EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND

LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

Introduction
What is the problem?
What should be/ideal situation?
What is the gap?
How to bridge the gap?
Why conduct this study?
The rapid advancement of recent technologies greatly affects the way
of living, working and lifestyle of people throughout the world. There is less
effort in every work that is being done be it in education or in oth ges
happening in the current educational set-up, there is a need for far-reaching
alterations er respective fields of specialization.
However, because of the major chan to strengthen the quality of
education.
In order to prepare students to cope effectively with the changes and
increasing stresses of the modern living, the school programs, teaching
methods and techniques should consider undergoing major restructuring.
Teachers, the most prominent and indispensable member of the school
organizational team (Joshua and Bassey, 2004), parents, and other
stakeholders must cooperate harmoniously with one another to initiate these
changes to enable more flexible attitudes towards working with the
appropriate educational goals and procedures.

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

Basically, the first challenge that teachers have to meet is to motivate
students to learn. Teachers should also focus in creating an ideal learning
environment to establish cooperation with the students and directing
learner’s attention towards the subjects to secure maximum desirable
learning outcome.
Teachers, as facilitators of the learning process, should first understand
the learners’ needs to give clarity to whatever instructional strategy is
appropriate to be used in teaching learners effectively and efficiently.
Teachers should also be highly trained professionals, comfortable with
technology, with a deep pedagogical understanding of the subject matter,
able to respond in an improvised manner to the uniquely emerging flow of
each classroom. To foster collaborative and authentic learning, teachers will
lead teams of students – much like a manager of a business or the master in
a workshop – rather than controlling students autocratically, as the factory
bosses of old (Sawyer, 2004).
Technology and Livelihood Education (T.L.E) plays important part on
this new curriculum. Focusing much concern, mentors met big challenges
just to comply the necessary requirements of Deped. This subject will also
help in solving the economic needs of our people, to equip the student with
skills just to face the real situation in terms of family lifestyles. Since the
subject comprises of four areas; Home Economics, Agriculture, Industrial
Arts, and ICT, nothing will be lost in terms of learning. Graduates in Senior

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

High School under Tech-Voc courses would be ready to be employed through
actual application of their trainings. The T.L.E will serve as their stepping
stone in seeking better life.
In this regard, the researcher chose this study with the aim of knowing
how
Technology and Livelihood Education teachers frequently use 21st century
technologies in the District of Tobias Fornier, Antique.

Conceptual Frame work
The researchers are interested to know whether or not sex, age,
number of years in
TLE teaching, civil status, highest educational attainment, and current
teaching rank
of the respondents would affect the perception of the selected Technology &
Livelihood teachers in different schools in the District of Tobias Fornier,
Antique. Older persons are said tohave an in-depth perception of the things
as compared to younger ones (Wallace, 1956).

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

As to sex, females are said to be subjective while males seem to be
objective (Belenky,
Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule, 1986). In a study conducted by Harvard
University regarding how gender affects the quality of teaching and learning
at Harvard University, the simplified results were: Male students talked much
longer in the predominant classroom circumstance in which the instructor is
male and the majority of the students are male. Male students spoke two and
a half times longer than their female peers
(Wilcoxan, P=0.046). On the other hand, the presence of female instructors
had an
effect on female students. Female students spoke almost three times longer
under
instructors of their own sex than when these female students were in classes
led by male
instructors (Kruskal-Wallis, P=0.025). The data suggest that a teacher's sex
can play
a role in classroom discussion, in the sense that it appears to influence the
extent to which male and female students dominate classrooms respectively.
As to the use of technology, schools having this kind of learning
technology gain more advantage compared to those schools which don’t
have it. Moreover, a person’s

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

academic rank affects his/her level of awareness (Deary and Johnson, 2010).
As to job
positions, it is said that managers view things more rationally compared to
those who
have none managerial position (Belletskiy, 2011). Furthermore, a person with
many
years of teaching experience is said to have more knowledge than those who
are new in
the field of teaching.

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

Research Paradigm
The figure below is the constructed research paradigm of the study.

Independent Variables



Dependent Variables

Age
Sex
Civil Status
Century

●Extent of Use of 21st



Highest Educational
Attainment
Current Teaching Rank
Number of Years in Technology and
Livelihood Education Teaching

Technologies as
Perceived by the
Respondents

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

Figure 1. A paradigm showing the relationship between the independent and
dependent
variables.

Statement of the Problem
This study was conducted to determine the extent of use of 21st
century technology
in Technology and Livelihood Education Instruction in different secondary
schools in the District of Tobias Fornier, Antique.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. How often are 21st century technologies used by Secondary Science
Teachers in Technology and Livelihood Education Instruction?
2. Is there a significant difference in the extent of use of 21st century
technologies in Technology and Livelihood Education Instruction?

Hypothesis
In view of the preceding problem, the following void hypothesis was
posed:
There is a significant difference in the extent of use of 21st century
technologies in Technology and Livelihood Education Instruction, when the

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

respondents were classified according to age, sex, technology used,
educational attainment, current position, and number of years in service.

Significance of the Study

This study may benefit the following people:
Teachers. This study may help teachers in understanding better what
educational technology is helpful in teaching Technology and Livelihood
Education. As such, it is hoped that teachers could develop more effective
methodologies in teaching their subject matter. This will also guide teachers
on to what kind of educational technologies are appropriate to use in
teaching the subject. Through this study, teachers could provide better
learning experiences to the students as it affects the academic performance
of students.
Students. The result may help students to adjust properly to the
educational technologies the teacher is using in teaching Technology and
Livelihood Education. The study may provide basis for awareness and better

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

understanding of how the subject Technology and Livelihood Education is
being introduced to the students. Likewise, the result of the study will give
the students a more focused and clear perspective on how these
technologies will help improve their visual and listening skills that influence
academic performance.
Parents. The study may be useful to parents in a sense that they may
provide
their children the appropriate technology at home similar to that of the
teacher uses so
as to allow the student to cope with the educational technologies the teacher
uses in
teaching Technology and Livelihood Education
Future researchers. Future researchers may replicate this study with
a wider
scope.

Definition of Terms
The following important terms used in the study are defined
conceptually and operationally for the clarity and precision to have a
common frame of reference between the researcher and the readers
Academic performance--refers to how students deal with their
studies and

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their
teachers.
(Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2014).
In this study, academic performance referred to students’ performances that
are
either affected or not affected by the results based on the extent of use of
21st century
technology in Technology and Livelihood Education Instruction.
Age--is the time of life at which some particular qualification, power or
capacity arises or rest (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2014).
In this study, age referred to one of the independent variables considered.
Educational technology--is the use of technology to improve
education. It is a systematic, iterative process for designing instruction or
training use to improve performance (Schneider, Daniel K., 2013).
In this study, educational technology referred to those materials that are
being used to further promote better educational experience to the learners.
Examples are computers, LCD projectors, laptops, and so on.
Perception--is the product of perceiving knowledge through the
senses of the existence and properties of matter and the external world
(Cambridge Dictionary, 2013).

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

In this study, perception referred to the respondents’ knowledge acquired
through their senses about the use of technologies by Secondary Technology
and Livelihood Education Teachers who teach Technology and Livelihood
Education in different schools within the proximity of Tobias Fornier, Antique.
Random Sampling--is a method of selecting a sample, a random
sample from
a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could
be selected has a predetermined probability being selected. (Dictionary
reference.com, 2014)
In this study, random sampling referred to the type of sampling being used.
Tobias Fornier-- It composed of six (51) barangays namely Abaca,
Aras-Asan, Arobo, Atabay, Atiotes, Bagumbayan, Balloscas, Balud, Barasana
A-C, Bariri, Camandagan, Cato-ogan, Danawan, Diclum, Fatima, Gamad,
Igbalogo, Igbangcal A-C, Igcabuad, Igcadac, Igcado, Igcalawagan, Igcapuyas,
Igcasicad (San Pedro), Igdalaquit, Igdanlog, Igdurarog, Igtugas, Lawigan,
Lindero, Manaling, Masayo, Nagsubuan, Nasuli-A, Opsan, Paciencia, Poblacion
orte, Poblacion Sur, Portillo, Quezon, Salamague, Sanyto Tomas, Tacbuyan,
Tene, Villaflor, Ysulat. In this study, Tobias, Fornier referred to the setting of
the research.
Standard deviation--is a measure of the dispersion of a frequency
distribution

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

that is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviation
of each
class frequencies from the arithmetic mean of the frequency distribution
(MerriamWebster Dictionary, 2014).
In this study, Standard Deviation referred to the tools to be used.
Teacher-- is a person whose job is to teach students about certain
subjects
(Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2014).
In this study, teachers referred to the respondents to be tested for their
perception in using 21st century technologies in Technology and Livelihood
Education Instruction.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study considered only licensed Secondary Technology and
Livelihood Education Teachers teaching Technology and Livelihood Education
subject in public Secondary Schools in Tobias Fornier, Antique. This research
was conducted during the whole duration of the academic year 2015-2016.
The participants were the 52 randomly selected licensed Secondary
Technology and Livelihood Education teachers teaching Technology and
Livelihood Education throughout the whole district. This study aimed to
ascertain the impact of using various technologies in Technology and
Livelihood Education Instruction in public secondary institutions.

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

Randomly

selected

participants

answered

two

parts

of

the

questionnaire; Part one, the personal data of the respondents. Part two, the
survey proper.
Frequency count, mean, and standard deviation were used for descriptive
statistics; ANOVA and T-test were used for inferential statistics.
All the data were gathered, computerized, and processed using
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). All inferential statistics were
set at 0.05 level of significance.

Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature
Introduction
Computer technologies
Examples of computer technologies in use
Related literatures
Related researches
Summary/synthesis
This chapter examines studies relating to the present research. It is
divided into two parts: (1) Educational Technologies, and (2) Competencies.
Part One, Educational technologies, discusses the various available and
feasible educational technologies in Tobias Fornier.

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

Part Two, Competencies, discusses the positive and negative impact of
educational technologies in the competency of the teacher in teaching
biology.
Educational Technology
The use of educational technology has a great impact in the setting of
Philippine educational system. Teachers must have the knowledge of using
technology in order to cope with the demands of the modern setting in
Philippine education. Overhead projector is frequently used but not being
fully utilized. Educational technology caters different instruments of learning
and its ranging from non-projected to projected media from which the
teacher has varied choices depending upon the teacher’s instructional
setting (Lucido Ph. D., 2008).

Computers. Computers are classified as electronic device that is used in
storing, typing, and editing data. They make the life of the students easier.
Computers
are classified according to power and size, even though it has the capabilities
to overlap
(Roper, 1999).

LCD projectors. LCD Projector is a kind of projector that is suitable in

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

projecting videos, images or data on a white screen. It is the counterpart of
the slide
projector or overhead projector in the modern setting (Encyclo, 2012).
E-learning. E-learning is using any electronic devices in aiding the gain and
improvement of knowledge and comprehension in order to perceive the
positive impact
on the behavior of the learners (AADM, 2009).

Apple classrooms of tomorrow (ACOT). Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow
(ACOT) is a joint project of the National Science Foundation, and the district
schools of Columbus, Ohio, Cupertino, California and Nashville, Tennessee. Its
primary goals are to create an inquiry-based, cooperative and knowledgebuilding activity that focuses on science, math, history and language arts
and uses various kinds of instruments in supporting cooperative learning
(Apple, 1996).
Social networking websites are currently being used regularly by millions of
people. The use of social network sites has been widespread that they have
not only caught the attention of academic and industry researchers
worldwide but also us, in particular. Social network sites are now being
investigated by numerous social science researchers and an increasing
number of academic commentators are becoming more and more interested

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

in studying Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking services, because
of their probable impact on society (Scribd, 2014).

Computer-based instruction. James Kulik (1994) utilized a research
approach known as meta-analysis. Meta-analysis collects the outcome from
more than 500 research studies on computer-based instructions. Computerbased instructions categorized the individual educational method to cater
the needs, interest, predisposition, present knowledge and learning styles of
the students. Computer-based instruction software contains tutorial, drill and
practices, and the most recent Integrated Learning System.

Competencies
Competencies are observable and measurable knowledge, skills,
abilities, and behavior critical to successful work performance. There are
three competency types namely knowledge competency, skills and attitude
competency, and behavior competency.

Impact of computer-based learning. Kulik (1994) mentioned some
positive
and negative impacts of Computer-Based Learning. Some of the positive
impacts are:

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

In a normal setting, 64th percentile is the score of students who adapt
the

Computer-based instruction in the achievement test compared to the
students who do not adapt the Computer-based instruction had the 50th
percentile score.

Students learn in a little span of time when they adapt Computer-

based instruction.
A student develops appreciation in their classes and enhances moral
values when

the classes include Computer-based instruction.
Also, Kulik mentioned some negative impacts of Computer-based instruction:
Computers have no positive impact in all subjects area they were studied.
Igun (2005) also found that Nigerians study from materials downloaded from
the internet. There are many advantages to online and computer-based
learning when compared to traditional face-to-face courses and lectures.
There are a few disadvantages as well: Learners with low motivation or bad
study habits may fall behind. Without the routine structures of a traditional
class, students may get lost or confused about course activities and
deadlines. Student may feel isolated from the instructor and classmates.
Instructor may not always be available when students are studying or need
help. Slow

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

Internet connections or older computers may make accessing course
materials frustrating. Managing computer files and online learning software
can sometimes seem complex for students with beginner-level computer
skills. Hands-on or lab work is difficult to simulate in a virtual classroom.
Karim and Hassan (2006) also noted the exponential growth digital
information, which changes the way students perceive studying and with
printed materials that are to be use in facilitating study.
Liu (2005) and Ramirez (2003) report that students print material from the
internet in order to study and read later on.
According to Kachala (1996), during the 1980’s, studies show that by the use
of
Computer Technology, it can motivate students , improve instruction for the
students with special needs, develops students’ attitudes to learn and
inspires teachers and gives freedom from some instructional task. The
Software Publishers Association’s 1990 Report on the Effectiveness of
Microcomputers in Schools obtained research studies that displayed that in
using technology, as learning instruments, makes a measurable difference in
student achievement, attitudes, and cooperation with teachers and other
students. These outcomes were relevant to several components-such as
subject areas, behavior of the specific student population, teacher’s role, and
patterns of student grouping, software design, and the level of access to
technology.

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

Baker, Herman, and Gearhart (1994) assessed Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow
sites, with the aim of documenting the effects of technology access on K-12.
When Baker and Herman started the job with ACOT in 1987, the ACOT
project had been applied in selected classrooms at five sites that were
spread in the US.
Professors in the developing countries said that the undergraduate students
should be fully equipped with high level of analytical skills, the capacity for
critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual grasp and ability to learn
autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind (Simmons, 2003). One great
help to these kind of learning process is the use of educational technologies
that assists in studying and at the same time helping students.
Students who have access to computers and the internet have a higher
chance of learning the subject given that these students uses these
educational technologies in a manner related to the subject.

Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY

Chapter 3 has four parts, namely: (1) Research Design; (2) Site and the

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

Respondents Selection; (3) Data-Gathering Instruments and Method of
Collection; and (4) Statistical Data Analysis Procedure.
Part One, Research Design, discusses the structure of the study and
framework
of the research to which the study was anchored.
Part Two, Site and the Respondents Selection, describes the rationale
for choosing the setting of the study and the selected respondents.
Part Three, Data-Gathering Instruments and Method of Collection,
addresses the sources of the data and presents the research method
employed in the study.
Part Four, Statistical Data Analysis Procedure, explains the procedure
for scoring and the statistical procedure used to test the hypothesis.

Research Design
The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of the 21st
century technologies in Science Instruction in high school students as
perceived by the Secondary Science Teachers in Tobias Fornier, Antique.
This study follows the principle of a quantitative research. Quantitative
research, according to Aliaga and Gunderson (2000) is a term for explaining
phenomena through a collection of numerical data. These data are analyzed
using mathematical or statistical method. Some of the information that are
qualitative in nature, like attitudes, attributes, and perception, can be

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

collected in a qualitative method. Through designing some research
instruments that are suitable for converting qualitative data into quantitative
data in which statistical analysis can be done.
Site and Respondents of the Study
The setting that the researchers selected was the national schools
within the Tobias Fornier, Antique.
The respondents in this research were 52 randomly selected technology and
livelihood education teachers in Tobias Fornier, Antique. . The respondents
were the licensed secondary teachers of technology and livelihood education
who teach various TLE subject in public high schools throughout the
proximity of Tobias Fornier, Antique.
The respondents were classified into categories of age, sex, number of years
in TLE teaching, civil status, highest educational attainment, and current
teaching rank.

Data-Gathering Instruments and Method of Collection
To gather data, the researchers employed a 20-item self-administered
checklist questionnaire. As a significant research tool for data gathering,
questionnaire has its primary function as a measurement (Oppenheim,
1992). Questionnaires are any written materials that present respondents
with a series of questions or statements to which an individual reacts by

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

means of writing out the answer of selecting among the existing answers
(Brown, 2001).

The questionnaire is based on the uses of different kinds of 21st century
technologies in a TLE Instruction. The questions in the interview part are also
based

on

teaching

strategies

using

different

kind

of

21st

century

technologies and the factors why the respondents use a specific kind of 21st
century technology in a specific teaching strategy.
Part one of the questionnaire is the respondents’ personal information sheet.
Part two of the questionnaire is the 20-item checklist proper.
As for the procedures employed, the researchers requested permission from
the different secondary schools in Tobias Fornier, Antique.
The instruments were distributed personally to the 52 randomly selected TLE
teachers who teach secondary TLE of different schools in Tobias Fornier,
Antique. Upon the retrieval of the accomplished copies of the selfadministered questionnaire, the researchers tallied, classified, tabulated and
subjected the data to the appropriate statistical treatments. The quantitative
data were the basis for formulating some generalization prior to the
statement of the problem.
Statistical Data Analysis Procedure
The following statistical tools were utilized in interpreting the results of the
study: Frequency. Frequency was used to determine the number of times

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER

the responses of members appeared in each category. Percentage. The
percentage was used to determine the number of members in each category
as compared from their number in the entire group.
Mean. The mean was used to determine the level of respondents’ scores in
the perception of effectiveness.
Standard Deviation. The researchers were interested in knowing the
population standard deviation because the population contains all the values
the researchers were interested in. Therefore, one will normally calculate the
population standard deviation if: (1) the researchers have the entire
population or (2) the researchers have a sample of a larger population, but
are only interested in this sample and do not wish to generalize the findings
to the population. However, in statistics, we are usually presented with a
sample from which we wish to estimate (generalize to) a population, and the
standard deviation is no exception to this. Therefore, if all you have is a
sample, but you wish to make a statement about the population standard
deviation from which the sample is drawn, you need to use the sample
standard deviation.
Confusion can often arise as to which standard deviation to use due to the
name "sample" standard deviation incorrectly being interpreted as meaning
the standard deviation of the sample itself and not the estimate of the
population standard deviation based on the sample.

EXTENT OF USE OF 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY AND
LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION INSTRUCTION IN THE DISTRICT OF TOBIAS FORNIER