VOL. 44 NO. 9

Go For It!
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D .A. M. 17 Evolutionary Predictions Fail the Reality Test R a n d y J . Johnson. Truett Billups Christy Hardy DESIGNER Dennis Davidson 10 IMPACT 10 Trees: An Engineering Wonder Frank Sherwin. O.S. Morris IV SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 3 .CONTENTS VOLUME 44 NUMBER 9 SEPTEMBER 2015 Published by INSTITUTE FOR CREATION RESEARCH P. Ph. 16 Moonlighting Proteins Befuddle Evolution J e ff r e y P . D . APOLOGETICS 21 The Moon Rules James J. CREATION Q & A 20 How Realistic Was Jurassic World’s Science? Brian Thomas.D. P h . M.8300 www.. P . BACK TO GENESIS No articles may be reprinted in whole or in 13 Two Creation Accounts? part without obtaining permission from ICR.S. D . G u l i u z z a .615. Box 59029 Dallas. T o m k i n s .D.D. E . M . M. M o r r i s III . Institute for Creation Research 16 14 The Mystery of Missing Talus Brian Thomas. TX 75229 5 214. STEWARDSHIP 20 22 Stewardship of ICR Publications Henry M. Copyright © 2015 Jason Lisle.D. Th. M i n FEATURE EXECUTIVE EDITOR 5 Go For It! Jayme Durant H e n r y M . Ph. SENIOR EDITOR Beth Mull RESEARCH 9 Reading African Strata EDITORS Michael Stamp Tim Clarey. S. J. .

The penciled markings on the back of the door. resources. But they are gone. If we could grasp the brevity of our lives. we’ll begin building our long-anticipated museum and planetarium. while we mentally fast-forward to images of frail shaky hands reaching for us from a nursing home bed. many great 4 ACTS & FACTS | SEPTEMBER 2015 leaders have come and gone—some of them are now with our heavenly Father. And the need for truth continues. Ephesians 5:16). planned. we’ve prayed. Henry Morris III the go-ahead to start raising the funds and pulling together the formal plans. God made everything in six days—the Bible says it. and changed lives. But the museum is a significant opportunity for us to stretch beyond our normal ministry operations and to provide believers with another avenue for creation ministry. “God’s plans stretch out way beyond our lifetimes” (page 7). The Bible has been the foundation of our ministry for over 45 years. bringing truth to a world drowning in evolutionary philosophy. how would we live differently? How would we spend our time? Would we be more purposeful about reaching out to others? Would we become more confident about sharing our faith or more giving of our resources to meet others’ needs? Life on Earth is short—how does that fact change the way you live today? We often encounter reminders that life is short. We’re grateful for the impact they’ve had on this ministry and the lives they’ve touched through this ministry. Pray for wisdom. Morris says. And while we’re excited about the possibility of starting the building process. The joy comes with the assurance that you and I will share in the changed lives of those not yet in the Kingdom—even those not yet born!” Jayme Durant Executive Editor . Many people live apart from God without meaning or purpose— oblivious to how we all got here—and we want to reach them. Morris’ article. For years. We are praying the museum will help equip Christians to share the creation message in a compelling way. Dr. staff.FROM THE EDITOR Reaching Others Beyond Our Lifetime ICR has some big hopes for this next year. our wonderful Lord Jesus has already deposited the first big gift in the bank. The thick grass growing over the cemetery plot that was once covered with a mound of loose dirt. ICR attempts to make the most of every opportunity God provides. provided events. The needs of a dying world continue. The message remains the same. and offered a multitude of other tools to share the biblical creation account with others. And as you see in Dr. and science confirms it. Our ICR board has given CEO Dr. In these troubled times. and our message is firmly rooted in His Word. “God’s plans stretch out way beyond our lifetimes. Please partner with us as we boldly build. In his article this month. Beyond our lifetimes. solemnly standing beside their old model cars or even horse-drawn buggies. With God’s help and by His grace. Throughout the years. As Dr. Pictures of great-grandparents when they were young. We’re only on this earth a very short time—God tells us to redeem the time and make the most of every opportunity (Colossians 4:5. we’re aware that this museum and planetarium are only a small part of God’s big plan for all of us. and we will continue to do so. We recognize the strength of ICR doesn’t lie in the personalities or intellect of our teachers. We’ve developed books. or scientists—our strength comes from God alone. and waited for God’s timing. demonstrating how our married children are no longer toddlers. Morris says. Our museum will be another way for us to continue sharing the biblical creation message. produced DVDs.

1844. and the Mormons. During those years. and the world is on a collision course with the Creator. All of these leaders reaffirm each other regarding their sense that the world is nearing a great event of judgment. Things are coming to a head. including the Shakers. taught the evangelical popu- Entry Pavilion (The Beck Group and Southwest Museum Services. I.” During the early 1800s.” If anything.1 Although that movement was ultimately embarrassed. Several of the warnings in the New Testament insist that we are to watch and prepare for God’s judgment “at an hour you do not expect” (Matthew 24:44).” In one sense. Scofield of the Scofield Bible fame. the Perfectionists. Many even sold their homes and properties and waited for the Lord’s return on October 22. M i n . The 20th century had its own spectacular adherents. M O R R I S any Christian leaders have spoken publicly over the past few months about their concerns for the state of our nation—especially since the Supreme Court ruling on homosexual marriage. Hal Lindsey’s The Late Great Planet Earth influenced millions to expect the end of the world as we knew it to take place no later than 1988.) SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 5 . we are always to be prepared for the Lord to wrap things up. who greatly influenced Dr. the beginnings of a dispensational movement were led by John Nelson Darby. History’s perspective is not very encouraging. how one reacts to this news is extremely important. C. D . it spawned a series of “end of the world” movements. Since all appear to agree. William Miller began preaching that the return of Christ would take place “about 1843” and urged tens of thousands to embrace the millennialist movement.2 The New York Times called it the “number one non-fiction bestseller of the decade.Go For It! H E N R Y M M . many of the responses to troubled times have been something on the order of “hang in there” rather than “do something I I I . perhaps the event that will signal the very end of the “last days” themselves. for good or ill. Thus. that book launched a plethora of spin-off prophetic ministries that. Almost every century seems to have a legacy of “perhaps today. great in Christ’s Kingdom before He comes.

do not spare. Remember. Isaiah had But whenever He comes. In the one case. the the future—not to merely hang in there owner evaluated each servant by the perthe world. For you shall expand to the right and to minas—servants who were given various levels of opportunity and the left. Abraham. each having received the same His Kingdom.” We are not to “spare” but to “lengthen” and “strengthen” those vants could expect a reckoning when he returned. Even more so. but for His own merciand ethical focus of Western civilizations the yield of the moment. God’s plans ful reasons He has delayed His rehas stunned many. But know this. horted them to think about expanding not persevering! We are commanded to be on guard and to view the sudden com- B ing judgment like a “thief in the night” (2 Peter 3:10).000 years (check out included by Paul in his warning to Timo2 Peter 3:9).” And in each case.” In the future lives that the Lord will bring into other case. lengthen your cords.having a form into how and why our Lord will evaluegin praying with us now that all of godliness but denying its power. “I am the Lord your God.. No one would be more delighted than this author if the Lord when prophet after prophet forecasted their captivity amid the aposwould suddenly come for His bride while I am writing this article. that had been given to the wicked and lazy servant and turn it over to the servant who made the most money of all of them. the Creator. and make value and commanded to be faithful and to occupy until the Lord the desolate cities inhabited. Interestingly. we need to be thinking long (2 Timothy 3:1-2. It took the miracles of the ten plagues and “a a “wicked and lazy servant” who did nothing with the money—bestrong hand. The servants were merely the stewards who challenged them to trust Him in spite of the circumstances. ficiency of the servant’s use of the money. tasy of Israel and the on-again. we may struggle to lay the groundwork for ing them on their “own ability. Evidently. until the Lord rescues us from some awcentage of return gained in the time he ful fate! we are told not to fear or cower.000 billboards.” the Lord We will boldly build! In each case the reward was given admonished Israel. along with some 20 traveling RVs covered with signs of the imminent judgment day. Surely were given free latitude on what and how they were to use the funds. Luke 19:12-27). We may not live to he judged the servants on how well they used his money. turn for almost 2. there was Joseph” (Exodus 1:8). the money When the budding nation of Israel was still in slavery in Egypt. God belonged to the owner. and strengthen your stakes. our Lord may return in the middle of our The rapid capitulation of the moral a ministry that “lengthens” beyond next breath. that in the last days perand since we are given some insight ilous times will come: For men will be lovers of themselves. you remember the trouble Moses had with Israel’s leaders. most definitely in the “last days”! During the darkest days of the nations of Israel and Judah. and with an outstretched arm” (Psalm 136:12) to concause he was afraid that he might lose it and was afraid that he would vince them to leave Egypt and commit for the future promised to be blamed for his incompetence. we should be reminded that we are py—“do business”—until He comes (Luke 19:13). and let them stretch out the curourselves as the servants in the famous parable of the talents and the tains of your dwellings. 2011. but the charge is to plan for he last days are a troubled time for amount of money in the beginning. (Isaiah 54:2-3) returns (Matthew 25:14-30. is very interested in how well we do with His resources! What’s the point of reminding all of us of these important principles? Since we know that each of us will be evaluated by what we did with the resources placed at our disposal. We are to view Enlarge the place of your tent. the owner whose “money” we are now using. pieces of our “tent” that secure our place of service.lation to anticipate the nearness of the second coming of Christ and the “imminent” Rapture of the church. In both cases. We are to “enlarge” and to “stretch gone for an unpredictable amount of time and that each of the serout..000 years ago. Surely it is apon our responsibilities! We are to watch and pray. Yes. the reaction of the owner was to take the money Again and again we see the vacillation of God’s people as the T 6 ACTS & FACTS | SEPTEMBER 2015 . had been gone. nor should we be hoping to skip town generation since it was written almost 2. off-again revivals of Judah. who were But each was expected to use  what he’d been given and to do someoverwhelmed by the power of a new pharaoh “who did not know thing worthwhile with “his lord’s money. Those teachings inspired Harold Camping of Family Radio to forecast the Rapture on May 21. “Open your mouth in proportion to the effectiveness or efwide. 5) of us will catch the “long sight” of term rather than short term. evaluatsee the result of our labor. ate us. not simply wait. and your descendants will inherit the nations. The atrocious behavior stretch out way beyond our lifetimes. But we are not of the world. the implication was that the owner would be Look at those action verbs. None of us has any idea thy has been used to alert nearly every when He will come back. we are to occuplicable to our day. and I will fill it” (Psalm 81:10). His media empire spent millions of dollars on more than 5. I want Him to find me busily occupied to remind them about God’s future plans for the nations—and exwith my five-year plan! We are instructed to watch.

God’s plans stretch beyond our feeble lives. That comparison was not a mysterious parable. and our future museum to outlive us. and continue to research must come from extra have made the heavens and the earth by Your great power and outgifts.” there(The Beck Group and Southwest Museum Services. out of the resources of the those promises! Yet. Isaiah had to remind his generation: “For the Lord of hosts has purposed.” ICR’s operational needs will only increase as the reality of the when the city was just about to become deserted as the captivity unfuture museum and planetarium comes into existence. but we are investing for a harvest of of the world. rev. “Ah. ments for ICR. Grand Rapids. the people were to “strengthen the As Jeremiah bought property in Jerusalem. but a harvest of souls will come in the ensuing years. We will boldly build! souls and a product life of decades. Many of you who read this article have given faithfully of your Contrast those folks with Jeremiah. Abraham. The joy As I write this. our board has committed to continue producing comes with the assurance that you and I will share in the changed more high-quality DVD series like Unlocking the Mysteries of Genesis.“God of all the earth” reiterated His plans for blessing as His people struggled with the darkness of momentary troubles. we are told not to fear or cower. he said. the return on your ining forward to a third series for 2016. MI: Zondervan Publishing House. Grand Rapids.) fore. and make firm the feeble knees” (Isaiah 35:2-3). books. we are also investweak hands. The Late Great Planet Earth. “talents” and “minas” to share with ICR as we try to “enlarge” the Jeremiah bought a piece of property in Jerusalem a century later “tent. construct the buildings. MI: Zondervan. God Himself through Isaiah told Judah that the land would “see the glory of the Artist’s conception of the proposed museum floor plan Lord. 2. the Lord may snatch us out of the planet in the next few minutes. No longer. I’ve been hesitant to move forward with our cluded a land—a designated place for the people of Israel to thrive. 1967. The funds der Babylon was being executed. We want our DVDs. and who will turn it back?” (Isaiah 14:27). References 1. deed to the recording secretary. They enprovides the “go for it” signal to begin looking for the rest of the mildured troubles aplenty but lost the joy of the expectation of God’s lions needed. we are “buying” property in the eternal Jerusalem. Are we able to see with God’s eyes? God’s plans stretch out way beyond our lifetimes. Begin praying with us now that all of us will catch the “long stretched arm. E. yet He has been pleased to offer the opportunity to participate in the rewards of eternity if we can but grasp the places that our “bit parts” will play in the tapestry of the future. repeated in one form or another for centuries. As God allows. Christianity Through the Centuries. These are long-term investvestment is priceless. sight” of a ministry that “lengthens” beyond the yield of the moment. how much more should area—in spite of the desperate need—because the funding seemed the people of God trust the promises of the Creator and embrace out of reach. That’s why we ask for your investment with us. Lindsey. It is likely that we will never make a profit from the The last days are a troubled time for the world. always inFor several years. We seek to reach many generations in these last days. Cairns. and who will annul it? His hand is stretched out. Lord God! Behold. even the faithful of the population could not see Lord’s people (unknown to us) came a two-million-dollar gift that beyond the bad days and the deterioration of the nation. But we are not business side of the equation. 1970. ing. Yes. If hope to build a museum and planetarium in the Dallas/Fort Worth the dirt could sense the faithfulness of God. The promise to ICR is building for the future. E. 459-460. You stage the exhibits. Many of the Lord’s people could only see the looming judgment that was coming on Judah. Dr. blessing. H. SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 7 . Morris is Chief Executive Officer of the Institute for Creation Research. As Jeremiah delivered his purchase to develop and produce the DVD episodes. lives of those not yet in the Kingdom—even those not yet born! With We are nearing the release of Made in His Image and are already lookearthly treasure exchanged for eternal reward. the excellency of our God. Just this week. There is nothing too hard for You” (Jeremiah 32:17).

and the New World Vol. In his Book of Beginnings trilogy. and iBookstore.8322 SEPTEMBER Newbury Park. To order.icr. Henry Morris III addresses the Genesis record in a straightforward. please contact the ICR Events Department at 800. M O R R I S I I I 99 STBOB (reg. Fall.498.8322 SEPTEMBER Kalamazoo. TX ICR “Back to Genesis” Lecture Series ( Morris III) 214.820.353. 2: Noah. comprehensible manner. TX – Discipleship University at First Baptist Church Dallas (H. visit www.615.1104 Dallas. TX Prestonwood Baptist Church (B. H E N RY M . TX ICR “Back to Genesis” Lecture Series (J. Prices good through September 30. Also available through Kindle. and the Dawning of the Second Age D R .615. Sherwin) 805.0111 SEPTEMBER Dallas. Thomas) 972.7640.969. the Flood. Morris III) 214. visit ICR. Thomas) 619. 1: Creation. 2015.5000 The Book of Beginnings.599. NOOK.0111 Plano. or email us at events@icr.EVENTS SEPTEMBER 10 SEPTEMBER 12–13 SEPTEMBER 13 SEPTEMBER 17 SEPTEMBER 20 S E P T E M B E R Dallas. 1-3 $1999 Vol. MI 12th Street Baptist Church (T. $4497) $19 Many pastors and teachers avoid Genesis for fear of 20 26 27 30 Dallas.2129 For more information on these events or to schedule an event. Johnson) 214. clearly demonstrating that Genesis can only be understood as God’s inerrant record of actual human history. 3: The Patriarchs. TX – Discipleship University at First Baptist Church Dallas (H.0375. CA Newbury Park First Christian Church (F. a Promised Nation. and the First Age Vol. 8 ACTS & FACTS | SEPTEMBER 2015 . Johnson) 214.337. The result is a growing number of Christians who are ignorant of God’s revelation about our beginnings. Vols. while quantities last. Morris III) 214. TX – Discipleship University at First Baptist Church Dallas (H. Dr.969. Please add shipping and handling to all orders. CA – Creation and Earth History Museum Day 2015 (B.628.8133 SEPTEMBER or call 800. Clarey) 269.0111 Santee.969.

extensive deposit at the exact same time on two large continents is exceedingly strong evidence of a global flood! Later megasequences across Africa record the relative height of floodwaters as the rising seas progressively inundated more and more land. brown = shale. the global Flood. Reading African Strata R ecent Acts & Facts articles have discussed how ICR’s scientists are reconstructing the Floodsediment patterns across North America using megasequences within the geologic column. 44 (2): 16. Austin. 2015. and Nigeria) appear in the Zuni Megasequence. Dr. T. 44 (4): 18-19. indicating the initial division between these two continents. A similar lowermost Sauk sandstone layer also extends across most of North Africa (Figure 2). PA: Creation Science Fellowship.2 The megasequences essentially serve as “chapters” whereby we can read the record of the Flood from top to bottom. as recorded in Genesis. Acts & Facts.D. when all the “high hills under the whole heaven were covered. and blue = limestone. Clarey. T. If the Flood were truly global. Map of the basal Sauk sandstone (yellow) across western Africa: yellow = sandstone. Clarey. et al. Cenozoic stratigraphic units).” Finally. So.3 The timing of the subsequent split of South America from Africa is also observed in the sedimentary record. This fifth megasequence may have recorded the activity of Day 150 of the Flood. Pennsylvanian-Lower Jurassic systems). SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 9 . This is when the “whopper sand” formed in the Gulf of Mexico as sheet-like flow poured off the continents. Offshore sediments began to accumulate along the west coast of Africa during the fourth megasequence (Absaroka. brown = shale. The Whopper Sand. E.. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism. R. the continents of Africa and North America were joined together as part of a supercontinent during portions of the Flood year. Tim Clarey is Research Associate at the Institute for Creation Research and received his Ph. we should find its sediments on every continent showing simultaneous Flood levels. Acts & Facts. and in the floodwater levels between the two continents. Ghana. Figure 2. we do see some startling results. Catastrophic Plate Tectonics: A Global Flood Model of Earth History. as described in Genesis 7:19-24. Our compilation of geologic columns and megasequences across North America is coming to a close. 2. Werner. Acts & Facts.RESEARCH T I M C L A R E Y . 3. both Africa and North America simultaneously record what appears to be the receding phase of the Flood event in the sixth and final megasequence (Tejas Megasequence. P h . in geology from Western Michigan University. and we are now gathering similar data across Africa. T.4 Comparison of the stratigraphic columns of Africa and North America show many similarities indicative of a global flood. 44 (3): 14. Finding the same type of broad. the megasequences.. we should observe many similarities in the stratigraphic columns. show less flood- ing extent compared to the later megasequences. Water levels seem to have risen and dropped simultaneously across both conti- Figure 1. 609-621. What do the rocks show? Although we have only completed northern Africa. The two continents’ strata match up. exhibits a basal sandstone unit that spreads across a large portion of North America (Figure 1). and blue = limestone. 4. A. 1994. ed. Contrary to the unfounded claims of uniformitarian scientists. Grappling with Megasequences. Clarey. offers the best scientific explanation for the actual rock data. recording the opening of the northern Atlantic Ocean as catastrophic plate movement began to rapidly create a new seafloor. Walsh. 2015. they independently record the same levels of the Flood at the same time and in many cases contain even the same type of sediments. The sediments of this megasequence show a major shift in depositional pattern. Dinosaur Fossils in Late-Flood Rocks. The Sauk Megasequence. S. nents. Werner. References 1. Pittsburgh. reflecting more extensive offshore sedimentation as the floodwaters drained from the continents into the new ocean basins. The observed patterns reflect an undeniable consistency with a global phenomenon. The first offshore sediments deposited off Africa’s southwest shore (south of Liberia. 2015. Map of the basal Sauk sandstone (yellow) across North America: yellow = sandstone. The Zuni Megasequence (Jurassic and Cretaceous systems) also shows the maximum areal extent of sediments—the most extensive Flood coverage—possibly indicative of the highest water level. According to many creation geologists. matching the results found in North America. Early megasequences. such as the Sauk and Tippecanoe (Cambrian through Silurian systems).1. the first significant deposit of the advancing floodwaters. D . Courtesy of Davis J. Courtesy of Davis J.

”2 Secular scientists believe man’s unknown primal ancestors came down from the trees sometime in the distant past. including cedar.I M PA C T F R A N K S H E R W I N . you would find firs nearly . “We know next to nothing about how they got here. one evolutionary report says: If you were to travel back in time 100 million years to look for your Christmas tree. Creationists maintain that trees have always been trees in all of their majestic beauty and design. evolutionist Elizabeth Stacy of the University of Hawaii Hilo says. including oak. M . olive. Botanists estimate there are at least 60. In fact. 10 ACTS & FACTS | SEPTEMBER 2015 Evolutionists reject the biblical account of origins and must posit a strictly naturalistic origin of everything. oak. from people to plants. and magnolia.000 identified tree species in the world. we have clear fossil evidence that dinosaurs wandered among some very familiar trees.”3 Concerning the pre-Flood world of about 4. A number of tree varieties are cited in the Bible. if for no better reason than there are no fossils that document humankind’s initial and presumably painful descent from the trees.1 Scripture has much to say about these majestic woody perennials.000 years ago. TREES: An Engineering Wonder here are few things more beautiful and soothing than walking through a forest or grove of trees. A . “this story starts with a bang. How- ever. from the “fruit tree that yields fruit according to its kind” (Genesis 1:11) to “the tree of life” that will be freely accessible to all believers (Revelation 22:2).500–6. but what was their origin? In tracing the evolution of forest trees. and fig. willow.

Adapted for use in accordance with federal copyright (fair use doctrine) law.Figure 1. Lentink. each plant cell has a robust cell wall composed of cellulose (the most abundant biomolecule on Earth) that we appreciate every time we bite into a celery stalk. This is also true for a “dinosaur age” tree called the Wollemi pine (Figure 1) discovered alive and well in Australia in 1994. as UC Berkeley. Researchers discovered an amazing molecule called cellulose synthase (CESA) bound to the plant cell plasma membrane. The design of trees is a clear indication Figure 2. according to evolutionists. a identical to the ones sold today. Who hasn’t enjoyed throwing winged seeds (samaras) into the air and watching them twirl in their one-winged flight (Figure 2)? Sadly. but the construction of basic tree structure that enables them to reach hundreds of feet into the air reflects God’s creative hand. conifers have always been conifers. winged seeds of today’s conifers are an engineering wonder and. Where did wood come from? Evidently evolutionists don’t know. of their having been created (Romans 1:20). It’s a complex enzyme—or more properly. Usage by ICR does not imply endorsement of copyright holder. result of about 270 million years of evolution by trees experimenting with the best way to disperse their seeds. scientists show. Image Credit: Copyright © 2009 J. the Wollemi pine was discovered in a remote canyon of the Blue Mountains of Australia. pines and firs—has hardly changed since the days of the dinosaurs. Usage by ICR does not imply endorsement of copyright holder. Revolutions of a twirling maple samara Image Credit: Copyright © 2009 D. “The first steps of wood evolution are unknown. The whirling. Adapted for use in accor­ dance with federal copyright (fair use doctrine) law. In 1994.4 Non-evolutionists agree. Together.6 Trees experimenting—do trees possess intelligence and volition? That is not a logical or a scientific explanation. Before this discovery. evolutionists say any apparent design originated not from the Creator but in this case somehow from the tree itself. However. these trillions of cell walls make up the wood (secondary xylem) of the tree. as one study stated.5 This tree displayed no evolution for 200 million years. Trees are without an internal or external skeleton to provide their rigidity and support. Plaza RGB Sydney. New research shows that the genome of conifers—a division that includes spruces.”7 Enzymes are proteins that are intimately involved in virtually all biochemical reactions. a ring-shaped molecular SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 11 . Doesn’t an “engineering wonder” require a brilliant engineer? Not only are the varieties of seed dispersal evidence of design. the Wollemi pine was only known from fossils that supposedly date back over 150 million years.

Woodmorappe. “The wood yields genuine cellulose” and “wood from the Panda kimberlite has pristine preservation. how can evolutionists be so sure it arose spontaneously many millions of years ago? In recent January 28. Do People Live Longer among Trees? Creation Science on November 7. To say this enzyme is intricate is an understatement. The same fibers at higher magnification showing surface texture. 2014. Four decades of experimental effort have gone into trying to put together the 3-dimensional atomistic model of this enzyme’s 506 amino acids without success. Scientists expand this tree-ring chronology further back by cross-dating core samples. A Simple Type of Wood in Two Early Devonian Plants. Cimons. Inc. Scientists’ new analysis of plant proteins advances our understanding of photosynthesis. University of Kentucky. scientists have found Figure 3. Science. what do we know about this amazing biochemical process of oxygen production by trees and other plants? As one recent report admitted. and the wood of which they are composed.9 Most of us remember being taught the amazing process of photosynthesis that takes light energy and makes life energy for people and animals. 110 (18): 7512-7517. PLoS ONE. Image Credit: Copyright © 2012 Wolfe et al. Sanders. 3. I. Posted on nsf. Cellulose extracted from Panda Metasequoia. et al. A. are a testament to God’s creation: “Out of the ground the Lord God made every tree grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food” (Genesis 2:9). BCH/PPA/PLS 609. Best Creation News of 2013: Tissue Fossils. 2009. Fiber. 13. Thomas. 2015. B. accessed July 10. P.” it yielded exquisitely preserved unfossilized wood. Posted on uky. 2015. Some evolutionists will look to the science of dendrochronology—dating by tree rings—to cast doubt on traditional biblical ages. 35 (4). 2014. National Science Foundation. CESA contributes at the molecular level to the sturdy structure of wood. Said to be the oldest living thing on Earth. Sherwin is Research Associate. PLoS ONE. et al. D. Wollemia nobilis: A Living Fossil and Evolutionary Enigma. Gerrienne. “Much more must be learned about this phenomenon before this hypothesis can be developed further. 12 ACTS & FACTS | SEPTEMBER 2015 unfossilized wood deep in sedimentary layers that defy evolution’s long ages (Figure 3). Plant Biochemistry (Lecture Eighteen Carbohydrate Metabolism . creation scientist John Woodmorappe wrote an article addressing this issue and stated.I M PA C T machine that aids in putting together stacks of tiny units called microfibrils (sheaths of glycoprotein complexes) by literally braiding them!8 By removing sugar molecules as it climbs microtubules (tiny hollow protein tubes). Answers in Depth. B. et al. 9. Creation Science Update. Posted on icr.000 years long.”11 Like soft dinosaur tissue. Usage by ICR does not imply endorsement of copyright holder. 7. January 28. 8. accessed July 2. How reliable is this tree-ring dating? In 2009. some specimens in the White Mountains in California are estimated to be about 5. comprised of hundreds of live and dead trees. 2013. L. Posted on berkeley. Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada. The study reporting it stated. to give a supposed “master chronology” of over 8. M. 2. 12. accessed July December 13.”10 If the brightest scientific minds today know so little regarding this critical segment of photosynthesis. Posted on icr. 2013. Posted on livescience.12 this discovery is hardly surprising considering their common catastrophic burial just thousands of years ago. But is there more to the story?”He goes on to say. 333 (6044): 837. 2006. Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase. accessed July 2. accessed July 2. R. one to another. Thomas. Gums). 10. 2013. Posted on phys. 11. Sethaphong. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. References 1. Wolfe. PhysOrg. Cellulose fibers at low magnification. P. 2015. 2015. 2012. March 17. Tattersall. Up in the mountains of Nevada and California grows the hearty and strange bristlecone pine tree (Pinus longaeva). The Fossil Trail: How we know what we think we know about human evolution. is claimed to be over 8. 2015. 1995. accessed July 2. 4. 2015. Mr. 2012. 6. Conifers’ helicoptering seeds are result of long evolutionary experiment. Senior Lecturer. LiveScience. Snelling. . 5. and Science Writer at the Institute for Creation Research. A. 7 (9): e45537.Cell Wall Polysaccharides. B.000 years old. Tracing the evolution of forest trees. Posted on answersingenesis. Although a kimberlite crater in Canada is said to be “53 million years on January 23.000 years. New York: Oxford University Press. 2011. A. accessed July 12. accessed July 2. “The Bristlecone Pine long chronology. 2015. 2015. Biblical Chronology and the 8. Acts & December 27. In the 21st on October 27. 233. “We know little about the mechanics of how plants create oxygen during photosynthesis. Hildebrand.000-Year-Long Bristlecone Pine Tree-Ring Chronology. Christmas Tree’s Genes Date to Dinosaur Age. UC Berkley News. Adapted for use in accordance with federal copyright (fair use doctrine) law.”13 Trees producing fruit. 2015.

land animals were made on Day Six—the same day as man and apparently just before the creation of man. But some critics claim Genesis 2 teaches the opposite.BACK TO GENESIS C ritics of the Bible sometimes claim the first and second chapters of Genesis represent two different creation accounts and that these two accounts are clearly contradictory. 2. P h . not past/present/future temporality. Hebrew verbs focus on completeness of action. This detailed report of Adam and Eve continues into Genesis 5:1. just no cultivated plants. But what about the alleged differences? Genesis 1 indicates plants were created on Day Three and people were created on Day Six. So. “This is the book of the genealogy of Adam. Moreover. it’s a more detailed report of the Adam-and-Evefocused events of Day Six.1 It gives the order of events and a broad summary of what happened on each day. can be translated as “Now the Lord God had formed out of the ground all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air. plants already existed when man was created.D. They allege the order of events is different. in astrophysics from the University of Colorado. 1:23-30. which uses a verb that denotes completion of actions. of man. which states. Instead. But regarding the early events of Day Six. For the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth. Dr. it states there was no plant of the field and that no herb of the field had grown. So there were plants on Day Six. Genesis 2:5-25 is not a second or different J A S O N L I S L E .” And what of the creation of animals? According to Genesis with Genesis 1. As with most alleged Bible errors. Genesis 1 teaches that plants and birds were created before people. Genesis 2 teaches that Adam was created before Eve. D .2 This should be clear.” confirming that Genesis 1:1–2:4 is about the creation of the entire universe. they do not have “tense” like English verbs. 3. which in this context refers to cultivated plants—those that were planted by man in ground tilled by man.” Is this contradictory? Not at all. the resolution is found by simply reading the text carefully and thinking logically. The 1984 New International Version translates Genesis 2:19 in just this way. But doesn’t Genesis 1 indicate they were created at the same time? As is often the case. in context Two Creation Accounts? account of creation. rather. the critics just haven’t read the text carefully. Genesis 2:4-5 discusses a time “before any plant of the field was in the earth and before any herb of the field had grown.” confirming that the focus of this section is on the creation. Birds were made on the fifth day and therefore before man. But notice that Genesis 2 doesn’t actually state the animals were made after man—it only mentions their creation after it mentions the creation of man. So. Rather. The phrase “of the field” is translated from the Hebrew word s¯odeh. perhaps several hours. and there was no man to till the ground. The order in which events are mentioned here does not claim to be (and so it need not reflect) the order in which they happened. SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 13 . But Genesis 2:18-20 mentions the creation of birds and land animals after describing the creation of Adam. It says nothing at all about the precise timing.”3 And what about the claim that Genesis 1:27 teaches that Adam and Eve were made at the same time? The text only states that God created both the man and the woman on Day Six. and subsequent fall. Genesis 2:19. because this chapter describes in greater detail the creation of Adam and Eve—events that Genesis 1:2630 indicate happened on the sixth day. between the creation of Adam and the creation of Eve on the sixth day. the past/present/future temporality of an action verb is determined by context. “This is the history of the heavens and the earth when they were created. Note that Genesis 2:4 states. Genesis 1:1–2:4 records an overview of the cosmic events of the creation week. It is only by reading the details in Genesis 2 that we learn that some time elapsed. Thus. References 1. Lisle is Director of Research at the Institute for Creation Research and received his Ph. And the rest of the verse gives the reason—because “there was no man to till the ground. Notice that Genesis 2:5 does not teach that there were no plants on Day Six.

. S . Park signs explained that every year workers rappel down the cliff face to inject glue into newly formed cracks. I got a close-up view of secular geology’s missing-talus problem. it would eventually reach the very top of the cliff face. shouldn’t talus slopes completely cover cliff faces all over the world? At the very least. ^= Mystery 5 Missing Talus g I n August 2013 while on a week-long boat tour of Grand Canyon’s Colorado River. a much more significant quantity of boulders would be Image: Kyle Justice. Water reaches tiny crevices and separates blocks of rock when it freezes. But only a handful of boulders lie on the canyon floor—not enough if millions of years of erosion have taken place. Everyday weathering processes weaken the cliff face within view of Lee’s Ferry until the cliffs’ rocks tumble down. Tree roots can forge gaps. A few years earlier I visited Mount Rushmore. we saw recent rock falls. Signs on hiking trails and mountain roads warn of the dangers of ongoing rock falls. White-colored limestone indicates recently exposed cliff face. accelerating their erosion. As we rafted down Grand Canyon. As our crew boarded the boats at Lee’s Ferry. One earthquake can destroy in a few moments what normal processes erode over many years. But against this backdrop of steady cliff decline. and freshly fallen boulders form a talus slope in Grand Canyon. A caption beneath the picture says. erosion would soon wreak havoc on the presidential faces. rocks one foot in diameter form a 35-degree slope. wind and water erosion of weaker rocks like shale will undercut more resistant rocks layered above them. and percolating groundwater facilitates chemical reactions that can weaken native rocks. Geologists recently discovered that billion-volt 14 ACTS & FACTS | SEPTEMBER 2015 lightning strikes blast new crevices into solid rock. M . and earthquakes. earthquakes do the most damage. our geologist guide Dr. Since my visit there. Awesome Science Media. we should see enormous talus slopes where in most places we see only tiny ones. where I learned just how rapidly normal cliff-face erosion occurs.BACK TO GENESIS B R I A N T H O M A S . “If the sandstone cliff had a history of slow and continuous erosion. In some places. Dr.1 Unless a historic flood carries away a talus slope. For example. I have seen more examples of the missing-talus mystery. Several processes incessantly erode cliffs. lightning. Austin’s Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe describes an image of the cliff near Lee’s Ferry that doesn’t show enough talus to match the cliff’s assigned evolutionary age. The angle of these slopes—called the angle of repose—depends on the size of the talus material. Steve Austin explained how missing talus challenges the millions-of-years version of Earth history. where newly exposed cliff faces gleamed brightly in the scorching sunlight against the darker patina of the older rock. After a million years of wind. The rocks that a given cliff face sheds form an angled rock pile called a talus slope. water. erosion. Otherwise.

should cover all cliff faces if millions of years actually elapsed. Anderson. At least this scenario does not involve violating the basic physics of falling rocks. 244. Jesus said. Austin’s talus lesson in Grand Canyon helped me make sense of cliff faces and their talus slopes wherever I see them. Tectonic Geomorphology. A lone climber provides scale.5 References 1. S.Talus slopes like this one near Red River. Ibid. how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things?” (John 3:12). ancient talus debris must have fallen into shallower angles than they do today. A. 1994. Santee. 2. 2001. It also supplied a new question I can ask that may lead to a conversation about how observations in the real world confirm the Bible. MA: Blackwell Science. 101. expected at the foot of the slope. CA: Institute for Creation Research. a secular geologist might reply—like the authors above—that talus slope angles in the past somehow formed differently than they do today.”4 Did rocks long ago really pile up according to a different “diffusion process” than that observed today? There’s a simpler solution. But what experimental measurements support this odd explanation? It’s just reasoning in a circle: Because talus debris at today’s angles of repose do not cover cliff faces that have supposedly been exposed for eons. then we have yet another reason to trust whatever else the Bible says. 5. If asked why cliff faces around the world look freshly exposed.”2 Scoffers who pay no serious attention to arguments from creation resources—no matter the quality of evidence—can instead review how secular geologists try to explain the mystery of missing talus. Well. the authors write. but what about a reasonable explanation for the missing talus? Dr. 3. “Rapid failure of the scarp [cliff face] by slumping and talus formation leads to angle of repose slopes within a matter of decades to centuries—times much shorter than the presumed ages of the scarps. Burbank. Thomas is Science Writer at the Institute for Creation Research. W. of years’ worth of erosion and talus formation. Maybe the world’s talus slopes are so skimpy because they reflect only thousands. SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 15 . Mr. 239. And if the Bible got its history right concerning how Noah’s Flood left layers and gorges around the globe just thousands of years ago. New Mexico. D. Regarding talus slopes. not millions. and R. Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe. How did these authors try to solve their timing discrepancy? They asserted that talus angles of repose “violate the linear diffusion process rule in the early stages of topographic evolution.”3 Slumping refers to a land mass that follows a bowl-like curve as it slides down and away from its former high spot. S. “If I have told you earthly things [like Noah’s Flood that covered the earth] and you do not believe. Ibid. 242. Stanage Edge in England’s Peak District does not show millions of years’ worth of talus below the cliff. 4. of course cliffs would be eons old if we assume their faces have been exposed for eons. Malden. A textbook titled Tectonic Geomorphology describes the alleged evolutionary origins of Earth’s landforms. Austin.

not purposeless evolution based on chance.4 Ultimately. 6: 227. 3. Dr. Genome Biology and Evolution. However. their dysfunction is associated with disease. there is no wiggle room for any random “evolutionary tinkering. These amazing bioengineering marvels have been called moonlighting proteins.5. Espinosa-Cantú. the authors concluded their paper by stating. J. 2: 980. Nuclear localization of folate receptor alpha: a new role as a transcription factor. D . Moonlighting Proteins Befuddle Evolution n contrast to human-made systems such as dedicated pieces of electronic hardware that have a single function in a single location (e. However. Boshnjaku. 2015. . 4. P h . often in completely separate locations. retention. as noted in a recent secular journal paper that attempted to explain the evolutionary origin of moonlighting proteins. and they are utterly befuddling the evolutionary paradigm and its proponents. Scientific Reports. 2014. in genetics from Clemson University. and loss of moonlighting proteins remain largely unknown. much less those that produce moonlighting proteins. D. Restriction and recruitment – gene duplication and the origin and evolution of snake venom toxins. However.5 In other words.BACK TO GENESIS J E F F R E Y I ACTS T O M K I N S . these proteins often perform different roles in completely different cellular compartments. Moonlighting proteins reside across the spectrum of life from single-cell bacteria to plants and animals. 2012.1 Whether the same moonlighting protein is functioning in the nucleus to regulate gene expression or embedded in the cell membrane functioning as an elaborate sensor-receptor.D. In the standard evolutionary paradigm.. some can even be found on the surface of the cell embedded 16 P . Tomkins. et al. Hargreaves. A.”2 While many genes in plant and animal genomes can produce a wide variety of protein variants due to their incredible functionality and density of encoded information. et al. it is believed that so-called neutral mutations in pre-existing genes may be co-opted at some point to produce new functions. Extreme Information: Biocomplexity of Interlocking Genome Languages.” The precise multifunctional biocomplexity of these proteins—all encoded in the same sequence—is direct and powerful evidence of an omnipotent Creator’s handiwork.g. Many moonlighting proteins are known to achieve this multifunctionality by being folded into different configurations that change their 3-D shape and thus their functional specificity. V. 51 (3): 187-201.1. its mission-critical activities are precisely regulated. 6: 211. Tomkins is Research Associate at the Institute for Creation Research and received his Ph. a temperature sensor). A.2 They are defined as “polypeptides [polymers of amino acids] that can perform two or more molecular functions within a single primary sequence. C. References 1.3 moonlighting proteins do not fit in this category but are actually the same protein sequence doing different tasks. & FACTS | SEPTEMBER 2015 in the membrane or even outside the cell in the extracellular matrix. Evolutionists have great difficulty explaining the origin of any gene. Jeffery. et al. In fact. the whole idea of gene duplication being able to explain gene origins and function is now being actively refuted by empirical data produced by evolutionists themselves. “this scenario is seemingly in conflict with the fact that mutations in the coding sequences of genes tend to be deleterious.1 In addition to different functions. 2. Frontiers in Genetics.”2 Perhaps the most damaging evidence for the whole evolutionary paradigm regarding moonlighting proteins is the fact that in humans. the divinely made proteins in cells are able to perform completely separate functions in different places. 2015. 2015. J. Creation Research Society Quarterly. as well as humans. even this simple comparison isn’t really fair because individual human-made devices like sensor units still consist of multiple electronic components while a single cellular protein (that can also act like a sensor) is primarily a single defined and folded chain of amino acids.”2 The study’s authors go on to fancifully claim these genes arose by being duplicated from other genes and then going through some magical pro- cess of rapid alteration. 6 (8): 20882095. “The evolutionary pathways leading to the generation. Gene duplication and the evolution of moonlighting proteins. Why study moonlighting proteins? Frontiers in Genetics. 5.

pumps. After all. humans. and other organisms share some very similar features. acknowledged the plausibility of the common-design explanation. D . chimpanzees. People willing to hypothesize that God’s supernatural design and creativity caused the great diversity of life on Earth have. M . Another approach some people use to explain all phenomena is naturalism. E . P. and data processors.MAJOR EVOLUTIONARY BLuNDERS Evolutionary Predictions Fail the Reality Test R A N D Y J . But naturalism has to appeal to mystical mechanisms since people have never observed anything design and create itself by mechanisms known to have originated purely by nature’s matter and forces. The common design inference is quite intuitive since components of complicated human-designed systems are all directly analogous to other creature’s features for similar purposes. G U L I U Z Z A . such as their structural frameworks. sensors. a heart pumping blood through vessels seems to correspond very well in purpose and design to human-made fluid-pumping systems. which closes off any appeal to supernatural intelligence or power and rather presupposes that nature’s matter and forces alone are sufficient causes of the origin of the universe and life itself. undetectable mystical intelligence of nature shaped the exquisite details of cardiovascular systems over eons? But a dogmatic commitment SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 17 . . One explanation for the origin of these features is that they reflect similar designs that serve similar purposes. for millennia. W ithout a doubt. Should anyone believe that some purposeless.

Henry Morris asserted there would be common underlying design patterns to explain similar structure. creationists and evolutionists alike published expectations based on either intelligent design or evolution.4 New evolutionary explanations do not explain similarities in organisms whose ancestors supposedly “diverged” eons ago. For example. homeotic and homeobox). doubted “that it has pleased the Creator to construct all the animals and plants in each great class on a uniform plan” and derided the concept of underlying common information as “not a scientific explanation. ICR founder Dr. how did naturalists explain diverse creatures possessing eyes made up of similar parts? They claimed that similar environments constrained them to “converge” on comparable complex features—independently at least 40 times—and probably as many as 65 times. as denoted in Mayr’s “Many roads lead to Rome” affirmation.1 Upcoming issues of Acts & Facts will feature several articles that compare some of those counterintuitive naturalistic explanations to actual discoveries. but maintained their expectation of finding a similar feature-to-genetic information link. For instance. for theological reasons.2 naturalism forces naturalists to construct explanations that are “counterintuitive” and “mystifying to the uninitiated. He said: The creative process would have designed similar structures for similar functions and different structures for different functions. Design-Based Predictions In 1975. These published expectations can now be examined in light of new genetic information. respectively. and 2) extreme multistep specified regulation over thousands of details produces unique organisms that may yet have similar overall plans.5 This explanation. He claimed that random genetic changes over millions of years explained the differences in creature’s traits and that those many changes would have obliterated genetic similarities. very different gene complexes will come up with the same solution. The saying “Many roads lead to Rome” is as true in evolution as in daily affairs. Darwin. This astounding finding was so opposite to the evolutionists’ notions that it clearly constitutes a spectacular blunder on their part.…In the creation model. Convergent evolution is a frequently invoked ancillary explanation. the similarities among species were astounding.”3 In 1963. the same similarities are predicted on the basis of a common purposive designer. This comparison will focus attention on the largely suppressed but disappointing track record of naturalism’s dubious notions that have been taught as factual evidence only to later be revealed as total blunders. we know that similarity among creatures extends past body parts to their underlying genetics. Evolutionary Predictions Spectacularly Wrong Landmark discoveries between 1978 and 1984 showed the reality of a common genetic basis prescribing how similar structures could be built across diverse groups of organisms. Evolutionary developmental biologist Sean Carroll describes the implications of the stunning details: When the sequence of these homeoboxes were examined in detail. . counterintuitively claims that millions of years of genetic tinkering somehow propelled organisms to diverge into increasingly different classes while simultaneously cobbling their traits to converge upon “the same solution” to problems. knowing that organisms. a vocal subgroup of Lewontin’s “uninitiated. prior to any detailed genetic analysis. advocates for design-based explanations expected that 1) similar features needed to fulfill similar purposes would be based on similar information. Harvard’s leading evolutionary theorist Ernst Mayr predicted that looking for similar DNA between very diverse organisms would be pointless. If there is only one efficient solution for a certain functional demand. Much that has been learned about gene physiology makes it evident that the search for homologous genes [similar codes due to common ancestry] is quite futile except in very close relatives. no matter how different the pathway by which it is 18 ACTS & FACTS | SEPTEMBER 2015 achieved. Creationists. steeped in evolutionary naturalism. but their rationale differed. must have traits to thrive on the same planet but occupy diverse niches. Evolution-Based Predictions Virtually all prominent evolutionists rejected basic common designs. One test of the accuracy of a scientific model is its ability to make accurate predictions of future research results. per their kind.” according to renowned Harvard geneticist Richard Lewontin.” remained skeptical that similar highly complex structures evolved independently over and over again. Decades in advance of current detailed genetic analysis techniques.6 Genes with regulatory and developmental functions responsible for core basic-design patterns in developing embryos are called Hox genes (a contraction of longer descriptive words.

and humans the same genetic information controls the formation and utilization of many key anatomical or molecular structures observed to be performing broadly similar functions. some mice and frog proteins were identical to the fly sequences at up to 59 out of 60 positions. Darwin. E. 64. 1984. As Carroll candidly continues. and. but indeed. vertebrates. von and E. Evolutionary Biology. Such sequence similarity was just stunning. 3. No biologist had even the foggiest notion that such similarities could exist between genes of such different animals. R. 609. Nature. etc. 1963. Evolutionary theory predicted the complete opposite of common underlying information for similar traits. On the evolution of photoreceptors and eyes. Slack. Mayr. Sean Carroll again relates the confounding weight of this finding. conveniently fluid evolutionary story. Ultrabithorax. H. Guliuzza is ICR’s National Representative. voila. and A. J. 2005. 81 (13): 4115-4119. MA: Harvard University Press. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. and fushi tarazu loci of Drosophila. Clusters of Hox genes shaped the development of animals as different as flies and mice. Mayr. Norton & Company. that is). and T. the only “evidence” that Hox genes can be “preserved throughout this enormous span of animal evolution” is the belief that life evolved from a common ancestor. Applying organism-focused. W. C. in fact. B. unexpected evidence for evolution (in their reworked. Yet. Weiner. The Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection. 1992. F. This repressed prediction-evidence mismatch is connected to ever-changing evolutionary explanations like “convergence” or “conservation/common ancestry. Genetic research has identified this common information across diverse groups of organisms prescribing traits with the same general function. The New York Review of Books. and the nature of diversity. B. Developmental biology: A Rosetta stone for pattern formation in animals? Nature.” These come across scientifically as a mishmash of improvised. Developmental Biology. The implications were stunning. including humans and elephants. 65. They need not concede they were greatly mistaken in their predictions. Billions and Billions of Demons. and other animals has forced a complete rethinking of animal history. they were merely “stunned” at the appearance of new. The evolutionary lines that led to flies and mice diverged more than 500 million years ago. New York: W. London: John Murray. Firmly held prior accounts like convergent evolution are run through the magic tunnel of evolutionary belief. It was inescapable. 1977. Endless Forms Most Beautiful. 10. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 310 (5976): 364-365. 9. All of the stories about convergence get promptly scrapped. referencing SalviniPlawen. were constructed and had evolved by entirely different means. Structural relationships among genes that control development: sequence homology between the Antennapedia. Carroll. 276 (5688): 565–570. Fernald. Animal Species and Evolution. 383.8 Yet evolutionists remain closedminded to an explanation of the Hox genes’ origination by a common designer. Analysis of larval segmentation in lethal genotypes associated with the Antennapedia gene complex in Drosophila melanogaster. which is now used—with equivalent certainty—as evidence of common ancestry. D. but indeed. CA: Creation-Life Publishers. In other areas of research. J. 6th ed. M. Ibid. B. 71. before the famous Cambrian Explosion that gave rise to most animal types. E.”10 Is Common Design More Plausible than Common Ancestry? Could it be that Hox genes are the “smoking gun” of common design expected by supporters of intelligent design for decades? Consider this—if engineers were tasked to investigate for common design in any other area. Morris. how would they proceed? They would study various sets of plans and specifications. there is a common genetic ingredient to making each eye type. and verify if there was. the very same genes!” ilar genetic regulatory information is common to many classes of organisms and aids in helping achieve similar function—many with remarkably similar designs. designbased analysis to biological phenomena brings great clarity to our understanding of life. common underlying information. The Evolution of Eyes. Creationists can say with credibility that in creatures as diverse as bacteria.Over the 60 amino acids of the homeodomain. Scott. SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 19 . “Natural selection has not forged many eyes completely from scratch. 1997. as well as to the many types of appendages. Design-Based Expectations Confirmed Now it is factually confirmed that sim- “The implications were stunning. 15:1-2. 1984. and now we know that includes just about every animal in the kingdom. 10: 207-263. the origins of structures. Kaufman. this fact would be ascribed to common engineering instructions. Land. Not even the most ardent advocate of fruit fly research predicted the universal distribution and importance of Hox genes. 7. The fact that it was dogmatically taught as evidence for evolution and later found to be profoundly wrong catalogs it as a spectacular blunder and makes its teaching misguided at best. Ibid. C. Cambridge. Disparate animals were built using not just the same kinds of tools. The Troubled Waters of Evolution.7 The discovery that the same sets of genes control the formation and pattern of body regions and body parts with similar functions (but very different designs) in insects. Disparate animals were built using not just the same kinds of tools. 84-85. identify any common features. after-the-fact stories aimed at forcing observations into an evolutionary paradigm. 81 (1): 51-64. M. Lewis. 72. Ibid. 1975. The Hox genes were so important that their sequences had been preserved throughout this enormous span of animal evolution. insects. Comparative and evolutionary biologists had long assumed that different groups of animals. L. Dr. San Diego. P. A compelling case is made that these are clearly the common designs creationists have been looking for the last 200 years. separated by vast amounts of evolutionary time. 4. Hox genes somehow instantly turn into “preserved” ancient DNA. and R. the very same genes!9 What about the teaching of 40 independent occurrences of eye evolution? That manifested as another incredible evolutionary blunder and validation of creationists’ design-based expectations. 44 (1): 31. 6. 1872. A gene complex controlling segmentation in Drosophila. 5. 8. 1981. Lewontin. S. References 1. Wakimoto. 2. T. hearts. 1978.

Fenton chemistry in biology and in medicine. But this iron rescuing device fails for two reasons. Geneticists have made incredible discoveries in the last few decades. not fiction. and there wasn’t enough time for them to achieve that size. Pure & Applied Chemistry. What parts can we trust.1 Second. It would be amazing indeed to make a machine that mimics all the complicated and wonderful features of a mother’s egg and a mother’s body. real science supports Scripture. but real dinosaurs hatched from small eggs and took several dozen years to get that big. hydroxyl radical is capable of doing more damage to biological systems than any other ROS [reactive oxygen species]. Mr. This fits with Genesis creation. but it cannot work miracles or magic.. no scientist has yet brought an extinct creature back to life from just its DNA. In contrast to the assertions about iron’s preserving power. The mere shell of a dinosaur egg consisted of precisely interwoven protein fibers and minerals thin enough to permit gas exchange but thick enough to protect the baby dinosaur. but it cannot halt or reverse the inevitable chemistry involved in the decay of proteins over time. showcasing the awesome ingenuity of our great Creator. Iron can do amazing things like help transport oxygen and conduct electricity. How Realistic Was Jurassic World ’s Science? 20 ACTS & FACTS | SEPTEMBER 2015 ing from an already mature egg. but with each new detail they uncover. This fits the Bible’s timeline. genetics. much less from isolated and degraded fragments of ancient DNA. Plus. a friend asked me about the movie Jurassic World. It cannot make a baby out of just DNA.C R E AT I O N Q & A B R I A N T H O M A S . In church. Speaking of which. but as usual. Here in the real world. First. the movie’s creators seem to have matched giant sauropods to their sizes known from fossils.e. Thomas is Science Writer at the Institute for Creation Research. Usage by ICR does not imply endorsement of copyright holders. Good science can achieve wonderful feats. Also. Image credit: Copyright © 2015 Jurassic World Universe. Much of the movie shows unrealistic technology. S . and what parts can we toss? Good science supports about as many of this movie’s major science-sounding concepts as it does those of recent superhero movies—i. It takes a mother to make a baby. “Due to its strong reactivity with biomolecules. They don’t show how that egg got there—where’s the required mother? Scientists cannot craft eggs. First. very few. 79 (12): 2325–2338. researchers find few signs of iron or hydroxyls when they uncover bone proteins in fossils. 2007. Its high-tech presentation makes the idea of scientists resurrecting dinosaurs from DNA “mined” from fossils almost seem believable. . And many of the genes used during embryonic development perform important separate functions later in life. they find another mindboggling feature of living creatures. The human body accesses over 200 interactive genes involved in height alone. proteins and DNA found in fossils show that Earth’s sedimentary layers are quite young. The Jurassic World filmmakers did a nice job making sciencesounding concepts appear reasonable. and developmental regimes are so complicated we may never understand them well enough to manipulate them like the fictional geneticists in Jurassic World did. Jurassic World packs plenty of pure fiction into a literally unbelievable thriller. Adapted for use in accordance with federal copyright (fair use doctrine) law. many other dinosaurs appear much larger in the movie than they ever were when alive. although iron discourages bacterial growth. Geneticists would not know where to begin manipulating such a vast network of incredible complexity to produce a new type of creature from living animal genes—let alone an extinct animal like a dinosaur. M .” Prousek. iron plus hydroxyl shreds proteins and DNA. incredibly complicated gene networks reveal the Creator’s masterful mind. Nobody can accelerate a creature’s growth. experiments show it destroys tissues. The opening scene of Jurassic World shows a dinosaur hatch- Reference 1. And what about the idea in Jurassic World that iron plus “hydroxyl” can cause special chemical reactions that somehow preserve animal tissues—and maybe even DNA—for millions of years? The scriptwriters needed a scientificsounding basis for asserting that DNA buried in the earth stayed in good enough shape for geneticists to read its stored information even after that length of time. J. Animal anatomies.

seed bursting.3 Lunar light regulates Pacific salmon smolt migratory movements. but what does Genesis teach about its effects on the earth and creatures living here? In other words. 3.” Smith. which is inanimate. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. 113-114. yet it implements the purposeful intention of the intelligent engineer who devised it to limit how fast a truck can go on the highways. 38-39.. rule anything? God programmed the moon to rule in at least two ways: 1) by gravitational attraction—which is physically quite forceful. J. how can the moon. 67 pages. and an increase in size of reproductive organs in midwinter in the laboratory by an artificial increase in the light period. and development. Nashville. migration. by each lunar-month cycle (i. A Christmas Carol in Four-Part Harmony. Amos. when he was a Class B truck-driver. 9.2 Moonlight affects Earth by each diurnal (day/night) cycle. full moon. a limiting factor (since too little or too much kills). years ago. for Researching and Analyzing Oceanic and Littoral Ecosystem Dynamics. 40 (12): 8-10 describing tide-governed phenology of red crabs. This illustrates Genesis 1:16. 2nd ed. 8. or photoperiod. so days get “shorter” and “longer” depending on the time of year. which rotates so one side is always facing the moon. W. Stultz and C. 5. an extremely important regulator of daily and seasonal activities for a great many organisms. 1985. and third. E. R. The moon’s physical regulation. The usage of speed-limiting “governors” was tested by this author. and breeding in temperate-zone birds. TN: Thomas Nelson. The truck’s governor is inanimate. salmon. 1975. 2015.APOLOGETICS E J A M E S J . the moon mechanically implements the intelligent design that God selected for its fine-tuned movements and regulatory functions. New York: Springer-Verlag. . Guided by ‘High-Definition’ Biblical Philology. References 1. growth. triggering seed swelling. and more—that corroborate that truth. a source of energy.4 Moonlight intensity and daylight/moonlight ratios. Animistic and polytheistic religions personify the moon. Creation Research Society Conference. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. Regarding filter-feeding barnacles. It is “tuned” to the moon’s periodic rhythms in its daily and monthly cycles as well as annual seasons.1 Likewise. “The 29. fourth quarter phases). translation by C. barnacles. see James J. 2.5 Even some plant chlorophyll activity depends in part on moonlight. 4. regulate salmon migration. Creation provides a host of witnesses—crabs. migratory restlessness. S.Photoperiod [can regulate] a physiological sequence that brings about molting. as anchored filter-feeders.. providing ready meals on tidal waves. Ditlefsen. T h . The Control of Fish Migration. P. S . first. one can produce out-of-season fat deposition. leaf growth. M. which vary with the seasons. J . and by the annual cycle of recurring seasons. A.…However. S. by lunar rhythms.. The Research Council of Norway. Genesis 8:22. second. 27-28. D . F. Moonlight Photoperiodicity Rules the Earth How important to life on Earth is moonlight and its periodic rhythms? No physical factor is of greater interest to the ecologist than light. 2012. 7. H. For August 20.5-day cycle of moonlight does have a timing function in some fish behavior. new moon. accessed July 2. J. barnacles. Posted on forskningsradet. fat deposition. can be analytically compared to the inanimate governor device (also called a “speed limiter”) that can be installed to regulate the top speed of a commercial truck. Johnson is Associate Professor of Apologetics and Chief Academic Officer at the Institute for Creation Research.. Salmon Thrive on Electric Lighting. depend on the tides to wash up planktonic nutrients.” Amos. New York: Alfred A. B. seed germination. The Moon Rules arth is ruled. crops. J. Norten. See Johnson. and S. Rinehart and Winston.6 Lunar Gravity Rules the Earth Lunar gravity forcefully regulates Earth’s tides worldwide. dependent upon moon-ruled tidewaters for planktonic food. J O H N S O N . Texas.6 Bottom line: Genesis 1:16 teaches that God made the moon to rule the night. Johnson’s An Oceanographer’s Insight. Even plants depend on the rhythmic pull of the moon’s gravity. by gravity and by moonlight photoperiodicity (periodic light exposure). 454-455. Acts & Facts. Unlocking the Secrets of the Feasts: The Prophecies in the Feasts of Leviticus.7 Christmas Island red crabs depend on tidal rhythms to time their migrations to beaches to mate and deposit the next generation of baby crabs into high-tide waters. July 31.9 Many more examples of tide-dependent animal behaviors could be given. H. Odum. and 2) by providing reflected light to Earth.…One of the most dependable environmental cues by which organisms time their [developmental and periodic] activities in temperate zones is the day-length period. in part. New York: Holt. both plant and animal. 6. Knopf.8 Likewise. “The part of the earth that is closest to the moon at any given moment will feel the moon’s gravitational pull most strongly…this pull is experienced as high tide. 2011. It is. 2015. which states God purposefully programmed the moon to “rule” the night. D . second quarter. root growth—which is why the lunar cycletimed Jewish feasts of Leviticus 23 coincide with spring and autumn harvest cycles..e. see Amos. The moon’s monthly cycle regulates water in cultivated soil. The equinox-to-equinox year varies the ratio of daylight to moonlight. 2015. SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 21 . Dallas. Dr. Ecology: The Link Between the Natural and the Social Sciences. Eckmann. 2007.

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Guliuzza’s article with many of my caregivers. I shared Dr. platelets.D. but he was being used by God as a testimony to many technicians who took away from our discussions a more precise understanding of. [Randy] Guliuzza’s article “Made in His Image: LifeGiving Blood. Particularly amazing is how stem cells are responsible for creating the other blood cells—red. Note: Unfortunately. This article gave me the perfect opportunity to discuss God’s amazing handiwork and creative genius with caregivers who had the same interest and fascination with this subject that I have.LETTERS TO THE EDITOR What a blessing ICR has been to our family. human opinions and expectations are not revelations from God. she said YES to Jesus’ voice and became His child! Last month she passed into glory. Your faithful ministry and that of other solid organizations that boldly herald the message of biblical creation evangelism have truly blessed my family in recent years. What a wonderful example of the Lord’s intricate design and care for His creation! — J. I was in remission from previous chemotherapy (by the Lord’s gracious hand).” Quoting from page six: “Fallen men do not have the right to judge the Word and tell others what it means to them. From age 86 to 90 she was in love with Jesus Christ and read your publications with fervor. Thank you for sharing this information in a way that a layperson can understand and share with others. “For such a time as this may God be praised and glorified!” — S. white.H. O. My wife and I eagerly wait for Acts & Facts to arrive each month.G. My heartfelt thanks to Dr. — N. It is working and bearing much fruit. ICR is not able to respond to all correspondence. While in the hospital I was fascinated to discover Dr. and several asked to make copies.F. white cells. Guliuzza and all of your staff for the March [Acts & Facts] article “Made in His Image: Baby’s First Breath. Thank you for emphasizing the fact that the Bible is authoritative on every subject it deals with.” How true! — J. In January my doctor recommended a treatment of heavy-duty chemotherapy that destroys stem cells.” This was a fascinating description of the baby’s heart and blood flow. and the one [in June Acts & Facts] about “Rise up. Dallas. Thank you to Dr. SEPTEMBER 2015 | ACTS & FACTS 23 . Have a comment? Email us at editor@icr. who will secretly bring in destructive heresies. I have mantle cell lymphoma.W. and platelets—all in order according to need. face to face with our Savior. He may not have known it. and appreciation for. P. and so I was a good candidate to have my stem cells harvested so they could be reintroduced after the treatment. Guliuzza for his work in putting this information together. and she remarked that “ICR is the only one with intelligence showing Jesus is the Creator. Box 59029. In 2011. My mom has diligently read your Acts & Facts and Days of Praise for four years. I was to be in the hospital for three weeks during April. without which none of the other healing could occur.” It touched on many of the characteristics of blood with which I had recently become familiar. Keep it up. very special! I always enjoy your articles. Texas 75229. I thank God for directing ICR to insert this article in this magazine so that I can say. I had discussions with several of the nurses and staff about the trials of my treatment (the severe damage to my body and blood) and the miraculous activity of the blood to rebuild and renew itself. You are fulfilling the great commission in a powerful way. and my family receives Acts & Facts as well as Days of Praise.” — L. so as I was collecting reading material I included the April [2015] edition of Acts & Facts. the complexity of God’s or write to Editor. O Men of God” was excellent! We are truly living in a world where there are “false teachers among you. The Institute for Creation Research is very. I thank the Lord for your entire organization. and many other necessary components of the blood. You have helped drive my family and many others into Scripture and encouraged me greatly toward a more authentic trust in the Word of God and His faithfulness. It was especially interesting to me as I was pregnant with my third child at the time. Your speakers have come to my church.

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