extent of dark
matter etc. They also give rotation period of galaxy (manvantara) which is not
measured till today.
(3) Vedas describe 13 levels of world structures (6) out of which only 9 levels are
separately studied in modern sciences. Cosmology theories describe only
isotropic, homogenous universe which completely ignores various levels of
(4) From highest structure till man, successive images are created. To some
extent, Anthropic Principle(7) in modern cosmology assumes these and static
relations are known. Dynamic relation between man, earth, solar system, galaxy
is still to be understood.
(5) Science of medicine included interaction of man and animals with plants and
minerals which was more detailed in ancient times than in modern materiamedica.
(6) Residue of original rasa at each level of creation is defined. (8)
(7) Universe is described in 5 to 10 dimensional entities about which modern
cosmology is in doubt. (9)
(8) Veda is par¢ and aparā vidyā both. One is unity of thought, the other is
classification.(10) Science is classified knowledge and we are in search of
unification now. Parā and aparā vidyā are also called vidyā-avidyā, jñāna-vijñāna.
(2) Vedic Science and its perceptionWhat is Vedic science ? Is it arbitrary interpretation or twisting of words ? Or, is it
search of some concepts of words of science in Vedic literature ? It is none of
these. It has been mentioned that §¾i is a person who perceives unity of
principles in 3 environs or have some parallel in other worlds. There is a trend in
so called scientific analysis of Vedas to vaguely understand own branch of
science and to twist some vedic words to suit his concepts. That way, science or
its present state is foundation of vedas. We are not treating Vedas as foundation

of knowledge. We have to develop our sciences in line of Vedas. (11) Then only,
Veda is a useful source.
This needs the following steps(1) Understanding the scheme of Vedic science based on 10 fold interpretation of
cosmic origin. (12) Ten views of Nāsadīya sūkta represent 10 dimensional world.
(2) For some purposes, 5 dimensional world is complete as in mechanical
sciences. Complete description needs 5 to 10 dimensional views resulting in 6
philosophies, 6 scripts etc.
(3) Meaning of each Vedic word is to be understood in scientific sense. Paṇḍita
Madhusūdana Ojhā and his students Motilal Shastri, Giridhar Chaturvedi have
explained definitions of various vedic terms. These are to be made more precise
and a dictionary is to be made.
(4) In last 600 years after Sāyaṇa, we have omitted translations of numerical
words in vedas. Sahasra, koṭi, kharva, parā, śanku-mean different numbers, but
all are taken as infinite. By analysing these terms, we get quantitative
description of world which can be partly verified by modern sciences. This gives
clue to many more new structures which can provide future direction to modern
(5) Scientific theories are to be tested and verified in 3 ways called sahasra-śīrṣa
(source element or cosmic field), sahasrākṣa (heliocentric view, sun is eye =
akṣa), sahasra-pāda (physical world on earth)
(6) Dynamic process of each system-cosmic, human, atomic, physical, social,
economic, geographical etc. is to be understood by yajña (creation) model.
(3) Problems of modern Cosmology(A) V. L. Ginzburg has idenified 7 key problems in Astrophysics (12) (i) Experimental checks and applicability of the general theory of Relativity.
(ii) Gravitational waves.
(iii) Cosmological problem-Relation between cosmology and hiigh energy physics.
(iv) Neutron stars and pulsars. Physics of black holes.
(v) Quasars and galactic nuclei. Formation of galaxies.
(vi) Origin of cosmic rays and cosmic, gamma ray and x-ray radiations.
(vii) Neutrino astronomy.
(B) Einstein’s theory of Gravitation (General Theory of Relativity) has been
generalized in four broad directions (13) (i) Theories based on four dimensional manifolds described by geometries more
general than Riemannian(a) Weyl and Eddington uniting electromagnetism and gravitation.
(b) Geometries using torsion-Elie Cartan Geometry. This was attempted by
Einstein, R. Finkelstein, theories of super-gravity model and beyond unified
(c) Differential geometries by J. A. Schouten.
(ii) Gravitational theories with additional factors(a) Scalar Tensor theories of Jordan,-Brans-Dick, using scalar field.
(b) Finsler geometries-metric is a scalar function of point and vector.
(c) Biometric theories of Rosen and others.
(d) Fourth order field equations like super-gravitation and Twister theory of
(iii) Action at a distance theories-R. Feynman ad J.A. Wheelerr introduced
absolute absorber in future explaining influence of remaining universe. HoyleNarlikar theory is an example.
(iv) Quantum theories of gravitation. This places a lower limit to length and timePlanck’s distance=1.6 x 10-35 meters.
Least time interval =10-43 seconds (in which light ray will travel that distance).
This is still at

elementary stage with following preliminary steps(a) Quantization of weak gravitational field.
(b) Particle pair creation in expanding universe.
(c) Gravitational modeling of elementary particles.
(d) Super symmetry and Super-gravity.
(C) Various dimensions have been assumed in such theories(i) 3 dimensional space in Laplace theory of cosmology.
(ii) 4 dimensional space-time continuum in Einstein’s relativity theory.
(iii) 5 dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory uniting gravitational and electromagnetic
(iv) 6 dimensional theory of gravitational and Electro-weak interactions by
(v) Multi-dimensional theory with 2 time like co-ordinates.
(vi) Ten dimensional string theories- 5 alternative models have been proposed (14).
(4) Solution by Vedic Model(1) Unification models started with observation of P.A.M. Dirac in 1935 that
ratio between effective or defined size of electron and theoretically visible
universe was 1040. Same was the ratio of gravitational and electromagnetic
forces between electron and nucleus. Salam-Wienburg theory is based on same
ratios 1040, 1080 with other 2 forces(15). Next development should focus on
smaller class of real world structure. There are 7 lokas corresponding to 7
tongues of Agni(16). Each closed system (maṇḍala) loosely called a sphere is
practical limit (koṭi) of the world for component spheres and is 10 7 times it. So,
107 is called koṭi. The higher spheres starting from man are called maṇḍalas-(i)
Bhū, (ii) Saura, (iii) Parameṣṭhī, and (iv) Svayambhū. Bhū-maṇḍala (earth) is 10 7
times man, saura (solar system) is again 10 7 times Bhū-maṇḍala and so on (17).
Around bhū-maṇḍala, there is a zone of influence of earth called chandramaṇḍala, as it contains orbit of chandra (moon). Including this, there are 5 levels
of viśva higher than man, so world is called pañcha-parvā (of 5 levels) or a tree
with 5 stages of branching (18). Man is the 6th world or viśva. 7 lower viśva are
each 105 times smaller than man. Thus, 7th or smallest level comes to 1.6 x 10 -35
meters and is called(19) Ṛṣi . This comes to same size as Plancks length (para 3B
IV). Separate sizes are given in vedic literature for cell (kalila), atom (jīva),
nucleus (kuṇḍalinī). Below that, the particle sizes are not defined in quantum
mechanics. Names from lowest level are Ṛṣi (string), pitar (= parents, prototype
for creation), deva-dānava (light, darkness), jagat (moving particles) of 3 types (20)
-lepton (chara = moving), baryon (heavy, sthāṇu = fixed), meson (link particles,
anupūrva = after and prior). Thus, there are 13 levels of viśva and not infinite
system of hierarchy as postulated in Mathematical Systems Theory of Kalman.
Hence, viśva (closed, complete and inter-connected system, world) is used to
indicate number 13 in astronomy texts. These levels areFive parva of world tree
World level Maṇḍala name God Vowel Consonant Corresponding Chakra
(Inner letters within human body)
1. Universe Svayambhū Brahmā A
h Viśuddhi
2. Galaxy Parameṣṭhī Viṣṇu
y Anāhata
3. Solar
v Svādhiṣṭhāna
4.Sphere of moon orbit Chandra Soma Ṛ r
5 Earth

l Mūlādhāra
Note-(1) Brahmā = Grand, whole world. Viṣṇu = encloser (to vest in). Indra =
burning (Indha
= to burn), Soma = dilute energy. Agni = concentrated matter or energy.
(2) Concentration of matter/energy was process of creation or agri (leading,
first). So, this form is called agni (21). All the 5 parvas are levels of agni, last being

most concentrated for earth. Out of these, the last 3 are called Nāchiketā
(chiketa = distict, nāchiketā = inter-mixed). So, sun-moon-earth are called 3 eyes
of Śiva. Joint pronunciation of the three vowels-(u+ṛ+ḷ) becomes hulhuli (gargling
sound) which has become holi in sanskrit meaning pious (as holy in English).
(3) Chakras in human body are in order of Saundarya-laharī, vrese 9 by
Śankarāchārya. This is parallel to order of creation, hence it is called sṛṣṭi-krama.
These are centers of various aspects of human body and their symbols are
letters pronounced from lower part of stomach. Other 8 worlds (viśva) are6. Man = 1.6 meters
Level nos.
Deva-dānava Pitar
Modern names (cell) (atom)
(nucleus) (particles)
(quarks ?) (proto-type)
10-5 m 10-10 m
10-15 m
10-20 m
10-25 m
10-30 m
Size below nucleus level is not defined. Effective zones of electron is same as
this size1015 m. Both are formed of quarks. However, symmetry of ratios
indicates that missing gaps between nucleus and fundamental string- levels 10
11, 12 should be in same ratios as indicated above.
There is a cross symmetry in number of higher and lower viśva and their ratios
as powers of 10. Higher viśvas are 5 (including moon orbit) or 5 maṇḍalas
starting from man in ratios of 107 each. Lower lokas are 7 with ratio of 10 5. This
power of 10 indicates that universe should
be 10 dimensional. Effect of 10 dimensions can be seen in many other levels
shown later. This settles the problem that dimensions number cannot be 11 as
Lower structures are images of universe. Visible universe has 10 11 particles as
galaxies. Each galaxy has 10 11 particles as stars. As image of both, Human brain
has 1011 kalila (neurons). So, 1011 is called kharva (powder form or broken into
particles). Countable world Gaṇeśa (gaṇanā = to count) is also kharva (meaning
dwarf also). For 10 dimensions, its power number 11 is called Rudra (which
(2) Ahargaṇa scaleThere is another scale of measuring universe with earth as unit. Higher measures
are in power of 2. Within earth itself, there are 3 concentric spherical shells
making 3 ahargaṇas equal to earth size. 4th ahargaṇa is twice the size of earth,
5th ahargaṇa is 22 size and so on. Thus, radius of nth ahargaṇa is r x 2 n-3, where
r is radius of earth. Starting from earth’s surface, blocks of 6 ahargaṇas are
called ‘stoma’ (collection) giving stomas at 9, 15, 21, 27, 33 ahargaṇa which is
defined as limit of solar system. Middle of 1 to 33 ahargaṇa is 17th. Including
that, there are 6 Vaṣaṭkāra (i.e. 6 zones of vāk).(23)
9th ahargaṇa = 26 radius of earth = 64r (Soma maṇḍala) moon is at 61r
15th ahargaṇa = 212 r = up to 30% distance till venus orbit = Bhuvar loka.
17th ahargaṇa = 214 r = just crosses sun which is sustaining life, i.e. Prajāpati, so
17 is called Prajāpati. From earth surface, it is 15th, so earth day and kalpa (day
of Brahmā) are divided into 15 muhūrtta or manvantara.
21st ahargaṇa = 218 r. It just crosses saturn orbit which is called ‘ratha’ of sun (25)
or more properly wheel of the ratha. So it is ‘rathantara sāma’ (sāma = field of
influence). Up to this region rays of sun are sustaining life, so this is center of
‘nāchiketa’ svarga extending to 4 ahargaṇa on either side of 17th (sun) , i.e. 13th
to 25th.

24th ahargaṇa = 221 r – This is the planetary system till Neptune which has been
called disc shaped earth of 1 billion yojana diameter (here, yojana = 1000 part of
equatorial diameter = 12.8 km)
27th ahargaṇa = 224 r.This is at 24 ahargaṇa from earth’s surface. 24 measure is
gāyatrī chhanda (meter of verse or of space). For sun, it is Sāvitrī, or Maitreyamaṇḍala. With sun diameter taken as 1 yojana, this is at 1 lakh yojana from suncenter. This sphere is bhūmi (= earth, land for creation) of solar system, hence
bhūmi is stated at 1 lakh from sun(26) .
33rd ahargaṇa = 230 r. This is extent of solar system called dyu (sky) of saura
maṇḍala. This is defined in two ways-in this zone, light of sun is more than the
background of galaxy (dyu = light). Or, an object will remain in sun’s orbit till this
distance due to its gravitation. But creative zone-‘bhūmi’ is up to 27th ahargaṇa
Element of dyu or ‘rasa’ content in each ahargaṇa level is a deva. For 33
ahargaṇa, we have
33 devas(27) - 8 vasu, 11 rudra, 12 āditya, and 2 dyāvā-pṛthivī (sky-earth) or
aśvins (border regions between vasu-rudra, rudra-āditya).
Starting from outside, in rare medium, ‘rasa’ or ‘ānanda’ is maximum. On
crossing each ahargaṇa, 99 out of 100 parts of rasa density is consumed in
creation, i.e. ānanda is reduced 100 times (28). Thus, starting from earth, ānanda
of each ahargaṇa loka increases 100 times. From earth’s surface to 33rd
ahargaṇa, there is gap of 30 ahargaṇa corresponding to 100 30 or 1060 ratio of
ānanda. 1060 is the number of electron-positron pair in solar system. Image of
this process is made in preparation of homeopathic medicine. At each step,
medicine is diluted 100 times, then its potency or ānanda content increases by 1
like that of ahargaṇa zone. At 30 potency, we reach end of solar system, whose
image is maṇipūra chakra (naval region) in human body. Thus, 30 potency
medicine is used for most ailments, as they are related to digestive system. This
centre is called energy body (Prāṇamaya-koṣa).
Exponential scale of ahargaṇa is perceived as linear scale on earth like
perception of sound intensity (Helmholtz principle). For āditya-ratha in 20-21
ahargaṇa, we have sun place at Koṇārka and Ratha-yātrā center at Purī at 20 0+
latitudes. After 33 ahargaṇa, energy of sun is
like average of galaxy in that region, so sun is called mārtaṇḍa (dead egg). At
330+ latitude in Kashmir, there is Mārtaṇḍa (Maṭṭan sāheb) temple.
Division of galactic regions is by chhandomā-stoma at 24 (gāyatrī), 44 (triṣṭup),
48 (jagatī) ahargaṇa-these are letter numbers of chhanda.
Gāyatrī is measure of world as 107=223.5 in ahargaṇa scale. Starting from man,
Gāyatrī is earth, 107 times size of man. From earth, next level is sāvitrī (sava = to
create or produce) or
bhūmi (earth, place for creation) of solar system (27 ahargaṇa). Next levels are
parameṣṭhī (galaxy) and svayambhū (universe) maṇḍalas shown in 4(1). Region
from 1 to 15 ahargaṇa is bhuvar-loka. 15 to 33 is svar-loka in broad sense. Its
center 24 (gāyatrī) is taken as svar-loka. Maharloka is 44th ahargaṇa, more
correctly it is 43 ahargaṇa equal to letters of Māheśvara sūtra which is
foundation of tantra or creation and of sanskrit grammer. Each chhanda extends
to 2 less and 2 more letters (29). This is a region of 1400 light year diameter
around sun which is width of spiral arm of galaxy here.
Limit of galaxy is arrived at 49 ahargaṇa (within scope of jagatī chhanda of 48
letters) equal to diameter of 10 5 light years. Galaxy is start of motion in universe,
so each of 49 ahargaṇa zones is a marut (= wind or motion). For first 33 marut
zones starting from earth, we have 33

devas. So, the marut zones from galactic center are similar divisions, called
brothers of devas. For 33 devas, we have 33 consonants from ‘k’ to ‘h’ and a
total of 49 letters in devanāgarī script-i.e. a nagara (city) of devas in symbols.
Tapah loka is region of ‘Tapa’ or interaction of Brahmā (30), corresponding to visible
universe. As Brāhmī script has 64 letters (31), tapah loka extends to 67 ahargaṇa
(including 3 within earth). This gives a radius of 13 x 10 9 light years. Tradition of
Brāhmī is continued in Kannaḍa and Telugu scripts (of Karṇāṭaka and Andhra
pradesh) which was region of human
Brahmā then, probably at time of Kārttikeya who started year with Dhaniṣṭhā
star in 16,000 BC in consultation with him (Mahābhārata,vana parva, 230/8-10).
Then year started with rains, so rains and year both were called varṣa (ā).
Galaxy has 3 zones. Central ‘flat’ disc is ākāśagangā, because rotation is more in
this region-gangā means river (gam = to go). Spherical subsystem is galaxy or
parameṣṭhī. 10 times this size equals to 52 ahargaṇa and is called Kūrma (32) or
Goloka which creates the child Viṣṇu (galaxy) in its womb (Brahma-vaivartta
purāṇa, Prakṛti Khaṇḍa, chapter 3)..
(3) Sahasra scaleMeasure of ‘rasa’ or ‘ānanda’ at each level is sahasra-śīrṣa (śīrṣa = source, head)
method. Measure with earth base is sahasra-pāda (earth is the end product or
pāda = foot) method. Next is measure from sun or any center of motion.
Dynamics of creation is called rāsa, center is Kṛṣṇa, gopī like planets move round
it in ‘Braja’ (motion area) or field. For 5 centers of rāsa, there are 3 sahasra
(fields) each(33) making a total of 15 sahasra as source (uktha) of creation. Their
vāk measure is in exponential scale. Three zones of influence are in ratio of
1000, so sahasra (saha = together, sra = moving) means 1000.
With sun at center, loka-sāhasrī is up to 1000R (R = radius of sun) or roughly till
largest planet Jupiter. Beyond that, Brahmāṇḍa perception starts, so it is called
Brahmaṇaspati. For earth at 200 and Jupiter at 1000 units distance, medicines of
200, 1000 potency are prepared in homeopathy. This indicates that due to
dynamic rāsa also, ‘rasa’ is divided by 100 at each level of linear scale from sun.
Veda-sāhasrī is from 100R to 105 R. Region between 100R and 1000 R is
common, this is place of yajña or creation zone of sun. Vāk (measure) sāhasrī is
from 104 to 107 R, which extends till 33 ahargaṇa.
(4) Creation & RāsaIn creation process, base form of rasa is āpah, or asura. This is not transformed ,
creation is only from deva part, (20) causing motion. Asuras are divided into 99
parts and Devas in 33 parts. So, created world is only 1/4th (34). Remaining part
75% is dark matter, modern estimates vary from 10 to 90%. Due to sun, rasa is
split in 33 ahargaṇa zones, each being a deva. Each deva creates 3 types of
asura in static ā¢pah-Bala, Namuchi, Vṛtra(35). Vṛtra creates enclosure of
boundary of a form. Bala separates the body from surroundings and
concentrates. Namuchi mixes with surroundings and causes dissipation or (36)
death (muchyu = mṛtyu = death)
(5) Ten DimensionsIdentification of structure or pura is puruṣa description. Measure of space is vāk.
This is field of Śrī (feminine) description. Description starting from space is Śrī
which does creation through 3 guṇas. At beginning or rasa stage, 3 guṇas are 3
complementary qualities which cancel each other in equilibrium-like quark they
are named colours(37). With 3 guṇa combinations 2 3 = 8 forms of Prakṛti (creative
form, kṛti = creation) made from śrī. From Prakṛti, guṇa take different qualitiestama (dark) is inactive, sattva is potential energy and rajas is dynamic. Sattva
and rajas create 8+8 vikṛtis (created and not creating further). Conscious puruṣa
is undisturbed 25th element. This explains 25 elements of sānkhya philosophy
which gives 5 dimensional space with 5 tanmātrā (basic units of measure), 5

mahābhūta etc. This is count of distinct forms. Parallel to it , there are 5 indistinct
dimensions making a total of 10 dimensions. This separation of 5+5 dimensions
may be termed as metric-local, quantum field, digital-analogue etc.
Ten dimensions may also be thought from 3 dimensions of space by Viṣṇu. Viṣṇu
has 3 dimensions for each of three aspects- (i) measure (pada) for space, (ii)
boundary of forms and (iii) field of influence (vikrama) (38). One undisturbed
element is rasa-the 10th dimension. The 10 dimensions may be termed as
follows0-Zero volume element called chit, point.
1-Line element, measure and ratio, dy/dx etc.
2-Area element, boundary surface, śarman, pṛṣṭha.
3-Volume, Āyu or āyatana, ghana.
4-Matter element caused by expansion of universe, 4-headed Brahmā.
5-Time element-cyclic change gives janya kāla or measured time, irreversible
change causes death or nitya kāla. Both are 5 headed mahākāla Śiva.
6-Chetanā is agency causing chayana (organization). Mechanical world left to
itself disintegrates due to entropy. This element is divided into 5 elements. First
is creation of boundaries of each form. This is 6 headed Skanda (= to fall, or to
come out) incarnation of Viṣṇu.
7-Ṛṣi (string) is force between two forms within boundaries. This is of 7 types for
7 lokas. For
4 higher spheres or 4 measured lower levels-4 measured forces exist in physics.
Other 3 are
for 3 intermediate higher lokas or 3 immeasurable lower levels are not
8-Nāga-This is vṛtra, ahi, or gaja- ach indicating number 8. This is curling force or
boundary. 9-Randhra or nanda indicate number 9. This is due to difference,
dissipation or death occurs. This process is called namuchi. Randhra means hole
or deficit, nanda is gradation in levels.
10-Rasa or ānanda-This is source or scalar field present everywhere.
(6) Classes of Mathematics-For two branches of knowledge, Gaṇeśa (countable,
gaṇana = to count) and Sarasvatī (rasa = abstract), there are two broad classs of
Algebraic (rāśi) Geometric (kṣetra)
Exact (sakṛta)
Approximate (asakṛta)
Theory (Bhāva) Algorithms (Bhāvita)
Bhāskara-1 has mentioned rāśi and kṣetra methods of gaṇita in his commentary
on Āryabhaṭīya. Texts like Siddhānta-darpaṇa give sakṛta (exact or one time)
method and asakṛta (repeated, successive approximation). Bhskara-1 also
mentions 4 bījas-sub-class of rāśi1st-gulika (ka. abstract unknown quantity), yāvat-tāvat (ya, dependent variable)now called x and y in algebra and calculus.
2nd-Varga-avarga (square and root)
3rd-Ghana-aghana (cube and root)
4th-Viṣama (mixed).
These are simple equations, quadratic, cubic and more than one unknown or
He mentions 4 treatises of earlier āchāryas at two places (A-1/1, A-2/9)-Maskarī,
Pūraṇa, Mudgala, Pūtana which may indicate 4 pāda (branches) of mathematics
like 4 pāda of Brahma. Maskarī may mean collection of algorithms (maska =

repetitive exercise, maskari = wielder of rod, a sanyāsī. with stick. In English
also, log = rod has given algorithm). Mudgala (mudga = grains of pulse) may
mean discrete mathematics. Pūraṇa (= filling, summation is integral calculus)
and Pūtana (= rectification, in differential calculus) are two opposite branches of
abstract infinitesimal mathematics. Mahābhārata, Śānti parva (47/12) mentions
Bhāskara (or Maskarī), Pūraṇa among the sages surrounding Bhīṣma at his last
moment. Maudgalya (of Mudgala clan) has also been mentioned, but no
indication is given about their knowledge of mathematics.
Maskarī and Pūraṇa are mentioned as mathematicians in Bodhaprābhṛta
(commentary by Śrutasāgara) and Bhāvaprābhṛta of Kunda-Kunda. each of
mathematics branches gives rise to a school of philosophy and these schools
were up-rooted after advent of Siddhārtha Buddha (1887-1807 BC). Makkhali
Gośāla (Maskarī. Gośāla is the gotra stated by the 10th Sikh Guru Govinda Singh
ji also), Pūraṇa Kaśyapa and Mudgala are mentioned as three sects uprooted by
him. Possibly, that period ended the formal texts of mathematics as well as
surgery in name of non-violence (40).
Felix Kleene(41) had classified branches of mathematics in his Erlangen (an
university in Germany) programme on basis of invariant groups in projective
geometry. Geometry is basically a field theory. Through group theory, discrete
element was joined. Image nature of various structures was explained through
projections. These projections should be modified as linear, logarithmic,
exponential and differential elements instead of linear only because of real
nature of world structures.
(7) Language and Philosophy-Language is a re-presentation of world-vāk (space,
or word) extends as much as Brahma (the whole world) (42). Thus, according to
description of Brahma in 5 to 10 dimensions, there are 6 branches of darśana
(philosophy) or darśa-vāk (= visible word, script). Number of letters in a script
depends on dimension numbers(43) or partitions of salila (uniform rasa)52 is English, French.
62 is Latin, Hebrew, Russian, Gurumukhi.
72 is Devanāgarī script (Hindī, Bangla, Odia. Gujarātī)
82 is Brāhmī script (Kannaḍa and Telugu)
(8+9)2 is Vijñāna lipi of vedas.
103 to 104 letters are in Chinese script.
Philosophy also has six branches puru¾a is of six types (44) as vāk or darśana.
These are divided into two parts-(i) Vedic, which assumes an unified conscious
element and (ii) Non vedic.
Both are of 3 types eachSubject
Observation Sānkhya Chārvāk
Vaiśeṣika Bauddha
+limit of logic Śārīraka (vedānta) Jaina (Syādvāda)
Vedic have two classes corresponding to forms of puruṣaPuruṣa
1. Kṣara (individuals) Sānkhya
2. Akṣara (class)
3. Avyaya (Śārīraka) Mīmānsā (pūrva) Vedānta (uttara mīmānsā)
Other philosophies are sub-classes of these.
(8) Āyurveda (45) - For 3 guṇa or dimensions or space, āyurveda has 3 triads(a) Three types of food as per their effects on mind and bodySattva-Healthy, calm. Raja-Energetic, arousing. Tama-harmful.
(b) Three types of energy in bodyPrāṇa-Dynamic function indicated by breath.
Tejasa-Essence of Dhātus of body.

Ojasa-Individual consciosness, Immunity.
(c) Three doṣas of puruṣa cancel each other like 3 guṇas of prakṛti-vāta, kapha,
The Ṛṣis explaining them in Charaka Samhitā have similar names-Kāpya,
Vāyorvid, Marīchi (hot rays of sun, pitta also creates fever) Complete balance of
3 doṣas is health-other 7 combinations create 7 defects in human prakṛti.
Edible foods have two sources-from living, from plants and minerals. Effect wise
also, they are two-nourishing, others. Eating methods are four-drinking, chewing,
sipping, and licking. Qualities of food are 20 = 5 mahābhūta x 4 methods of
eating. Rasa or taste is of 6 types, being boundaries of 5 mahābhūta or enclosed
in 7 lokasMadhura (sweet) = Earth + āp. Tīkṣṇa (pungent) = teja + vāyu.
Amla (sour) = Earth + teja. Kaṭu (bitter) = vāyu + ākāśa
Lavaṇa (salt) = āp + teja, Kaṣāya (stale) = earth + vāyu.
Combinations of 6 rasa are of 2 6-1 = 63 types. All together (one type) and 6 rasa
are excluded, other 56 combinations of 2 to 5 rasa are bhoga (cooked food). For
10 dimensions of world, 10 items are checked in diagnosis-prakṛti (constitution),
vikṛti (defects), sāra (essence), samhanana (absorption), pramāṇa (standard),
sātmya (assimilation), satva (inherent ability), āhāra-śakti (energy from food),
vyāyāma-śakti (effect of exercise), vaya (age).
Treatment is by 3 means-Oṣadhi (medicine), food, conduct. Oṣadhi is applied in 6
ways as per disease and its source. There are 12 symptoms of improvement.
Surgery instruments in Suśruta samhitā are 101, equal to branches of Yajurveda.
Śatapatha brāhmaṇa (10/5/4/12) gives bone numbers in human body as 360
equal to number of days in a civil year.
Like 7 lokas, there are 7 dhātus. They are produced from food after 7 stages of
digestionStage Product Nature Waste (mala)
1. Rasa Nourishes
2. Asṛk Particles of blood Pitta.
3. Māmsa Muscle, skin Ear wax etc.
4. Meda
5. Asthi Bone frame Hair, nails
6. Majjā Bone marrow Gland secretion
7. Śukra Semen, egg Fertilized cell
Action of medicine is of 50 types = 3 food effects + 37 medicine effects + 10 self
40 medicines (including 3 foods) are equal to 40 pots of soma called graha in
Śatpatha brāhmaṇa. 40 chapters of white yajurveda, 40 devatā of tantra
(Tantrāloka, 30/25-27), 40 navarātra in a year, 40 parts of brain.
Creation sequence is 7 lokas, 8 divya sṛṣṭi (8 fold prakrṛti) and 6 earth creations.
Thus, 786 means to start (Bismillah in Islam).
(9) Other classes- Branches of Vedas are according to 10 dimensionsṚk-21 branches= 20 ends of 10 dimensions + 1 formless origin.
Yajurveda- 101 branches = 10 forms x 10 motion + 1 formless.
Sāmaveda - 1000 branches = 10 foms x 10 motion x 10 effects.
Atharvaveda- 9 branches = 9 measurable references excluding scalar field.
Similarly, there are 10 mahāvidyā in tantra, 10 commandments in Bible, and 10
gurus in Sikhism. Classifications parallel to world structure also exist in political
science, grammar, sociology, economics, agriculture etc.
(1) Word and Universe are two forms of Brahmaदद ववाव बबरह्मणण रूपद शब्द बबरह्म परर च यतब।
शवाब्दद बबरह्मणण णनिष्णवातत परर बबरह्मवाणधिगच्छणत॥ (ममैतरब वायणण आरण्यक ६/११)

(2) All pervading element is rasa, it gives ānandaयदब वमै ससककतर रसण वमै सत। रसर हदववाय लब्ध्ववाऽऽनिन्दण भवणत। कण हदववान्यवातब कत पबरवाणवादब यददष आकवाश आनिन्दण नि स्यवातब।
(तमैणत्तिरणय उपणनिषदब २/७/२)
(3) Vāk and Brahma have similar extentइयर यवा परमदणष्ष्ठिनिण ववाग्ददवण बबरह्म सरणशतवा। (अथवर्व १९/९/३)
ववाचणमवा णवश्ववा भसवनिवाणनि अणपर्वतवा--- (तमैणत्तिरणय बबरवाह्मण २/८/८/४)
ववाणगणत पकणथवण, ववाणगत्यन्तणरकर, ववाणगणत ददत। (जमैणमनिणय बबरवाह्मण उपणनिषदब ४/२२/११)
यवावदब बबरह्म णवष्ष्ठिणत तवावतण ववाकब (ऋकब १०/११४/८)
(4) Four meanings of Ṛṣi are explained in ‘Maharṣi-kula-Vaibhavam’ of Pt.
Madhusudan Ojha in 2 volumes by Rajsthan Oriental Research Institute, Jodhpur.
Also see chapter 5/4 of Jagadguru Vaibhavam by Sri Ojha, published by
Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur. Actually there are 7 meanings-(1) Primordial
string of size 10-35 meters, (2) Link between man and Brahma (called Rasul in
Koran), (3) Stars, e.g. Saptarṣi = Big dipper, (4) Men who started chain of
knowledge, (5) Men starting famiy chain (gotra), (6) Seventh dimension of world
which is link between any two objects, (7) 7 forces-4 fundamental forces of
gravity, electromagnetic, strong & weak nuclear forces, 2 of symmetry 1 antisymmetry depicted as bird in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
7 prāṇas-सपतपपररणरण पपरभवननत तसमरतप (मम णडक उपननषदप २/१/८)
5 Prāṇas-पञ्चपबरवाणणणमर्मिं ... (श्वदतवाश्वतर उपणनिषदब १/५)
Asat (imperceptible) Prāṇas-(1) Ṛṣi (string)-See Note 20 below.
(2) Paro-rajā = Raja = dynamic universe. Beyond that is Parorajā which is also
Asat- परणरजवा य एष तपणत (बकहदवारण्यक उपणनिषदब ५/१४/३)
(5) ऋग्भ्यण जवातवार सवर्व शण ममणत्तिर्वमवाहसत, सववार्व गणतयवार्वजषस ण हमैव शश्वतब।
सवर्मिं तदजर सवामरूप्यर ह शश्वतब, सवर्मिं हददर बबरह्मणवा हमैव सकष्टमब । (तमैणत्तिरणय बबरवाह्मण ३/१२/९/१)
= All forms are from Ṛk, all motion from Yaju, all fields from Sāma, and the Whole
is Brahma (Atharva = steady).
Veda word is formed from verb Vid-वदद = णवदब + घञब।
Four meanings of vid verb are as per Pāṇini dhātupāṭha- 4/60-existence, 2/57-to
know, 10/
177-place of consciousness, 6/41-to get, 7/13-to consider (same as 10/177).
(6) 13 world structures (viśva) are described later in para 4 (1).
(7) Anthropic Principle is described in ‘A Brief History of Time’ by Stephen
Hawkins, last chapter.
(8) Note 2 above and Taittirīya upaniṣad (2/8). Bṛhadāraṇyaka upaniṣad (4/3/1)
gives another sequence of lokas.
(9) Dimensions explained in para (5).
(10) Jñāna and Vijñāna-मणकद धिणरवार्वनिमन्यतबर णवरवानिर णशल्प शवास्तबरयणत। (अमरकणष १/५/६)
Also see Gītā (7/2, 9/1, 18/20) and Bhāgavata purāṇa (11/19/14,15).
(11) All sciences follow vedas-(Manusmṛti)वदद शब्ददभ्य एववादद पकथकब सरस्थवाश्च णनिमर्वमद। (१/२१)
स सवणर्व ऽणभणहतण वददद सवर्व रवानिमयण णह सत। (२/७)
(12) Ten dimensional (daśa-vāda) view of Nāsadīya sūkta in Brahma siddhānta of
Madhusūdan Ojha. See-‘Physics of the 20th Century’-History and Outlook’ by Mir
Publishers, Moscow-last chapter by V.L. Ginzburg, page 298.
(13) See-‘Space Time Gravitation’ by Mir Publishers, Moscow-chapter 3.
(14) For various models of string theories, see-‘The Elegant Universe’-By Brian
Green, Vintage Books, New York.
(15) Salam Wienburg Theory can be seen in note (13). Assumption of 10 40 as
basic ratio can
be seen in several books of nuclear physics, cosmology. Semi-technical
book-‘The Universe Around Us’-by J.V. Narlikar, Oxford University Press may be

(16) 7 tongues of Agni and 7 lokas etc. from that-

कवालण करवालण च मनिणजववा च, ससलणणहतवा यवा च ससधिमम रब वणवार्व।
स्फस णलणङगनिण णवश्वरुचण च ददवण लदलवायमवानिवा इणत सप्त णजहवात॥ (मसण्डकणपणनिषदब १/२/४)
सप्त इमद लणकवा यदष स चरणन्त पबरवाणवा, गसहवाशयवा णनिणहतवात सप्त सप्त। (मसण्डकणपणनिषदब २/१/८)

(17) Diameter of earth is given in all texts of jyotiṣa. Actually, yojana value is
determined from that. Error is made in assuming that all yojanas are one. On
earth itself, Bhāskara-II has used nautical yojana of 8 Kms. in Siddhānta-śiromaṇi
(Astronomy book) and survey yojana of 16 Kms. in Līlāvatī (Math book).
Comparing distances of sun and star planets, steller (bha) yojana comes to 27
nautical or bhū-yojana. Here, bha = stars or 27 both. Siddhānta-darpaṇa
(19/108-114) defines zones of heat, brightness, and light of sun as 2000, 1 lakh
and 25 lakh times diameter of sun. Viṣṇu purāṇa (2/7/5) states that bhūmi of sun
or Maitreya maṇḍala is 1 lakh yojana from sun. This yojana is equal to sun
diameter. Orbit of moon (diameter) is 1 lakh yojana in terms of bhū-yojana.
Circumference of Brahmāṇḍa is given as 1.87 x 10 16 bha-yojana in Sūryasiddhānta (12/80) which gives diameter as 10 21 meters = 105 light years.
Brahmāṇḍa is defined to be the limit of reach of sun rays. In that sense, it is
called Parama-pada of Viṣṇu (sun) as collection of suns in Ṛk (1/22/20). In Ṛk
(1/123/8), Uṣā is stated 30 yojanas or dhāma in west Varuṇa direction from sun
rise. Thus, vedas use dhāma-yojana, where 150 circumference of earth (twilight
zone taken in Indian astronomy. Western convention is 18 0) is 30 yojana or 1
yojana is 55.5 Kms. In that unit, circumference of Great cave (guhā) i.e. galaxy is
parārddha (0.5 x 1017) vide Kaṭha upaniṣad (1/3/1) or Ṛk (1/164/12).
(18) 5 nodes (parva) or stages of worldपञ्चपवादर णपतरर दवादशवाककणतर णदवत आहसत परद अधिर पसरणणषणमब।
अथदमद अन्य उपरद णवचकणर सप्तचकबरद षळर आहसरणपर्वतमब॥ (ऋकब १/१६४/१२)
= 5 steps (stages) is Pitar (creator), Divah (brightness) has 12 forms (12
months), encloses in great Pura of Half-Parā (Parā = 10 17) yojana, much remains
beyond that also with 7 cycles (7 yugas) and 6 edges (6 forms of viewingPhilosophy).
Here, great Pura of Brahmāṇḍa is called parā-ardha i.e. half of 10 17 yojanas
In reply to question in Ṛk (10/81/4), Taittirīya brāhmaṇa (2/8/9/6) tells that
Brahma is forest and tree with 5 parva mentioned aboveबबरह्म वनिर बबरह्म स वकक आसणतब यतण दवाववा पकणथवण णनिष्टतकसत॥
(19) Viśva means sarva (complete). It is closed and there is a link to close it.
Kalila (cell) with
these 3 qualities is viśvaसमकमवाणतसमकमर कणललस्य मध्यद णवश्वस्य सबरष्टवारमनिदकरूपमब।
णवश्वस्यमैकर पणरवदणष्टतवारर रवात्ववा णशवर शवाणन्तमत्यन्तमदणत॥ (श्वदतवाश्वतर उपणनिषदब ४/१४)
Cell is called kalila as it collects all materials in womb for its growthब त सरणहतवा, शवारणर स्थवानि ३/९)
ततबर पबरथमद मवाणस कललर जवायतद। (ससशरु
स सवर्व गसणववानिब गभर्वत्वमवापन्तत ..... सवर्व धिवातस कलनिणककतत अवयकत णवगबरहत (चरक सरणहतवा, शवारणर स्थवानि ४/९)
This is vālāgra (hair end of 4 micron size), and start of life (jātarūpa)ववालवागबरमवातबरर हदयस्य मध्यद णवश्वर ददवर जवातरूपर वरदण्यमब (अथवर्व णशर उपणनिषदब ५)
Atom (jīva) is ten thousand part of that, not destroyed in chemical reactionववालवागबर शतभवागस्य शतधिवा कणल्पतस्य च। भवागण जणवत स णवरदयत स चवानिन्त्यवाय कल्पतद॥ (श्वदतवाश्वतर उपणनिषदब ५/९)

Kuṇḍalinī (nucleus) outer sphere is 107 parts of hair end and inner layers are 10
and 100 parts of that as per ṣaṭ-chakra-nirūpaṇa (7/8). Lower worlds are
successively 105 parts smaller starting from manववालवागबर शतसवाहसबरर तस्य भवागस्य भवाणगनित। तस्य भवागस्य भवागवाधिर्मिं तत्कयद तस णनिरञ्जनिमब॥ (ध्यवानिणवन्दस उपणनिषदब ४)
(20) Micro worlds start from Ṛṣiऋणषभ्यत णपतरण जवातवात णपतकभ्यण ददव दवानिववात। ददवदभ्यश्च जगतब सवर्मिं चरर स्थवाण्वनिसपवम र्व सत॥ (मनिसस्मकणत ३/२०१)
Ṛṣi is asat-prāṇa (invisible force) and a string (rassi in Hindi) which pullsअसदवा ऽइदमगबर ऽआसणतब । तदवाहत – णकर तदवासणणदणत । ऋषयण ववाव तदऽगबरदऽसदवासणतब । तदवाहसत-कद तद ऋषय इणत। तद
यत्पसरवाऽऽस्मवातब सवर्व स्मवाणददणमच्छन्तत शबरमदण तपसवाणरषनिब-तस्मवादकषयत (शतपथ बबरवाह्मण, ६/१/१/१) = In beginning, it
was all Asat. What was that Asat? Ṛṣis were in beginning of all. Who are Ṛṣis?
Who pulled with force and energy, so they are called Ṛṣi.
(21) Agni is pṛthivī (earth) and concentrated energy (teja)
इयर (पकणथवण) हणग्नित। (शतपथ बबरवाह्मण ६/१/२/१४, ६/१/१/२९, ७/३/१/२२)
तदजण ववा अणग्नित। (शतपथ बबरवाह्मण २/५/४/८, ३/९/१/१९, तमैणत्तिरणय बबरवाह्मण ३/९/५/२)
It was created first (agri), so it is called ‘agni’स यदस्य सवर्व स्यवागबर सकजयत तस्मवादब अणगबर, अणगबरत ह वमै तर अणग्नित इणत आचकतद परणकमब। (शतपथ बबरवाह्मण ६/१/१/११,
(22) Number of lomagartta (in a year) is equal to number of nakṣatras (stars)
एभ्यण लणमगत्तिरभ्य ऊध्ववार्वणनि जयणतणरष्यवानिब। तदब यवाणनि जयणतण रणष, एतवाणनि तवाणनि निकतबरवाणण। यवावणन्त एतवाणनि निकतबरवाणण तवावन्तण
लणमगत्तिवार्वत। (शतपथ बबरवाह्मण १०/४/४/२)
Puruṣa (each pura) is samvatsara (year) and lomagartta number in each is equalदश वमै सहसबरवाण्यष्टद च शतवाणनि समवत्सरस्य मसहमत्तिवार्वत। यवावन्तण मसहमत्तिवार्वत तवावणन्त पञ्चदशककत्वत णकपबरवाणण। यवावणन्त णकपबरवाणण
तवावणन्त पञ्चदशककत्व एतहरणण। यवावणन्त एतहरणण तवावणन्त पञ्चदशककत्व इदवानिणणनि। यवावन्तणदवानिणणनि तवावन्तत पञ्चदशककत्वत
पबरवाणवात। यवावन्तत पबरवाणवात तवावन्तणकतनिवात। यवावन्ततकतनिवात तवावन्तण णनिमदषवात। यवावन्तण णनिमदषवात तवावन्तण लणमगत्तिवार्वत। यवावन्तण
लणमगत्तिवार्वत तवावणन्त स्वददवायनिवात। (शतपथ बबरवाह्मण १२/३/२/५)
= 1 year has 10,800 Muhūrtta. Muhūrtta is divided by 15 at each step to give
Kṣipra, Etarhi, Idānī, Prāṇa, Aktana, Nimeṣa, Lomagartta, Svedāyana.
Lomagartta in a year = 10,800 x 15 7 = 1.84 x 1012 (cell in human body). Puruṣa
is 10 times
larger than bhūmi (puruṣa sūkta, 1), so particles in a bhūmi are 10 11.
(23) Six vāk are six vaṣaṭkāraववागब वमै वषटकवारत ... षणडणत ऋतवण वमै षटब ततब ... तस्मवाददवर वषटब करणणत। (शतपथ बबरवाह्मण १/७/२/२१)
तबरयण वमै वषटकवारवा वजबरण धिवामच्छवाणदबरकतत। ( ऐतरदय बबरवाह्मण ३/७)
तबरयण वमै वषटकवारवा वजबरण धिवामच्छवाणदबरकतत। ... अथ यत समत सन्ततण णनिहवार्वणच्छत्ख धिवामच्छतब ... अथ यदनिमैव षटब परवाधिणर्वणत
स णरकतत यत। (गणपथ बबरवाह्मण, उत्तिर, ३/३)
(24) Prajāpati is 17सप्तदशत पबरजवापणतत (तमैणत्तिरणय सरणहतवा १/३/३/२, ऐतरदय बबरवाह्मण ८/४)
(25) Āditya is ratha, rathantara sāma crosses itअसद ववा आणदत्य एष रथत। तर तवाणतर्व इणत रथन्तरमब। (सतपथ बबरवाह्मण ९/४/१/१४)
Heat zone is till 100 yojana and brightness zone is till 1000 yojana (sun diameter
= 1 yojana). These are distances of earth and saturn orbit.

शत यणजनिद ह ववा एष (आणदत्यत) इतस्तपणत। (कदषणतणक बबरवाह्मण ८/३)
सहसबरर हमैत आणदत्यस्य रश्मयत। (जमैणमनिणय उपणनिषदब बबरवाह्मण १/४४/५०)
There are 3 sāma within earth and 3 outsideतस्यवा एततब पणरणमतर रूपर यदब अन्तवरणद (भम णपण्डत)। अथमैष भममवापणरणमतण यण बणहवरणदत (महवा पकणथवण)-(ऐतरदय बबरवाह्मण ८/५)
पकणथवयवाणममद लणकवात (पकणथवण, अन्तणरक, ददत) पबरणतणष्ष्ठितवात। (जमैणमनिणय उपणनिषदब बबरवाह्मण १/१०/२)
Sāma of earth are rathantara, vairūpa and śakvara. Three sāma of sun are-bṛhat,
vairāja, raivataयदब वमै रथन्तरमब तदब वमै रूपमब, यदब बकहतब, तदब वमै रवाजमब। यदब रथन्तर ततब शवाकवरमब। यदब बकहतब, ततब रमैवतमब। (ऐतरदय बबरवाह्मण
Also see Aitareya brāhmaṇa (19/6/18), Taittirīya brāhmaṇa (1/4/6). Stoma of
rathantara are 9, 15, 17, 21पबरवाणण वमै णतबरवकत,ब अधिर्वमवासत पञ्चदशत सरवत्सरत, सप्तदश, आणदत्य एकणवरश-एतद वमै स्तणमवात। (तवाण्डय महवाबबरवाह्मण ६/२/२)
Prajāpati is at 17 stomaसप्तदश एव स्तणमण भवणत पबरणतष्ष्ठिवायमै पबरजवापत्यमै। (तवाण्डय महवाबबरवाह्मण १२/६/१३)
Earth is standard of measure-णनि सवामनिवाणमणषरवाणमन्दबर भमणमर महणमपवारवार सदनिद ससत्थ।
अस्तभ्निवादब यवार वकषभण अन्तणरकर अषर्वन्त्ववापसवयदह पबरसमतवात (ऋकब ३/३०/९)
= Indra fixed the measure of great Earth and then fixed measures of sky (Dyu)
and intermediate space (Antarikṣa).
अस्तभ्निवादब दवार ऋषभण अन्तणरकर अणममणत वणरमवाणत पकणथवयवात। (ऋकब ८/४२/१)
= Ṛṣabha (source, of knowledge or of world) fixed (measures) of sky and
Antarikṣa with earth as standard of measure.
यस्य भमणमत पबरमवा अन्तणरकर उत उदरमब। (अथवर्व १०/७/३२)
= Whose measure is earth and Antarikṣa is cavity.
Horā means half division of rāśi, corresponding to aho-rātri (day-night) parts of
ahar (day). So, ahargaṇa in space should mean double. In calender making, this
means day-count.
(26) See note 17.
(27) 33 devas-इणत स्तसतवासण असथवा णरशवादशण यद स्थ तबरयश्च णतबररशच्च। मनिणदरववा यणरयवासत॥ (ऋकब ८/३०/२)
= Destroyers of Asura (a tribe, darkness in sky), you are 3 and 30 and are worth
worship in mind as Devas.
(28) See note (8). Asuras are 99, killed by Indra with ‘Dadhīchi’ bones-33 in
backboneइन्दबरण दधिणचद अस्थणभवकर्वतरब वाण्य पबरणतष्कस तत। जघवानि निवणतनिर्वव॥ (ऋकब ८/४२/१)
(29) Chhanda can extend to one or two letters less or more as per Pingala
Chhanda Sūtraऊनिवाणधिकदनिमैकदनि णनिचकद ब भमणरजद।(३/५९)=Nichṛd, Bhūrik are 1 (Syllable) less or more (than
दवाभ्यवार णवरवाटब स्वरवाजद। (३/६०) = Virāṭ, Svarāja are by 2.
(30) बबरह्मवा तपणस (पबरणतणष्ष्ठितमब)-(ऐतरदय बबरवाह्मण ३/६, गणपथ बबरवाह्मण उत्तिर ३/२)
= From Tapa is created Brahmā.

सणयर पसरुषत पबरजवापणतरकवामयत भमयवान्त्स्यवार पबरजवायदय इणत। सणशबरवामयत, स तपणतप्यत ... समैववास्ममै पबरणतष्ष्ठिवा अभवतब। तत
आण्डर (बबरह्मवाण्ड) समवतर्वत। (शतपथ बबरवाह्मण ६/१/१/९-१०) = The Creator willed-Let me create
many. He did work,Tapa.. That was foundation. It created Āṇḍa (source matter).
Āṇḍa created Aṇḍa (Egg shaped galaxy-Brahmāṇḍ).
Also see Gopatha Brāhmaṇa pūrva (1/2).
(31) णतबरषणष्टववार्व चतसतषणष्ष्ठित वणवार्वत शमभसमतद मतवात। (पवाणणनिणय णशकवा ३) = There are 63 or 64 letters
according to Śambhū.
(32) Kūrma is that which creates- स यतब कममणर्व निवाम। एतदब वमै रूपर ककत्ववा पबरजवापणतत पबरजवा असकजत। यदब
असकजतब अकरणतब ततब यदब अकरणतब तस्मवातब कममर्वत। (शतपथ बबरवाह्मण ७/५/१/५)
Size of Kūrma is 1018 yojana. Here, Śanku = 1013.
मवानिदनि तस्य कममर्वस्य कथयवाणम पबरयत्नितत। शङकणत शतसहसबरवाणण यणजनिवाणनि वपसत णस्थतमब।
(निरपणत जयचयवार्व, स्वरणदय मम कममर्व चकबर, ७-८)
Śanku is base of Śakvara sāma. Lokas were created in itशङकस भवत्यहण धिकत्यमै यदब ववा अदहतर शङकस निवा तदब दवाधिवार (११)
तदब (शङकस सवाम) उ सणदणन्त इयणमत्यवाहसत (१२)-तवाण्डय महवाबवाह्मण ११/१०)
Within Śakvarī, lokas were createdयदब इमवानिब लणकवानिब पबरजवापणतत सकष्टवददर सवर्व मशकनिणदब ... तदब शकवरणनिवार शकवरणत्वमब। (ऐतरदय बबरवाह्मण ५/७)
Its stoma is based on chhanda, so it is called Chhandomā stomaगवायतबरमयनिर (२४) भवणत बबरह्मवचर्वस कमस्य, णतबरष्टस भमयनिर (४४) भवणत ओजस्कवामस्य, जवागतमयनिर (४८) भवणत
पशसकवामस्य। (तवाण्डय महवाबबरवाह्मण १४/४/१०)
तदब यतब छन्दणणभत णनिणमर्वतवात तस्मवातब छन्दणमवात। (कदषणतणक बबरवाह्मण उपणनिषदब २६/७)
Brahmavaivartta purāṇa, prakṛti khaṇḍa, chapter 3 tells birth of Virāṭa (grand)
child from Goloka (galaxy-region of radiation).
(33) Four types of rāsa are described by Madhusūdana Ojhā in Essence of
Bhāgavad GītāCommentary by A.S. Ramnathan-by Rajsthan Patrika, Jaipur. This is based on
cycles of earth motion-daily, annual, ayana (precession of earth axis in 26000
years) and fourth is lunar month cycle. Fifth rāsa should be its effect on human
body. Bhāgavata purāṇa tells that creation is by rāsa. (also Brahma-vaivartta
purāṇa, prakṛti khaṇḍa, 3). Rāsa dance has one person (Kṛṣṇa) in center, others
move round him (Agni purāṇa, chapter 338). Rāsa creates 3 sāma or sāhasrī
(fields of influence) around each center or pura. For 5 pura or viśva, there are 15
sāhasrīसहसबरधिवा पञ्चदशवाणनि उकथवा यवावदब दवाववा पकणथवण तवावणदतब ततब।
सहसबरधिवा मणहमवानित सहसबरर यवावदब बबरह्म णवणष्टतर तवावतण ववाकब॥ (ऋकब १०/११४/८)
= 15 Sahasras are the source. From that, earth, sky were formed. Its influence is
thousand fold. Vāk (sound, sky) extends till extent of Brahma.
Three fields are loka, veda, vāk-created due to balance between Indra (outward
radiation) and Viṣṇu (attraction)उभवा णजग्यथसनिर्व परवाजयदथद, नि परवाणजरद कतरश्च निमैनिणत। इन्दबरश्च णवष्णम यदपस्पकधिदथवार तबरमैधिवा सहसबरर णवतदमैरयदथवामब। (ऋकब
णकर ततब सहसबरणमणत? इमद लणकवात, इमद वददवात, अथण ववाणगणत बबरूयवातब। (ऐतरदय बबरवाह्मण ६/१४)

(34) World and creatures are 1/4th of Puruṣa (Brahma)पवादणस्य णवश्ववा भमतवाणनि णतबरपवादस्यवामकतर णदणव। (पसरुष समकत, ऋकब १०/९०/३)
(35) निमसणच-अपवार फदनिदनि निमसचदत णशर इन्दबरणदवतर्वयत, णवश्ववा यदजयत स्पकधित। (ऋकब ८/१४/१३)
Also see Śatapatha brāhmaṇa (5/4/1/9, 12/7/1/10, 12/7/3/4) Taittirīya brāhmaṇa
(1/7/1/6,77) etc.बल-इन्दबरण बलर बलपणतत (शतपथ बबरवाह्मण ११/४/३/१२, तमैणत्तिरणय बबरवाह्मण २/५/७/४)
बलर हदयद (तमैणत्तिरणय बबरवाह्मण ३/१०/८/९) = Indra is Bala (force, which can bend). It is in heart.
वकतरब ण ह ववा इदर सवर्मिं वकत्ववा णशश्यद। यणददमन्तरदण दवाववा पकणथवण स यणददर सवर्मिं वकत्ववा णशश्यद तस्मवादब वकतरब ण निवाम। (शतपथ
बबरवाह्मण १/१/३/४) = Vṛtra bound objects with curved boundary, so it is Vritra (Vṛtta =
(36) Separate block created out of uniform samudra (muchyu = separated) is
reason of death, so death is mṛtyuस समसदरब वादमसच्यत स मसच्यसरभवतब तर ववा एतर मसच्यस सन्तर मकत्यसणरत्यवाचकतद। (गणपथ बबरवाह्मण पमवर्व, १/७)
(37) Quality of quarks are called colours-see for example at page 136 of QED
(Quantum Electro-dynamics) by R.P. Feynman. That just indicates complementary
balancing quality. Similarly 3 guṇas of Prakṛti are called coloursअजरमम करक ललनहत शम कल ककषणरक बहह पपरजरण सक जमरनरक सरपरण।
अजल हम कल जम षमरणल ऽनम षमतम जहरतयम नरक भम कतभलगरमजलऽनयण॥ (शवम तरशवतर उपननषदप ४/५)
= Ajā (she-goat, Prakṛti = creating force, nature) is in 3 colours-red, white, black.
From that varities evolved. Aja (goat, creator) was one, he was un-attached. Ajā
consumed fruits.
(38) इदर णवष्णसणवर्व चकबरमद तबरदधिवा णनिदधिद पदमब। (ऋकब १/२२/१७) = Viṣṇu’s field is in 3 zones (steps).
(39) See introduction and text of Āryabhaṭīya, Bhāskara commentary edited by
Prof. K.S. Shukla, INSA, Delhi-2.
(40) See for example ‘Majjhima Nikāya’. Detailed analysis is in ‘Bauddha Dharma
and Bihar’published by Bihar Rashtrabhasha Parishad, Patna-4.
(41) See-‘Nature and Growth of Modern Mathematics’-by Edna Kramer or note
(42) Six forms are created from one formless sourceसवाकञ्जवानिवार सप्तथमवाहसरदकजर, षणळदमवा ऋषयण ददवजवा इणत। (ऋकब १/१६४/१५) = 7 Lokas exist together,
born from One source in pairs through Ṛṣi & Devas.
Space is measured by chhanda, there are 6 vāk (scripts)गवायतबरदण पबरणत णममणतद अकर्वमब, अकरण सवाम तबरमैष्टस भदनि ववाकमब।
ववाकदनि ववाकर णदपदवा चतसष्पदवाकरदण णममतद सप्तववाणणत॥ (ऋकब १/१६४/२४)
= Lokas are measured by Gāyatrī (meter of 24 letters, from man, each world is
successively bigger by 224), effect of sun is till Triṣṭup (44 letters, 3 zones in
earth, 44th starts at 240 x earth). Vāk has 7 Chanda (meters), measure is in 2+4
(43) Gaurī vāk splits salila (water, uniform source matter) in 1, 2, 4, 8, 9 and
thousand parts to create different scriptsगदरणणमर्वमवाय सणललवाणनि तकतण, एकपदण णदपदण सवा चतसष्पदण।
अष्टवापदण निवपदण बभमवषस ण, सहसबरवाकरवा परमद वयणमनिब॥ (ऋकब १/१६४/४१)
(44) See (42) above. Also षणडवधिण वमै पसरुषत। (ऐतरदय बबरवाह्मण १०/३९) = Puruṣa is 6-fold.
(45) See Shodha Prabhā of July, 2002, LBS Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapitha, Delhi16

Diagrams-(1) Measure scale of Universe

(2) Measure of Galaxy & spiral arms