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:

When the flanks between the nose and base circles are of straight and tangential to both the

circles, then, the cams are called tangent cams.

Fig.2

These are usually symmetric about the centre line of the cam. Generally, the following

combinations of cam and follower are used.

(a) Circular arc cam with flat faced follower

(b) Tangent cam with reciprocating roller follower

1.1 CIRCULAR ARC CAM WITH FLAT FACED FOLLOWER

The Fig. 3 represents various main dimensions of circular arc cam.

Fig.3

**(a) Expression for determining the displacement, velocity and acceleration of
**

the follower when flat face of the follower has contact on the circular flank

Fig.4

Let

r1=OB=Least base circle radius

r2=Nose circle radius

R=QD= Flank circle radius

d=Distance between the centres of cam and nose circles

α= Angle of ascent

φ=Angle of contact on circular flank

Displacement:

X = BC = OC – OB = DE - r1

= (QD-QE) – r1

= (R - OQ cos θ) – r1

= R-(R - r1) cosθ – r1

Velocity:

=

x

= (R-r1) (sin θ) ω

r1) cos θ It is obvious from the above equation that. it is evident that. the velocity is zero (when θ=0 ) and it increases with θ.5 .From this equation. at the beginning of the ascent when θ=0. acceleration is maximum and it goes on decreasing and is maximum when θ=φ (b)Expression for determining the displacement. Vmax = ω (R-r1) sinφ Acceleration: a= a= ω2 ( R. It will be maximum when the follower is just shift from circular flank to circular nose. at the beginning of the ascent. velocity and acceleration of the follower when flat face of the follower has contact on the nose Fig.

θ) –r1 Velocity: = x The velocity is minimum when α = θ or (α . a sudden change from positive acceleration to negative acceleration (retardation).θ)=0. when the follower changes contact from circular flank to circular nose.e.ω2d cos φ i. .e.θ) ω a= .. (α .θ) is maximum i. It is maximum when (α .θ) is maximum and it is so when the contact changes from circular flank to circular nose ie.Let r1=OB=Least base circle radius r2=Nose circle radius R=QD= Flank circle radius d=Distance between centers of cam and nose circles α= Angle of ascent φ=Angle of contact on circular flank Displacement: x = BC = OC – OB = DE . as the contact between cam and follower passes through point D.ωd cos (α .θ) =φ Acceleration: a= a= ..r1 = (DP+PE) – r1 = r2+OP cos (α .r1) cosφ to . It may be noted that.ω2d cos (α ..θ) = 0 i. when the follower is at the apex of the nose and minimum (α .θ) Negative sign indicates retardation. This happens when follower is at the apex of circular nose and it is maximum when (α .e. the acceleration of the follower suddenly changes from ω2 ( R..

OQ = R-r1. QP = R-r2. θ =0 Acceleration of the follower at the end of contact with flank. 7. 6 Consider the triangle POQ in Fig. 7 QP2= QO2+PO2-2QOxPOxCos POQ (R-r2)2 = (R-r1)2+d2-2(R-r1)(d) cos (180-α) = (R-r1)2+d2+2(R-r1) d cosα R2-2Rr2+r22 = R2+r12-2Rr1+d2+2Rdcosα -2r1dcosα 2Rr1-2Rr2-2Rdcosα = r12-r22+d2-2r1dcosα Acceleration of the follower at the beginning of lift/flank.θ = φ .Note: Cosine rule Fig. OP = d and apply cosine rule Fig.

Least radius of cam = 30 mm. Angle of lift = 75o. (α . r 2 = 5 mm . N = 600 rpm Fig. 8 We have. at the end of contact with the circular flank. Nose radius = 5 mm. Solution. (i) The principal dimensions of cam (ii) The acceleration of the follower at the beginning of lift. .Acceleration of the follower at the beginning of nose. speed = 600 rpm Find. α = 75o. at the beginning of contact with nose and at the apex of nose. 2α = 150o. (α .θ) =φ Acceleration of the follower at the apex of nose. Total lift + r1 = PO + r2 20 + 30 = d – 5 d = 45 mm we have.θ) = 0 Example 1 A symmetrical circular arc cam operating a flat faced follower has the following particulars. r 1 = 15 mm. lift = 20 mm.

86 m/s At the end of the contract with flank. consider triangle PQO. when θ = 0 Acceleration. a = . xPO = Sin 105x45/ (84. Assuming that. Acceleration. 2α = 150o.33’ Acceleration. determine the lift of the valve.r1) cosθ = x cos0 2 (ii) = 206. r 2 = 3. OP = d = 25mm.41 mm QO = R-r1 = 82.r1) cosφ (iii) = 171. there is no dwell between the ascent and descent.42 mm PQ = R-r2 = 82.09 m/s2 At the beginning of contact with nose.ω2d cos φ = . Acceleration. the flank radius and the acceleration and retardation of the follower at a point where circular nose merges into circular flank.146.2 mm . Angle of action of cam = 150o and cam shaft speed = 600 rpm.42 – 5) (i) = 34.2 mm. when θ = φ = 24o.177.92 m/s2 (iv) At the apex of nose. Least radius = 16 mm.R = 82. a = ω2 ( R. a = ω2 ( R.41-5 = 77.41 mm To determine angle φ .2o At the beginning of the lift.7 m/s2 Example.2 The following particulars relate to a symmetrical circular cam operating a flat faced follower.ω2d = .41 – 30 = 52. Solution : r 1 = 16 mm. Nose radius = 3. N = 600 rpm . α = 75o. Distance between cam shaft centre and nose centre = 25 mm. a = .

ω2d cos φ = .OB = OP+PT – OT = d + r2 . from triangle OQP.r1) cosφ = 129.6’ .2 mm (ii) Flank radius.r1 = 25 + 3.39 m/s2 (v)Retardation at the beginning of contact with nose. (iii) Flank angle. (i)Lift = BT = OT. ф We have.2 -16 Lift =x = 12. R.81 m/s2 = 29o. = 29o.6’ ( iv) Acceleration at the end of the contract with flank. Acceleration.Fig.85. 9 We know. when θ = a = ω2 ( R. a = .

we have.r2 = 60 .r2 mm From triangle OPQ. OP = d = OR – RP = Least radius +lift –nose radius OP = 35+25. OQ = Flank radius – Least radius OQ = R.r2)2 = (60 . at the end of contact with flank. A symmetrical arc cam using flat faced follower has the following particulars. N = 1200 rpm Fig. Total lift = 25 mm Least radius = 35mm Angle of lift = 90o Flank radius = 105 mm Speed = 1200 rpm Calculate (i) main dimensions of the cam (ii) Acceleration of the follower at the beginning of the lift.r2) x 70 cos (180 – 90) 1052 + r22 – 210 r2 = 3600 + r22 -120 r2 + 4900 90 r2 = 2525 r2 = 28 mm OP = d = ( 60 – r2) = ( 60 – 28) = 32 mm PQ = 105 .r2 mm PQ = Flank radius – nose radius PQ = 105 . Solution: X= 25 mm.r2 = 105 – 28 = 77 mm From triangle OPQ. . 10 Referring to Fig. 10.Example 3. α = 90o . PQ2 = OP2 + OQ2 – 2 OP x OQ x cos (180 – a) ( 105 . R= 105 mm. r 1 = 35 mm.r1 = 105 – 35 = 70 mm Also. at the beginning of contact with nose and at the apex of nose.r2)2 + 702 – 2 (60 .

when θ = φ = 24o. 11 Valve timing diagram . when θ = 0 Acceleration.r1) cosθ = (ii) (iii) x cos0 = 1105.ω2d cos ф = . a= ω2 ( R.r1) cosф = 1007.sin (180 – 90)/77 = 0. Crank angle when suction valves closes after BDC = 50o.OP/ sin ф = PQ/ sin (180 – a) sin ф = OP/PQ sin (180 – a) = 32. Lift = 10 mm. Least radius = 20 mm.5 mm .505.44 m/s2 At the end of the contract with flank. A suction valve of a 4 stroke petrol engine is operated by a symmetrical circular cam with flat faced follower. The details are as follows. Nose radius = 2. a= ω2 ( R.33’ Acceleration. Crank angle when suction valve opens after TDC = 4o. r 2 = 2. Acceleration.460.44 m/s2 (iv) At the apex of nose. a = . Acceleration.4156 ф = 24º 33’ (i) At the beginning of the lift. Determine maximum velocity of the valve and its maximum acceleration and retardation.5 mm. Cam shaft speed = 600 rpm. N = 600 rpm Fig. a= . Solution: r 1 = 20 mm.26 m/s2 At the beginning of contact with nose.ω2d = . Lift =x= 10 mm.32 m/s2 Example 4.

α= = 56. Vmax = ω ( R – r1) sin = = 1. 12 From the above diagram. From triangle OQP. the speed of cam shaft is half the speed of crank shaft = 2α Anglular displacement of cam shaft during opening of the valve = Since the cam is a symmetrical.5 mm = d Flank radius.5o Fig. = 11o.Angular displacement of cam when suction valve is open = 180 – 4+50 = 226o For four stroke engine. angle of ascent = angle of decent.45’ Velocity is maximum when α = . OP + r2 = Lift + r1 OP = 20+10-2. R = 116.22 m/s .87 mm Flank angle.5 = 27.

Maximum acceleration of valve when θ = 0. 13 Crank angle diagram Angular displacement of cam when suction valve is open = 180 – 6+40 = 214o For four stroke engine. r 2 = 5 mm . a= ω2 ( R.28 kg. Solution: r 1 = 25 mm.57 m/s2 Example 5 The following particulars refers to a symmetrical circular arc cam used to operate suction valve mechanism of a four stroke petrol engine Total lift = 10 mm Least radius = 25mm Nose radius = 5 mm o Suction valve opens 6 after TDC Suction valve closes 40o after BDC Engine Speed = 2000 rpm Find (i) Maximum velocity of the valve (ii) Maximum acceleration and retardation (iii) Minimum force to be exerted by the spring to overcome inertia of the valve parts of mass 0. when α-θ =0.108. Acceleration. angle of ascent = angle of decent.r1) = 382.ω2 d = . a = .42 m/s2 Retardation is maximum. Lift =x= 10 mm. the cam shaft speed is half of engine crank shaft speed Cam shaft speed = ½ c Engine speed= ½ x2000= 1000 rpm= N Fig. N = 2000 rpm For four stroke engine. . the speed of cam shaft is half the speed of crank shaft Anglular displacement of cam shaft during opening of the valve = 2a Since the cam is a symmetrical.

15 m/s (ii) Maximum acceleration of valve when θ = 0. 14 From the above diagram. 95 mm Flank angle.r1) = 1271 m/s2 Retardation is maximum. Vmax = ω ( R – r1) sin = 2. Acceleration. OP + r2 = Lift + r1 OP = 25+10. .5 = 30 mm = d Flank radius. = 10o. R = 140.22’ (i) Maximum Velocity when follower leaves the flank α = . when α-θ =0.Fig. a= ω2 ( R. From triangle OQP.

β + (180-a) + = 180 1. Minimum force = Mass x retardation = 0.ω2 d = . Period of acceleration is half the period of retardation during the lift.98 m/s2 (iii) Minimum force to be exerted by the spring to overcome inertia of the valve parts. The straight line path of the tappet passes through the cam axis. N = 1250 rpm. Total angle of action = 150o.24 N Example 6. The cam rotates at 1250 rpm.5β = 75o β = 500 = 25 0 . Lift =x= 6 mm. base circle diameter = 30 mm. α = 75o Fig.328. Acceleration period angle = and Retardation period angle = b Acceleration = ½ Retardation =½b Consider triangle POQ.15 Let. A flat faced valve is operated by a symmetrical circular arc cam.28 x 328.a = . Determine the flank and nose radii and maximum acceleration and retardation during the lift.98 = 82. lift = 6 mm. Solution: r 1 = 15 mm.

We have.7 mm Maximum acceleration of valve . r2 = 9.r2/Sin25 = PQ/Sin (180. A tangent cam is shown in Fig.7 mm Distance between cetres of nose and base circles.6 = 20.4 mm Flank radius.8 r2 = 57. PQ = (QO+OC’)-DP = QO + r1 –r2 OQ = (QO + r1 – r2) Sin50 / Sin(180-75) OQ = 0. . nose radius. The flanks AB and IH are straight lines and tangent to the base circle at A and I and tangent to nose at B and I. from above Fig.2 TANGENT CAM WITH ROLLER RECIPROCATING FOLLOWER Tangent cams are made with straight flanks.5– 0.55 m/s2 Maximum retardation .a) OQ/Sin50 = 21.793 r2 Threrefore.793 r2 0. Lift + r1 = d + r2 d = Lift + r1 .6 mm.5– 0. consider triangle POQ.ω2 d a = .6 d = 11.75) OQ = (21. The centre of the circular nose is P.r2 d = 6 + 15 .9 – 0.r2 d = 21. a= ω2 ( R. OQ/Sinb = OP/sinf = PQ/sin (180. a = .r1) a = 447.r2) Sin50/Sin25 = 38 – 1..195.207 OQ = 11.8 r2 -----(1) Also.793 r2 ---------(ii) From equations (i) and (ii) 38 – 1.16. OQ = (PQ) Sin50 / Sin(180-75) But.33 m/s2 1.793 QO + 11.9.r2 d = 21. The path of the centre of roller follower is shown by dotted line. OQ = 38 – 1. R = 35.8 x 9.9 – 0. d = 21.793 r2 OQ = 57.r2 Again.

velocity and acceleration of the roller follower when in contact on the straight flank Fig.Fig.16 a. 17 . Expression for determination of displacement.

when θ=0 or the roller at the beginning of its lift along .OB = = OB ( . as . also increases where as decreases.0) x ω ) increases. when vmax = ω (r1 + r3) ( is maximum. ) Acceleration: a= a= ω (r1 + r3) a= ω2 (r1 + r3) a= ω2 (r1 + r3) a= ω2 (r1 + r3) Acceleration is minimum when minimum and is minimum. With that.. the velocity increases. It is so.e. This is possible when is is maximum.1) x = (r1 + r3) ( . Velocity will be maximum when happens when point of contact is just leaving the straight flank i.Let r1= Least base circle radius r2= Roller radius r3=Nose circle radius d=Distance between the cam and nose circles L= (r1 + r3) α= Angle of ascent φ=Angle of contact of cam with straight flank Displacement: x = OG . It .1) Velocity: = x = (r1 + r3) ( v = ω (r1 + r3) ( From this equation. it is evident that.

. Acceleration is maximum when the roller shifts from flank to nose circle i. 18 . amin= ω2 (r1 + r3) amax= ω2 (r1 + r3) (b) Expression for determination of displacement. velocity and acceleration of the roller follower when in contact with nose Let r1= Least base circle radius r2= Roller radius r3=Nose circle radius d=Distance between the cam and nose circles L= (r1 + r3) α= Angle of ascent φ=Angle of contact of cam with straight flank Fig.the straight flank.e. when .

Displacement: x = OJ – OG x = (OP+PJ) – ( OE+EG) = ( d+L) – (OP cosθ1+PG cosβ) = ( d+L) – (d cosθ1 + L cosβ) = L +d – d cosθ1 . .L cosβ -----(i) From right angled triangles.L2 cos2 β = d2 sin2 θ1 L2 cos2 β = L2.(L2.d2 sin2 θ1)1/2 Substituting the above value in equation (i) X = L +d – d cosθ1. OEP and GEP EP = GP sinβ = OP sin θ1 = L sinβ = d sin θ1 Squaring on both sides.d2 sin2 θ1 L cos β = (L2.cos θ1) = -d .d2 sin2 θ1) -1/2 ( d2 sin 2θ1) v= ω d Acceleration: a= Multiply numerator and denominator by .cos2 β) = d2 sin2 θ1 L2.-sin θ1.(L2.(L2. L2 sin2β = d2 sin2 θ1 2 L (1. = d sin θ1.d2 sin2 θ1)1/2 Velocity: = v x .d2 sin2 θ1) -1/2 ( -d2 2sin θ1.

19 . OP + PT = OC + CT OP = OC + CT. N = 600 rpm. lift is 17. The angle of ascent is 75o . Assume that.The acceleration of the follower at the beginning of lift. Lift =x= 17.Example 7 In a symmetrical tangent cam operating a roller follower.PT OP = r 1 + x .5 mm. α = 75o w = 2p600/60 = 62. r 3 = 17.5 mm and the speed of cam is 600 rpm. Calculate.5 mm.83 rad/s From Fig. the least radius of cam is 30 mm and roller radius is 17.5 . there is no dwell between ascent and descent. 17.r 2 OP = 47.5 mm. 1.Principal dimensions of cam 2. where straight flank merges into the circular nose and at the apex of the circular nose.r 2 -------------( i ) Fig. Solution: r 1 = 30 mm.

5 . i.. (i) At the beginning of the lift.r 2 ---------(ii) Consider a triangle QOP.6) .8 = 23.e. when θ = 0 a = ω2 (r1 + r3) = (62.83)2 (30 + 17.6 a = ω2 (r1 + r3) a = (62.e.5 -23. OQ + QA = OA OQ = OA . 19.83)2 (30 + 17.r 2 r 2 = 23.6/ cos3 25.cos2 25.From the above Fig. 21 Cos 75 = 30 . when θ = Φ = 25.QA = r1-r2 OQ = 30 . GOB and POQ.20 Fig.7 mm From the triangles. Cos a = OQ/OP Substitute OQ & OP from equations (i) and (ii) Fig..5) (2-1) = 187.r 2/ 47.6 Acceleration of the follower. i.5 Φ = 25.5 m/s2 (ii) At the end of flank. tan = GB/OB = PQ/OB = OP Sina/ OB = d Sin 75/ r1 + r3 = 23.8 mm OP = d = 30 + 17.7 Sin 75/ 30 + 17.5) (2.

r2 = 8 mm N = 120 rpm.6 m/s2 Example 8 A tangent cam with 70 mm base circle diameter operates a roller follower of 30 mm diameter.38 m/s2 (iii) Acceleration when in contact with nose. w = 2p120/60 = 12.Φ = 75 .8 .56 rad/s a = 180 -90-45 = 45o Fig. Solution: r 1 = 35 mm.a = 303. The angle between the tangential faces of the cam is 90o and these faces are joined by a nose circle of 8 mm radius The speed of the cam is 120 rpm . 22 From the above Fig. when θ1= a. OQ + QA = OA OQ = OA .QA = r1-r2 OQ = 35 .25. when the roller leaves the straight flank and at the apex of cam. Calculate the acceleration of the roller centre.4 a = 57. r 3 = 15 mm.6 = 49.

602 1.3 Under Cutting of Cam Generally.19 m/s2 (ii) Roller at the apex. n= r2+r1/d =0.37/ cos3 28.ω2 r (1+1/n) = -16 m/s2 where..OQ = 27 mm Also .18 mm = d From the triangles. OP = d Consider a triangle QOP. tan = GB/OB = PQ/OB = OP Sina/ OB = d Sin 75/ r1 + r3 = 38. a = . i. prime circle of a cam is proportioned to give a satisfactory pressure angle.e. This happens if the curvature of the pitch curve is too sharp.37) a = 14.56)2 (35 + 15) (2. (a) Fig. Cos a = OQ/OP Cos 45 = 27/OP OP = 38. while (b) shows generation the curve by roller follower. GOB and POQ. when θ = Φ = 28.37o Acceleration of the roller follower (i) At the end of flank.cos2 28. Fig 32 (a) represents the pitch curve of a cam.37 a = ω2 (r1 + r3) a = (12. 23 (b) .18 Sin 75/ 35 + 15 Φ = 28. some times the follower may not be completing the desired motion. However.

4. it will not be producing the desired motion. Since it is impossible to produce such a cam profile. 24 Fig.C. 5.Theory of Machines. New Delhi.3rd edition.3rd edition Sathy Prakashan.Khanna Publications. the cam will be pointed if the radius of the roller is equal to the radius of curvature of the pitch curve.16thedition. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. It is seen that.24 represents.S. Ltd. to have minimum radius of curvature of the cam profile .Sharma. the result is that. the cam profile loops over itself in order to realize the profile of the pitch curve. .Theory of Machines. Therefore.Malhotra and Guptha (2006).Theory of Machines.S. It is seen that. Tata MC Graw Hill Education Pvt. Delhi.S.td.Rathan(2009). New Delhi. REFERENCES 1.Fig.Pearson. New Delhi. 2. Now when the roller follower will be made to move over this cam. New Delhi.SadhuSingh(2012).3rdedition. 3.Ballaneys(1988). Kamalesh Purohit(2006). a roller follower trying to generating pitch curve. the radius of curvature of the prime circle must always be greater than that of the radius of the roller. the cam will be undercut and become a pointed cam.Theory of Mechanisms and Machines.TheTheory of Machines.

G(2009). Ltd. PHI Learning Pvt. Mechanisms and Machine Theory. .6.Ashok A. New Delhi. 2nd edition.

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