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DECLARATION

I do hereby declare that this project


entitled Plant Bio-Diversity of my
native place;Jaleswarpur submitted
to the Department of Botany, Fakir
Mohan Autonomous College, Balasore,
Odisha is an authentic report of data
collection and investigation carried out
by me under the supervision of Dr.
(Mrs.) Umabati Sahu, lecturer in botany,
Fakir Mohan Autonomous College. No
part of this work has been submitted to
any other degree or thesis.

Place:
Date:
Jena)

(Arun Kumar

ACKNOWLEDGEME
NT
I am thankful to all lectures of Botany
Department, who guided me during the
course of investigation and preparation
of the project work Plant
Biodiversity of my native place;
Jaleswarpur which is a part of
project work of 3rd year Degree
Examination, Fakir Mohan Autonomous
College during the session 2015-16.
I am also thankful to all the members of
Botany Department for their cooperation during the preparation of the
project. I am also thankful to my friends
for their constant encouragement during
the preparation for this project work.
I am also grateful to authorities of Fakir
Mohan Autonomous College for

evaluating my project work as a part of


3rd year Degree Examination 2016.
Date:
Name: Arun kumar
Jena
F.M. (Auto) College,
Year: 2015-16
Balasore
Class: +3 3rd year
Science
Roll No.: BS13-165

CERTIFICATE OF CONCERNED
TEACHER
This is to certify that Arun Kumar Jena
of +3 3rd year Science having
Botany(Hons.) has carried out this
Project work entitled Plant Diversity
of my native place;
Jaleswarpurunder my guidance and
supervision no part of this has been
submitted for any other examination at
any university.

Name of the Guide:


guide

Signature of the

All lecturers in
Botany Department

CONTENT
Topic
Objective
Introduction
Biodiversity Conservation
Importance
Locality
Methodology
Tables 1 & 2
Result
Summary & Discussion
References.

OBJECTIVE
I had suggested to study the plant
diversity of my native place. It seems to
be easy by my point of view. I had
objective for this preparation.
First to observe and take snaps of the
plant species according to their size and
then calculate the number and
frequency present of each species.
Secondly according to biodiversity
management I have to give stress on
the conservation of endangered or less
frequency species present in that
particular area.

INTRODUCTION
Biodiversity:According to several ecologist the common
definition maybe:The variability among living organisms
from all sources including inter alia,
terrestrial, marine and other aquatic
ecosystems and ecological complexes of
which they are a part; this includes
diversity within species, between species
and of ecosystems.

Thus biodiversity includes


genetic variation within
species, the variety of species
in an area and the variety of

Living organism plays central roles in the


cycles of major elements (carbon, nitrogen
and so on) and water in the environment
and diversity specially is important in that
these cycles require numerous interacting
species.
Biodiversity in the term popularized by the
scientist Edward Wilson to describe the
combined diversity at all the levels of
biological organizations.

Importance of
Biodiversity
The natural environment is the source of
all our resources for life.
Complex ecosystems with a wide variety of
plants and animals tend to be more stable.
A highly diverse ecosystem is a sign of a
healthy system. Since all the living world
relies on the natural environment,
especially us, it is in our best interests and

the interests of future generations to


conserve biodiversity and our resources.
The benefits provide: Generation of soils
Maintenance of soil, water, air quality.
Pest control
Crop Production
Pollination
Detoxification and decomposition of
wastes
Climate stabilization
Prevention and mitigation of natural
disasters
Provision of food security, healthcare
Income generation
Spiritual and cultural value
The biodiversity put forward the values
which is as the base that we cant ignore
it.
a) Ethical & Moral Values.
b) Aesthetic Value.
c)
Utilitarian Value
d) Ecological Value.
Among all of these ecological value meant
much for us. As we live in an ecosystems

and of a particular area the various


changes of ecology has a great influence
upon us.
Alexander Von Humboldt observed that
within a region species richness increased
with increasing explored are, but only up
to a limit.
If the species-area relationship of
biodiversity put forward in a graphical way
then the relation between species richness
and are for wide variety of taxa turns out
to be a rectangular hyperbola which meant
to be great extent.

Conservation of
Biodiversity
Khoshoo (1993) summarizes different
options available for conservation of Biodiversity. Both in-situ (onsite) and ex-situ
(off site) means of conservation are

equally important and to be considered


complementary to each other.
i. In-Situ Conservation:Faced with the conflict between
development and conservation, many
nations find it unrealistic and
economically not feasible to conserve all
their biological wealth.
But considering some species as
endangered, they identified for
maximum protection certain (bio
diversity hotspots) regions with very high
level of species richness and high degree
of Endemism.
Totally 34 biodiversity hotspots are
identified all over the world. In India also
14 biosphere reserves, 90 national parks
and 448 wildlife sanctuaries.

In many cultures of people tracts of forests


were set aside and all the trees and wildlife
within were venerated and given total

protection. Such sacred grooves are found


in many of the hilly regions of India.
ii. Ex-Situ Conservation:Maintenance of ex-situ populations of
plants is carried out by a number of
institutions including botanical gardens,
forestry research institutes and
agricultural research centers.
They mainly use three methods: Field gene Banks
Seed Banks
In vitro Storage
But there are also many strategies taken
by Indian Govt. for this process. Collection,
identification and documentation of
folder/pasture and other associated
species in the ecosystem. Ecogeographical survey of gene pool of crops
and related species. Investigate technoeconomic capabilities of inhabitants on
biodiversity conservation.

Locality

I have studied and identified various plants


and do this project work at my own village
area. My native place is situated at
Jaleswarpur village of Balasore district. I
did the work at the north-East side of my
village.
Geographically this place is in 20.56
latitude and 87.02 in longitude. 78% of
total annual rainfall occurring here.
Climate is moderate hot but high humidity.
It is at the northern most part of Odisha
nearer to Bay of Bengal, so the sea impact
on the vegetation and climate. Soil is
alluvial and sandy which provide a
contractive infrastructure of various plants.
Biodiversity of plant is well here several of
plants available despite of the size.
I identified the species as many as I could
and perceived a very well data for the
biodiversity present here.

Methodology
This project work is conducted by me in
several ways and methods.
First of all I search an open type jungle
or field where biodiversity of plant may
countable.
Materials Used - Scissor
Internet
Blade

Books

Paper

Marker

Camera
Collection of herbs and shrub twigs by
hand plucking method.
The collected twigs placed on a white
sheet of paper and take the
photograph.
Photograph of the big plants are taken
directly from the base.
Then identification of each specific
plants by the help of flora book.
After knowing the name of genus,
species and family of each specific
plant they would be counted in number.

In the table-1 mention their


identification and in the table-2 mention
of their frequency will be plotted.
From the tabulation of frequency the
least and best no. of plant would come
to know.
So, in this particular biodiversity the
least no. of plant should be taken care
of and help to grow.

Tabulation:-

Table 1:-

FAMILY

BOTANICAL NAME

REMARKS

Papaveracea
e
Apiaceae

Argemone
mexicana
Centella asiatica

Wild Variety

Lamiaceae

Ocimum basilicum

Lamiaceae

Ocimum sanctum

Asteraceae

Ageratum
conyzoides
Martynia annua
Amaranthus
spinosus
Croton sparsiflorus

Pedaliaceae
Amaranthac
eae
Euphorbiace
ae
Nyctaginace
Mirabilis jalapa
ae
Amaranthac
Alternanthera
eae
sessitis
Amaranthaci Amaranthus viridus
ae
Commelinac
Commelina
eae
benghalensis
Acanthaceae
Hygrophila
auriculata
Fabaceae
Clitoria ternate
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis corniculata
Convolvulac
Cuscuta reflexa
eae
Cucurbitace
Coccinia grandis
ae
Euphobiacea
Euphorbia hirta
e
Euphorbiace
Acalypha indica

Remedy for skin


disease, jaundice
gonorrhea etc.
As a condiment,
seeds are used in
dysentery & chronic
diarrhoea
Used in malaria,
chronic fever,
dysentery
Wild variety
Wild variety
Leaves used as
food
Wild variety
Ornamental plant
Wild variety
Leaves used as
food
Wild Variety
Wild variety
Wild variety
Used in cough
Wild variety
Fruits used as
vegetables
Wild variety
Wild variety

FAMILY

BOTANICAL NAME

REMARKS

Solanaceae

Solanum
xanthocarpum

Used for cough,


fever, asthma,
flatulence & heart
disease
Wild variety
Wild variety

Poaceae
Cyperus rotundus
Polygonacea Antigonom leptopus
e
Boraginacea
Heliotropium
Wild variety
e
indicum
Amaranthac Achyranthus aspera Used for piles, colic
eae
boils, cough % fever
Verloenacea
Lantana camera
Wild variety
Asteraceae
Tridax procumbers
Medicinal plant
Caesalpiniac Cassia occidentalis
Wild variety
eae
Euphorbiace
Phyllanthus
Wild variety
ae
fraternus
Mimosaceae
Mimosa pudica
Wild variety
Capparacea
Cleum viscosa
Wild variety
e
Asclepiadac Calotropis gigantica
Seed used for
eae
stuffing purpose
Lamiaceae
Leucas aspera
Wild variety
Acanthaceae
Andrographis
Used for bronchitis,
paniculata
dyspepsia,
dysentery,
influenza etc.
Poaceae
Cynodon dactylan
Worshiping plant
Annacardiac
Mangifera indica
Delicious fruit with
eae
Vit- A & C

Palmae

Cocos nucifera

Moraceae

Artocarpus
heterophyllis

Rubiaceae

Anthocephalus
cadamba
Cinnamomum
tamala

Lauraceae
Magnoliacea
e

Michellia champaka

Meliaceae

Azadirachta indica

Pinaceae

Cedrus deodera

Euphorbiace
ae
Moraceae

Ricinus communis

Table 2:-

Ficus benghalensis

Liquid for laxative &


diuretic, nut & oil
edible
Fruits & seeds as
vegetable also
eaten ripe
Ornamental plant
Used as condiment
and added in
curries
Fragrant flowers,
oil, perfumes

Leaves juice for


intestinal worms
jaundice, skin
disease
Timber yielding
plant
Seeds are oily and
economic value
Wild variety

Sl.n Scientific Name


o
(alphabetically)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Acalypha indica
Achryranthus aspera
Ageratum conyzoides
Alternanthera sessitis
Amaranthus spinosus
Amaranthus viridus
Andrographis
paniculata
Anthocephalus
cadamba
Antigonom leptopus
Argemone mexicana
Artocarpus
heterophyllus
Azadirachta indica
Boerhavia diffusa
Calotropis gigentia

No.of
plants

Frequen
cy

26
25
27
32
14
21
15

4.17
4.01
4.33
5.13
2.24
3.36
2.40

0.32

8
3
4

1.28
0.48
0.64

4
14
7

0.64
2.24
1.12

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

Cassia occidentalis
Cedrus deodera
Centella asiatica
Cinnamomum tamala
Cleum viscosa
Clitoria ternatea
Eocos nucifera
Eoccinia grandis
Commelina
benghalensis
Croton sparsiflorus
Cuscuta reflexa
Cynodon dactylon
Cyperus rotundus
Euphorbia hirta
Ficus benghalensis
Hygrophila auriculata
Heliotropium indicum
Lantana camera
Leucas aspera
Mangifera indica
Martynia annua
Michelia champaka
Mimosa pudica
Mirabilis jalapa
Ocimum basilicum
Ocimum sanctum
Oxalis carniculata
Phyllanthus fraternus
Rauvolfia serpentiana

9
8
22
3
21
10
14
7
8

1.44
1.28
3.53
0.48
3.36
1.60
2.24
1.12
1.28

29
15
37
22
6
2
4
17
8
6
6
11
5
14
17
8
13
32
12
4

4.65
2.40
5.93
3.53
0.96
0.32
0.64
2.72
1.28
0.96
0.96
1.76
0.80
2.24
2.72
1.28
2.08
5.13
1.92
0.64

44
45
46

Ricinus communis
Solanum
xanthocarpum
Tridax procumbers

12
17

1.90
2.72

23

3.69

Result:I have identified 46 species, mostly of


them are Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthacea
and Asteraceae Family.

Summary & Discussion


Since life originated on earth nearly 3.8
billion years ago, there had been
enormous diversification of life forms on
earth. Biodiversity refers to the sum total
of diversity at genetic, species and
ecosystem levels and conservation efforts
area aimed at protecting diversity at all
these levels.
It is believed that communities with high
diversity tend to be less variable, more
productive and more resistant to biological
invasions. The causes of high extinction
rates at present include habitat loss and
fragmentation, over-exploitation, biological
invasion and co-extensions.

Biodiversity conservation may be in-situ as


well as ex-situ. Earths rich biodiversity is
vital for the very survival of mankind. The
reasons for conserving bio-diversity
narrowly, utilitarian, broadly utilitarian and
ethical. But it must be so that it can pass
bitterly to our next generations.

Conclusion
So that from the above study we must
ensure and be attentive for the
endangered and extinct plant species.
Plant frequency of less than 0.1% selected
for conservation.

Reference
BIODIVERSITY & CONSERVATION
(NCERT BIOLOGY: CHAPTER 15)

BIODIVERSITY OF INDIA
(EXHIBITION REPORT BY
DR.K.VENKATRAMANA)

BIODIVERSITY USE &


CONSERVATION
(R.P. SINGH & J.P. SINGH;2011)

ETHNOBOTANY IN INDIA A STATUS


REPORT
(MINISTRY OF ENV. & FOREST, GOVT. OF
INDIA;1994)

BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
(THEELA M. MUTIA; NAIROBI KENIA, UNUGIP;NOV-22,2009)

THE IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY


(DR. NITASHA MALHOTRA, ASSOCIATE PROF.
KAMALA NEHERU COLLEGE, UNIVERSITIY OF
DELHI)

NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN


(GOVT. OF INDIA; AUGUST 2007)