CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
A Composite Material is a macroscopic combination of two or more
distinct materials, having a recognizable interface between them . Composites
are used not only for their structural properties, but also for electrical, thermal,
tribological, and environmental applications. It consists of reinforcing stiffer
phase and the matrix phase. The resulting composite material has a balance of
structural properties that is superior to either constituent material alone.
Composites typically have a fiber or particle phase that is stiffer and stronger
than the continuous matrix phase and serve as the principal load carrying
members. The matrix acts as a load transfer medium between fibers, and in less
ideal cases where the loads are complex, the matrix may even have to bear loads
transverse to the fiber axis. The matrix is more ductile than the fibers and thus
acts as a source of composite toughness. The matrix also serves to protect the
fibers from environmental damage before, during and after composite
processing. A hybrid composite is a FRP composite which has more than one
fiber as a reinforcement phase embedded into a single matrix phase.
Hybridization provides the designers with an added degree of freedom in
manufacturing composites to achieve high specific stiffness, high specific
strength, enhanced dimensional stability, energy absorption, increased failure
strain, corrosive resistance as well as reduced cost during fabrication
Composites made of a single reinforcing material system may not be suitable if
it undergoes different loading conditions during the service life. Hybrid
composites may be the best solution for such applications.Normally, one of the
fibers in a hybrid composite is a high- modulus and high-cost fiber and the other
is usually a low-modulus fiber. The high-modulus fiber provides the stiffness
and load bearing qualities, whereas the low-modulus fiber makes the composite
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more damage tolerant and keeps the material cost low. The mechanical
properties of a hybrid composite can be varied by changing volume ratio and
stacking sequence of different plies. High-modulus fibers are widely used in
many aerospace applications because of their high specific modulus. However,
the impact strength of composites made of such high-modulus fibers is
generally lower than conventional steel alloys or glass reinforced composites.
An effective method of improving the impact properties of high-modulus fiber
composites is to add some percentage of low-modulus fibers. Most composite
materials experience time varying internal disturbance of moisture and
temperature during their service life time which can cause swelling and
plasticization of the resin, distortion of laminate, deterioration of fiber/resin
bond etc. Because of the high performance laminates and composites especially
in aerospace, the effect of moisture/temperature environment has become an
important aspect of composite material behavior. In this project work the
behavior of sisal and banana hybrid composites with epoxy resin was described.

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1.1 WHY WE HAVE TAKEN THIS WORK?
The basic reason for working on such a topic arises from the fact that
composites are vulnerable to environmental degradation. A moist environment,
coupled with high or low temperature conditions is extremely detrimental for
composites. There have been several efforts made by researchers in the last few
years to establish the much needed correlation between the mechanical
properties of the material and the moist environment or similar hydrothermal
conditions, subjected to thermal shocks, spikes, ambient & sub ambient
temperatures. But most research has been on the mechanical aspects rather than
the physical & chemical interface and how this brings in change in the internal
mechanical properties and affects a variety of other morphological changes.
The focus of our research has been to understand the physical changes
that take place at the bonding interface between the fibers and the matrix, as it is
of prime importance due to its link to the stress transfer, distribution of load, and
it also governs the damage accumulation & propagation. This has wide
significance in aerospace applications, because the aircraft components are
exposed to harsh moist environment.
Hence our project work aims at the mechanical characterization of the
sisal and banana fiber reinforced hybrid composites.

1.2 COMPOSITE MATERIAL
A composite material is defined as a material system which consists of
two or more distinctly differing materials which are insoluble in each other and
differ in chemical composition.
The ancient Egyptians manufactured composites. Wattle and daub is one
of the oldest man-made composite materials, at over 6000 years old.

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Examples:
 Wood is a good example of a natural composite, combination of
cellulose fiber and lignin. The cellulose fiber provides strength and
the lignin is the "glue" that bonds and stabilizes the fiber.
 Adobe bricks are a good example for ancient composite. The
combination of mud and straw forms a composite that is stronger
than either the mud or the straw by itself.
 Concrete reinforced with steel rebar.

1.3 PHASES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS:
Composites are combinations of two phases.
 Matrix phase.
 Reinforcement phase.

Fig 1.1 Phases of composite materials

a)MATRIX PHASE:
 It is primary phase, having continuous character.
 It holds the reinforcement phase.
 More ductile.
 Less hard.

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 Metals. yet very light in Weight. so ratios of strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight are several times greater than steel or aluminum. b)REINFORCEMENT PHASE:  It also called dispersed phase.  Stronger than matrix phase.6 ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS: 5 .Examples:  Polymers.  Possible to achieve combinations of properties not attainable with metals.  Ceramics. Examples:  Fibers.  Particles. ceramics. or polymers alone. 1.4 PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITES:  Composites can be very strong and stiff.  Flakes.  Composites can be designed that do not corrode like steel.  Fatigue properties are generally better than for common engineering metals. 1.  Toughness is often greater than most of the metals.

 The inherent characteristics of composites typically allow production to be established for a small fraction of the cost that would be required in metallic fabrication. creep resistance and dimensional stability. even providing finished. 1. This reinforcement in these materials may improve specific stuffiness.6. These composites can be used at higher service temperature than their base metal counter parts. Benefits include lower maintenance and replacement costs.  It can be compounded to closely match surrounding structures to minimize thermal stresses.  Good dimensional stability (extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion).  Essentially inert in most corrosive environments. Stronger and stiffer than metals on a density basis for the same strength.  Composites can be formed into many complex shapes during fabrication. The 6 .1 BASED ON MATRIX MATERIAL:  Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)  Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)  Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) a) Metal matrix composites (MMC): The matrix in these composites is a ductile material. lighter than steel by 80% and aluminum by 60%. abrasion resistance. styled surfaces in the process. Hence Superior stiffness-to-weight ratios.6 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES: 1. specific strength.

The main disadvantages of PMCs are their low maximum working temperature high coefficients of thermal expansion and hence dimensional instability and sensitivity to radiation and moisture. 1. their use are somewhat restricted. so it mainly used in automobile industry. most processing route involve higher temperature and only employed with high temperature reinforcements.MMCs is light in weight and resist wear and thermal distortion. specifically for components in automobile an air craft gas turbine engines. some of these materials would be idea candidates for use in higher temperature and serve-stress applications. The epoxies are more expensive and in addition to wide range of ranging commercials applications.2 BASED ON MATERIAL STRUCTURE:  Particulate reinforcement composites (PRC) 7 . The strength and stuffiness are low compared with metals and ceramics. Metal matrix composites are much more expensive those PMCs and therefore. c) Polymer matrix composites (PMC): The most common matrix materials for composites are polymeric.6. Ceramics materials are inherent resistants to oxidation and deterioration at elevated temperature. The developments of CMCs has aged behind mostly for remain reason. Polyester and vinyl esters are the most widely used and least expensive polymer resins. For mutations of a large number resin provide a wide range of properties for these materials. also find use in PMCs for aerospace applications. b) Ceramic-matrix composites (CMC): One of the main objectives in producing CMCs is to increase the toughness. were it not for their disposition to brittle Fracture. These matrix materials are basically used for fiber glass reinforced composites.

The performance of fiber composites is judged by its length. The shape of the reinforcing particles may be spherical. Fiber reinforcement composites (FRC)  Laminar composites (LC) a) Particulate reinforcement composites (PRC) Particulate reinforcements have dimensions that are approximately equal in all directions.7 HYBRID COMPOSITES: Hybrid composites are those composites which have a combination of two or more reinforcement fibers. c) Laminar composites (LC) Laminar composites are composed of layers of materials held together by matrix. shape. These composites can be classified as two sub groups: i) Large particle composites ii) Dispersion strengthened composites. platelet or any regular or irregular geometry. cubic. and composition of the fibers and the mechanical properties of the matrix. 1. The most common hybrid composites are carbon-aramid reinforced epoxy (which combines strength and impact resistances) and glass-carbon reinforced epoxy (which gives a strong material at 8 . Sandwich structures fall under this category. orientation. Fibers fall short of ideal performance due to several factors. b) Fiber reinforcement composites (FRC) Fibers are the important class of reinforcement. as they satisfy the desired conditions and transfer strength to the matrix constituent influencing and enhancing their properties as desired.

For example the modulus.7.2 TYPES OF HYBRID COMPOSITE There are several types of hybrid composites characterized as: 9 .  Better wear resistance  Low thermal expansion coefficient  Combination of high tensile strength and high failure strain  Better impact and flexural properties  Reduced overall cost of the composite  Low notch sensitivity  Non catastrophic 1.a reasonable price). whereas the low-modulus fiber makes the composite more damage tolerant and keeps the material cost low. Hybrid composites are usually used when a combination of properties of different types of fiber wants to be achieved. Hybrid composites are more advanced composites as compared to conventional FRP composites.7. strength. Normally it contains a high modulus fiber with low modulus fiber. They have better flexibility as compared to other fiber reinforced composites. Hybrids can have more than one reinforcing phase and a single matrix phase or single reinforcing phase with multiple matrix phases or multiple reinforcing and multiple matrix phases.1 ADVANTAGES OF HYBRID COMPOSITES  They offer better flexibility in the selection of fiber and matrix materials. 1.fatigue performance etc of glass reinforced composites can be enhanced by inclusion of carbon fibers. or when longitudinal as well as lateral mechanical performances are required. The mechanical properties of a hybrid composite can be varied by changing volume ratio and stacking sequence of different plies. which helps in better tailoring of the mechanical properties.The high-modulus fiber provides the stiffness and load bearing qualities.

 Sandwich hybrids. where alternate layers of the two (ormore) materials are stacked in a regular manner.  Ailerons and floor panels of aircrafts. By natural fiber composites we mean a composite material that is reinforced with fibers. where the constituent fibers are made to mix as randomly as possible so that no over-concentration of any one type is present in the material.3 NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES Fiber-reinforced polymer composites have played a dominant role for a long time in a variety of applications for their high specific strength and modulus.  Interply or laminated. golf club shafts.Hockey sticks and paddles  In medical world they are used for making orthoses. and structural body parts of cars and lorries.  CFRP/ARP hybrids are used for making bicycle frames.7. fishing rods. skis.7. particles or platelets from natural or renewable resources. 1. chassis members. 1. Interply or tow-by-tow. in which tows of the two or more constituent types of fiber are mixed in a regular or random manner. The manufacture.Suspensions.  Intimately mixed hybrids. in which one material is sandwiched between two layers of another. carbon or aramid fibers–reinforced thermoplastic and thermoset resins are considered critically because of environmental problems.  In automobile sector they are used in transmission units. thin veils of fiber or combinations of the above. other kinds. 10 . yacht hulls. such as those reinforced with ribs. also known as cor-shell.  In sports industries Tennis racquets. pultruded wires. usually made of glass.3 APPLICATION OF HYBRIDS  Helicopter rotor blades and drive shafts. use and removal of traditional fiber–reinforced plastic.

etc. These can be categorized into the following categories: Asbestos is the only naturally occurring mineral fiber. alpaca. Metal fibers includes aluminium fibers Plant fiber: 11 . and boron carbide. silicon carbide.g. E. Examples include silk from silk worms. Natural fibers include those made from plant. horse hair. angora. Avian fiber are the fibers from birds. wool. anthophyllite. alpaca hair. mohair). Variations are serpentine and amphiboles. Natural fibers can be classified according to their origin. Animal Fibers  Animal hair Mineral Fibers  Asbestos Plant Fibers  Seed fiber  Silk fiber  Ceramic fibers  Leaf fiber  Avian fiber  Metal fibers  Skin fiber  Fruit fiber  Stalk fiber Table 1. Mineral fiber: Mineral fibers are naturally occurring fiber or slightly modified fiber procured from minerals. feathers and feather fiber. animal and mineral sources. Silk fiber are the fibers collected from dried saliva of bugs or insects during the preparation of cocoons. Animal hair (wool or hair) are the fibers taken from animals or hairy mammals. aluminium oxide. Sheep’s wool. The detailed classification. silk. examples mohair. goat hair (cashmere.g. Ceramic fibers includes glass fibers (Glass wood and Quartz). e.in contrast to for example carbon or aramide fibers that have to be synthesized.1 Classification of natural fibers Animal Fiber: Animal fiber generally comprise proteins.

Therefore. coconut (coir) fiber. ramie. At present day natural fiber composites are mainly found in automotive and building industry and then mostly in applications where load bearing capacity and dimensional stability under moist and high thermal conditions are of second order importance.g. Skin fiber are the fibers are collected from the skin or bast surrounding the stem of their respective plant.Plant fibers are generally comprised mainly of cellulose: examples include cotton. For example.g. This fiber can be further categorizes into following as : Seed fiber are the fibers collected from the seed and seed case e. Fruit fiber are the fibers are collected from the fruit of the plant.g. banana. The natural fiber composites can be very cost effective material for following applications:  Building and construction industry: panels for partition and false ceiling. Leaf fibe are the fibers collected from the leaves e. and other crops including bamboo and grass. Natural fiber composites are by no means new to mankind. In the beginning of the 20th century wood. fabric. straws of wheat. but the fiber acts mainly as filler material in non-structural interior panels Natural fiber composites used for structural purposes do exist. jute. and paper. barley. flax. cotton and kapok. and soybean. but then usually with synthetic thermoset matrices which of course limit the environmental benefits. 12 .or melamine formaldehyde resins were fabricated and used in electrical applications for their non-conductive and heat-resistant properties. Tree wood is also such a fiber. These fibers have higher tensile strength than other fibers.g. sisal and agave. jute. E. these fibers are used for durable yarn. Stalk fiber are the fibers are actually the stalks of the plant. Already the ancient Egyptians used clay that was reinforced by straw to build walls. rice. Some examples are flax. sisal and hemp. hemp. packaging. Cellulose fibers serve in the manufacture of paper and cloth.or cotton fiber reinforced phenol. e. flax fiber reinforced polyolefins are extensively used today in the automotive industry.

bio-gas containers.  Furniture: chair. Ghana. Togo Sisal East Africa.  Transportation: automobile and railway coach interior. boat. 13 . consisting of helically wound cellulose micro fibrils in a matrix of lignin and hemicellulose. Bahamas. Tanzania and Brazil produce the largest amount of sisal.2 FIBERS Flax Hemp Sun COUNTRIES Borneo Yugoslavia. Jamaica. Henequen is grown in Mexico. Cuba. window and door frames. bath units.partition boards. Tanzania Kneaf Iraq. and Bangladesh. Abaca and hemp are grown in the Philippines. etc. helmets. pipes. The largest producers of jute are India.  Electric devices: electrical appliances. Egypt. etc. Natural fibers are generally lignocellulosic in nature. Malawi. Kenya. suitcases. China. mobile or pre-fabricated buildings which can be used in times of natural calamities such as floods. wall. Guyana. earthquakes. Jamaica. India hemp Ramie Jute Hondurus. Guyana. china Nigeria. floor. etc. etc. roof tiles. The detail information of fibers and the countries of origin are presented in table 1. etc. South Africa. Presently.  Everyday applications: lampshades. etc. Siera Leone. Antiqua. the annual production of natural fibers in India is about 6 million tons as compared to worldwide production of about 25 million tons. Mauritius India. shower. cyclones.  Storage devices: post-boxes. Sudan. grain storage silos. According to a Food and Agricultural Organization survey. table. Tanzania.

very limited work has been done on mechanical behavior of sisal and banana fiber reinforced epoxy composites. sisal. Growing attention is nowadays being paid to sisal and banana fiber due to its availability and its enhanced properties .9 SYNTHETIC FIBRE COMPOSITES Man-made fibres may come from natural raw materials or synthetic chemicals. modal and the more recently developed Lyocell. research and development efforts have been underway to find new use areas for sisal and banana. the present research work has been undertaken. abaca and coir have been studied as a reinforcement and filler in composites. 1. However. The present work thus aims to develop this new class of natural fiber based hybrid composites and to analyze their mechanical behavior by experimentation. including rayon. Many types of fibres are manufactured from natural cellulose. Against this background.2 Fibers and countries of origin Natural fibres such as jute. Examples  Glass fibres 14 .1. pineapple. Cellulose based fibres are of two types. regenerated or pure cellulose such as from the cupro-ammonium process and modified cellulose such as cellulose acetates.Banana India Table. Hence. with an objective to explore the potential of sisal ans banana fiber as a reinforcing material in hybrid composites and to investigate its effect on the mechanical behavior of the resulting composites. Although there are several reports in the literature which discuss the mechanical behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. including utilization of sisal and banana as reinforcement in polymer composites .

 Carbon fibres  Aramid fibres The most common types of fibers used in advanced composites for structural applications are the fiberglass. and carbon. The material has a very high fatigue and creep resistance. rayon fiber. Carbon Fibers The graphite or carbon fiber is made from three types of polymer precursors polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber. they can be arbitrarily divided into three grades as shown in Table 3. Since its tensile strength decreases with increasing modulus. its strain at rupture will also be much lower. and its transverse modulus are an order of magnitude less than its longitudinal modulus. aramid. carbon composite laminates are more effective with adhesive bonding that eliminates mechanical fasteners. Other highstrength high-modulus fibers such as boron are at the present time considered to be economically prohibitive. Aramid fibers 15 . As a result of this phenomenon. Because of the material brittleness at higher modulus. The fiberglass is the least expensive and carbon being the most expensive. it becomes critical in joint and connection details. The cost of aramid fibers is about the same as the lower grades of the carbon fiber. which can have high stress concentrations. The carbon fiber is an anisotropic material. Although there are many carbon fibers available on the open market. and pitch. The tensile stress-strain curve is linear to the point of rupture. They have lower thermal expansion coefficients than both the glass and aramid fibers.

and it is uncommon for civil engineering application. The aramid fibers have excellent fatigue and creep resistance. for Kevlar7 49 the curve is linear to a value of 124 GPa at rupture. it can be designed to perform satisfactorily. The fibers are drawn into very fine filaments with diameters ranging from 2 to13×10-6 m. So the glass fiber uses in most of the applications due its economic factor and its enhanced properties. S-glass and Cglass. Of the three fibers.Among these synthetic fibers. The fibers can have difficulty achieving a chemical or mechanical bond with the resin Glass Fibers The glass fibers are divided into three classes . Although the glass material creeps under a sustained load. the two most common ones used in structural applications are Kevlar7 29 and Kevlar7 49. The glass fiber strength and modulus can degrade with increasing temperature. whereas. 1. As an anisotropic material. the E-glass is the most common reinforcement material used in civil structures.10 RESIN SYSTEMS 16 . Although there are several commercial grades of aramid fibers available. The C-glass is for high corrosion resistance. The Youngs Modulus curve for Kevlar7 29 is linear to a value of 83 GPa but then becomes slightly concave upward to a value of 100 GPa at rupture.These are synthetic organic fibers consisting of aromatic polyamides. its transverse and shear modulus are an order of magnitude less than those in the longitudinal direction. It is produced from lime-alumina-borosilicate which can be easily obtained from abundance of raw materials like sand. The fiber itself is regarded as an isotropic material and has a lower thermal expansion coefficient than that of steel. The E-glass is designated for electrical use and the S-glass for high strength. E-glass. the fiberglass is the least expensive and carbon being the most expensive.

The resin is another important constituents in composites. Although epoxies can be expensive. The right curing agent should be carefully selected because it will affect the type of chemical reaction. a thermosetting resin will cure permanently by irreversible cross linking at elevated temperatures. The long-chain polymers do not chemically cross link. The material properties and cure rates can be formulated to meet the required performance. they are undesirable for structural application. It melts when heated and solidifies when cooled. the least common ones are the polyurethanes and phenolics. epoxies. a) Epoxies The epoxies used in composites are mainly the glycidyl ethers and amines. and hand lay-up. Conversely. The two classes of resins are the thermoplastics and thermosets. it may be worth the cost when high performance is required. b) Vinyl Esters The vinyl ester resins were developed to take advantage of both the workability of the epoxy resins and the fast curing of the polyesters. The high viscosity in epoxy resins limits it use to certain processes such as molding. The most common resins used in composites are the unsaturated polyesters. filament winding. electrical and appliance applications. A thermoplastic resin remains a solid at room temperature. and vinyl esters. Epoxies are generally found in marine. This characteristic makes the thermoset resin composites very desirable for structural applications. pot life and final material properties. The vinyl ester has higher physical properties than polyesters but costs less than epoxies. A composite product containing 17 . automotive. The acrylic esters are dissolved in a styrene monomer to produce vinyl ester resins which are cured with organic peroxides. Because they do not cure permanently.

They are cured into very tough and high corrosion resistance materials which are found in many high performance paint coatings. The formulation contains an unsaturated material such as maleic anhydride or fumaric acid which is a part of the dicarboxylic acid component. On the contrary. and they are divided into resole and novolac resins. novolacs are prepared under acidic conditions with F/P ratios less than one. resiliency and heat deflection temperature (HDT). High exotherm is needed for a thin section curing at room temperature and low exotherm for a thick section. e) Polyesters It is produced by the condensation polymerization of dicarboxylic acids and dihydric alcohols. reactivity. lower 18 . and low smoke generation. The resoles are prepared under alkaline conditions with formaldehyde/phenol (F/P) ratios greater than one.a vinyl ester resin can withstand high toughness demand and offer excellent corrosion resistance. The formulation affects the viscosity. d) Phenolics The phenolic resins are made from phenols and formaldehyde. good thermal stability. The reactivity affects cure time and peak exotherm (heat generation) temperatures. The viscosity controls the speed and degree of wet-out (saturation) of the fibers. c) Polyurethanes Polyurethanes are produced by combining polyisocyanate and polyol in a reaction injection molding process or in a reinforced reaction injection molding process. Resoles are cured by applying heat and/or by adding acids. Novolacs are cured when reacting chemically with methylene groups in the hardener. The phenolics are rated for good resistance to high temperature. Resiliency or flexible grade composites have a higher elongation.

Interms of commercial applications. and fabricating. Other advantages include ease in handling. 19 . with many variations and patented processes: 1. for the fabrication of composite parts. including resins. From the above statements. 1. This resin is probably the best value for a balance between performance and structural capabilities. fabrics. different processing conditions. fabric. There are three basic manufacturing techniques in producing composite structural products. Some of the special formulations are high corrosion resistant and fire retardants. The pultrusion process involves a continuous pulling of the fiber rovings and mats through a resin bath and then into a heated die. fibers. the polyester resin is used in this project work. mats. Each manufacturing technique requires different types of material systems. or mat in flat form.modulus. processing. The advantages cited in the unsaturated polyester are its dimensional stability and affordable cost. and molding compounds. The elevated temperature inside the die cures the composite matrix into a constant cross-section structural shape. The HDT is a short term thermal property which measures the thermal sensitivity and stability of the resins. Composites manufacturing processes can be subdivided into two main manufacturing categories: manufacturing processes for thermoset composites and manufacturing processes for thermoplastic composites. prepergs (prepreg is a resinimpregnated fiber. which is stored for later use in hand lay-up or molding operations). and Different tools for part fabrication. and HDT.11 COMPOSITES MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Composite production techniques utilize various types of composite raw materials. thermo set composite parts dominate the composite market.

12 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY As mentioned. The hand lay-up method is simple one. To fully utilize these two properties. 20 . the product can be optimized in terms of costs. sporting goods. In terms of commercial applications. etc. materials and manufacturing processes. 1. automotive. Their uses predominate in the aerospace. The layup process engages a hand or machine buildup of mats of fibers that are held together permanently by a resin system. marine. the trinity essence. This method enables numerous layers of different fiber orientations to be built up to a desired sheet thickness and product shape.2. boat. the hand lay-up method is used. the big advantages of composite products are that they can be tailored according to the external loads and that single step manufacturing is possible. Due to this advantages. weight. The filament winding process can be automated to wrap resin-wetted fibers around a mandrel to produce circular or polygonal shapes. 3. product design is an integrated process involving concepts. see figure. manufacturing time. Due to integrated design. more than 75% of all composites are made of thermoset composites. easy to handle and low cost to manufacturing. according to market demand. and consumer markets.

Due to the lower weight and an aerodynamic shape.14 DESIGN CONSIDERATION 21 . Although manufacturing of such a bridge is more expensive than of a traditional bridge out of steel and concrete.  The orientation of the reinforcement. using this integrated design philosophy. a composite chassis-less trailer is manufactured with a 30 % weight reduction compared to a conventional trailer provided with a steel chassis.The combination of the fiber and matrix provide characteristics superior to either of the materials alone. Some examples of composite material are plywood. 1. Variables that control the properties of composite can be summarized as  The properties of the fiber reinforcement.  The amount of reinforcement in the matrix. reinforced concrete.Figure 1. the lower weight saves a lot of money on the costs of the foundation and on transport costs.  The size and shape of the reinforcement. and graphite &epoxy resin.13 DESIGN PARAMETERS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Composites materials are made by combining two materials where one of the materials is reinforced fiber and the other material is a matrix (resin). fiberglass &polyester resin.2 Design philosophy For instance. fuel consumption is significantly reduced. 1. has a positive effect on costs and the environment. An example of cost-reduction can be found in composite bridges.  The properties of the matrix in which the reinforcement is placed.

These are combined to exploit the individual characteristics. Furthermore. leading to excellent specific strength and stiffness values.  They have readily formed into complex shapes.15 REQUIREMENT OF MATERIALS DESIGN: 22 . temperature and the environment.  Generally stiffness is less than that of steels leading to greater attention to local and overall structural stability. It may be planer-isotropic.  Materials properties are influenced by the manufacturing process. 1.They differ markedly from metals in the following ways  Composites are mostly orthotropic and inhomogeneous. thereby providing additional qualities that they are unable to provide individually . where the strength and stiffness in the fiber direction considerably exceeds that at 90  to the fiber. when comparing composite materials to metals it is found that:  They are lighter. such as random chopped strand glass mat reinforced polymer.A polymeric composite materials is made up of at least two materials: a fiber and a matrix. A composite material can take a number of different forms.  They have very good environmental resistance and do not corrode like many metals. The material may be orthotropic.  They have low thermal conductivity. such as unidirectional reinforced polymer.

hardening again with cooling. 23 . polypropylene.  Thermosetting Resins (Polyester and epoxy-High elastic model). The fibers or filaments come in many chemical types and forms and are the primary contributor to the stiffness. Fiber selection: The fiber reinforcement provides the structural performance required of the final part. The resins that are used in fiber-reinforced composites are sometimes referred to as polymers. chopped fibers such as glass. although usually only with short. and ABS. Typical thermoplastics include nylon. It is also possible to provide a mixture of fiber arrays in laminate when fabricating a composite material to meet the required loading situation .  Thermoplastic Resins. strength and other properties of the composite.This freedom to tailor-make composite materials with specific required properties introduces an additional complexity in the design analyses of these systems over those of the conventional ones. and these can be reinforcement. according to the effect of heat on their properties.Polymer composite materials consists of laminate of resin impregnated fibers which are unidirectional or orthogonally aligned angle-ply or randomly orientated systems. Thermoplastics soften with heating and eventually melt. Polymers can be classified under two types. Resin selection: They are viscous liquids that are capable of hardening permanently.

or thermosets. The determination of whether to use a thermoplastic or thermosetting resin depends largely on the application. formed from a chemical reaction.Thermosetting materials. infusible product. Thermosetting resins are preferred because of their increased ability to withstand elevated temperatures. where the resin and hardener or resin and catalyst are mixed and then undergo a non-reversible chemical reaction to form a hard. 24 . It is expected that the composite spring will be at a working temperature of 100F to 1000F and hence thermosetting resins are chosen as thermoplastic works well only for cold and ambient working conditions.

optimum fiber length and weight percentage were determined.R” presented that development of the Polymer Composites with natural fibers and fillers as a sustainable alternative material for some engineering applications. impact and flexural strength of sisal /glass fiber reinforced polyester are evaluated and compared. “Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Unidirectional Sisal/Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites by Sanjay. “Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Based Hybrid Composites Reinforced with Sisal/SIC/Glass Fibers by Arpitha. impact and water absorption tests were carried out using banana/epoxy composite material. To improve the mechanical properties.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW “Mechanical and water absorption behavior of sisal/banana fiber reinforced polyester hybrid composites by N. This study showed that addition of sisal fiber in banana/epoxy composites of up to 50% by weight results in increasing the mechanical properties and decreasing the moisture absorption property.Elayaperumal” presented that the tensile. The results shows that tensile strength of 30%GF-70%sisal composition and flexural strength of 70%GF-30%sisal composition and impact Strength of 50%GF-50%sisal composition is found to be better than the remaining two compositions. flexural. Sisal fiber has been hybridized with glass fiber reinforced polyester using hand lay-up process to improve the mechanical properties. 50/50 and 70/30 weight fraction ratios as per ASTM standards and mechanical properties like tensile. particularly in aerospace applications and automobile applications are being investigated.G.R” presented that this paper presents the mechanical behavior of sisal/glass fiber reinforced polyester hybrid composites. Initially.M. Natural fiber 25 . Test specimens were prepared using glass fiber(GF)/sisal fiber of 30/70.Venkateshwaran and A. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behaviour and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope. banana fiber was hybridised with sisal fiber.

2. 3. sisal/glass/Sic fiber reinforced epoxy composites are prepared and their mechanical properties such as tensile strength.  To develop a new class of hybrid polymer composites to explore the potential of sisal and banana fiber. Composites of silicon carbide filler (without filler. In this study. hemp and coir polymer composites appear more attractive due to their higher specific strength. 6 & 9Wt %) sisal fiber and glass fiber are investigated and results show that the composites without filler better results compared to the composites with silicon carbide filler. flexural strength and impact strength are evaluated. lightweight and biodegradability and low cost.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORK The objectives of the project are outlined below. jute.composites such as sisal. 26 . tensile modulus. flexural strength.  Evaluation of mechanical properties such as: tensile strength. impact strength and water absorption test.

It is usually obtained by machine decortications in which the leaf is crushed between rollers and then mechanically scraped. Then we have collected this sisal fiber from Gopichettyplayam. METHODS AND PREPARATION OF COMPOSITE This chapter describes the details of processing of the composites and the experimental procedures followed for their mechanical characterization. Sisal fibre is fairly coarse and inflexible. Banana fiber fiber 3. Epoxy resin 4. 27 . The dried fibre represents only 4% of the total weight of the leaf. The raw materials used in this work are 1.1 SISAL FIBER Sisal fibre is derived from the leaves of the plant.2 to 0. Once it is dried the fibre is mechanically double brushed. Sisal fiber 2. Alumina as filler 3.CHAPTER-3 MATERIALS. Erode. The fibre is then washed and dried by mechanical or natural means. The lustrous strands. usually creamy white.4 mm in diameter. average from 80 to 120 cm in length and 0. It is valued for cordage use because of its strength.

they help to strengthen recycled paper. ropes and twine. and composites were characterized for their mechanical and thermal properties. affinity for certain dyestuffs.9% are fibres are long and made into yarns Waxes 2% or or High grade sisal (either on their own in blends with wool Total 100% acrylic) and used in carpets. as the fibre is long lasting and flexible. however. Low grade shorter fibres are valued in the paper industry because of the high content of cellulose and hemicellulose. green composites were fabricated with soy protein resin modified with gelatin. Sisal fibre is exceptionally durable and a low maintenancewith minimal wear and tear. has greatly decreased as the twine is 28 . ability to stretch. and resistance to deterioration in saltwater. modified soy protein resins. Chemical Composition of Sisal Fiber: Cellulose 65% Hemicelluloses 12% Uses of sisal fibre: Lignin 9. for agricultural and industrial use. Medium grade fibres are made into cordage. This use.durability. they are particular useful in a marine environment as they are resistant to deterioration by salt water. One of the traditional uses for sisal is baler twine. Sisal fiber. Sisal fiber is fully biodegradable. It is highly renewable resource of energy.

Malaysia. as well as insulation. Its height can be 10-40 feet (3. Banana plant is available throughout Thailand and Southeast Asian. stabilisation of slopes and road construction. Sisal is still the best material for making dartboards. Bangladesh. a ligno-cellulosic fiber. Hawaii. and soft enough not to scratch it. Then we have collected banana fiber from Gopichettypalayam. is a bast fiber with relatively good mechanical properties. lashing.being replaced by polypropylene and at the same time new harvesting technology uses much less twine.7 meters and 0. It has its own physical and chemical 29 . as plaster reinforcement and for roofing materials. Another use for sisal is as a geotextile in land reclamation. Erode for this research work. Sisal is being used in composites instead of fibreglass to reinforce components if the automotive and aircraft industry. and handling cargo.2 meters) surrounding with 8-12 large leaves. The leaves are up to 9 feet long and 2 feet wide (2.2 Banana fiber Banana fiber. Banana plant is a large perennial herb with leaf sheaths that form pseudo stem. Sisal is used commonly in the shipping industry for mooring small craft.0-12. Sisal is also being used in the construction industry as cement reinforcement for low cost housing. Indonesia. 3. Characteristics of Banana Fiber Banana fiber is a natural bast fiber. India. It also makes good cat scratching posts. Sisal is also great as a buffing cloth as it is strong enough to polish steel. Philippines. obtained from the pseudo-stem of banana plant (Musa sepientum). and some Pacific islands.61 meter).

 It is light weight.degradable and has no negative effect on environment and thus can be categorized as eco-friendly fiber.  It is bio.  It has somewhat shiny appearance depending upon the extraction & spinning process. mats. open-end spinning. and semi-worsted spinning among others. bast fiber spinning.  It is highly strong fiber. banana fiber had a very limited application and was primarily used for making items like ropes. but its fineness and spinnability is better than the two.  It has smaller elongation. It can be spun through almost all the methods of spinning including ring spinning. It absorbs as well as releases moisture very fast.  Its average fineness is 2400Nm. and lignin.  The chemical composition of banana fiber is cellulose. and some other composite 30 .  It has strong moisture absorption quality. APPLICATIONS OF BANANA FIBER In the recent past. hemicellulose.  Appearance of banana fiber is similar to that of bamboo fiber and ramie fiber.characteristics and many other properties that make it a fine quality fiber.

In amine curing agents.54 1. With the increasing environmental awareness and growing importance of eco-friendly fabrics.materials.90% 3.50% 41. Curing of Epoxy Resins Epoxy resins are cured by means of a curing agent. They also have good adhesion to other materials. banana fiber has also been recognized for all its good qualities and now its application is increasing in other fields too such as apparel garments and home furnishings. Often amines are used as curing agents. hardeners or activators. 31 . often referred as catalysts. good chemical and environmental resistance.98 g/denier 17.15 13. PROPERTIES OF BANANA FIBER Tenacity Fineness Moisture Regain Elongation Alco ben 29. Epoxy resins are a family of thermoset plastic materials which do not give off reaction products when they cure and so have low cure shrinkage.00% Epoxy resins are the most commonly used thermoset plastic in polymer matrix composites.00% 6. Different resins are formed by varying proportions of the two: as the proportion of epichlorohydrin is reduced the molecular weight of the resin is increased.80% 61. each hydrogen on an amine nitrogen is reactive and can open one epoxide ring to form a covalent bond.70% Extractives Total Cellulose Alpha Cellulose Residual Gum Lignin 81.3 Epoxy resin 15. good chemical properties and good insulating properties. The epoxy resins are generally manufactured by reacting epichlorohydrin with bisphenol.

Alumina is used as filler. Then the Alumina properties includes hard. 3. It helps to improve the mechanical property of the composite.4 METHODOLOGY The full methodology of this project work is shown in figure 3. In this connection. Excellent size and shape capability. high strength and stiffness.Filler Fillers are particles added to composite material to lower the consumption of more expensive binder material or to better some properties of the mixtured material. Then the filler is used to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion and polymerization shrinkage. wear resistant. Fabrication by compression molding method Testing of Fabricated Fiber composites Testing of mechanical properties Tensile Flexural Impact test test test Fig 3.3 Methodology 32 Water absorption Test .3.

4 Compression moulding process The process of composite fabrication using hand lay-up process is listed below. It is simple and mostly used method.3. The compression moulding process is shown in figure Fig 3.1 COMPRESSION MOULDING METHOD: The composite laminate is fabricated using compression mouding method. 33 .5.  Initially.5 FABRICATION OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS This topic deals with the fabrication stages carried out to obtain the composite material. the sisal fiber and banana fiber are chopped in the size of 3 mm. The materials used in our fabrication process are as follows:  Sisal fiber fiber  Banana fiber  Epoxy resin  Hardner  Alumina (Al203) 3.

5 Composite Laminates The composite laminate is fabricated for different fiber weight (%). the die is opened and the hybrid laminate of sisal fiber and banana fiber is taken out.2. that is shown in table. The fiber and Alumina is weighed to the required quantity and it also mixed well.  Then the required amount of fiber matrix is placed in the square shaped die of dimension 300x300x3 mm. Fig 3. S.  Then.  Utmost care has been taken to maintain uniformity and homogeneity of the composite.No Samples Fiber(%) Sisal 1 S1 2 S2 Filler Banana 34 (%) Resin (%) .  Then the die is closed and loaded with the pressure of 1500 psi at a temperature of 90C  After 24 hour. The fabricated specimen is shown in figure 3. prepare the matrix by mixing the Epoxy resin and Hardener in the ratio of 10:1  Then the wax is applied in the die and the prepared matrix and fiber are mixed well using glass rod.

in accordance with ASTM standard D-790.6 Tensile test specimen FLEXURAL TEST.8 Impact test specimen 35 .Sample was cut into flat shape (65x13x3)mm.2 Composition Of Composites 3. TENSILE TEST.6. Fig 3. Fig 3.1 CUTTING OF LAMINATES INTO SAMPLES OF DESIRED DIMENSIONS: A WIRE HACKSAW blade was used to cut each laminate into smaller pieces.6 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE 3. Fig 3. for various experiments and the sized specimens are shown in the following figures.Sample was cut into flat shape (125x13x3)mm. in accordance with ASTM standards D-790.7 Flexural test specimen IMPACT TEST.3 S3 4 S4 5 S5 Table 3.Sample was cut into the size of (250x25x3)mm in accordance with ASTM standards D-638.

One hole is drilled at each plate at the size of 6mm diameter and the single lab joint is made with the help of 6mm bolt and nut.Sample was cut into the size of (102x25x3)mm in accordance with ASTM standard D-5868-01. Two plates are made up of for same size and made the single lab joint for testing the tensile strength.WATER ABSORPTION TEST-Sample was cut into flat shape (30x30x3)mm. Fig 3.10 Tensile test specimen with bolt joint 36 . Fig 3.9 Water absorption test specimen TENSILE TEST WITH BOLT JOINT.

Fig 3.6. elongation and break load. During the test a uniaxial load is applied through both the ends of the specimen. The dimension of specimen is (250x25x3)mm. The tensile test is performed in the universal testing machine (UTM) Instron 1195 and results are analyzed to calculate the tensile strength of composite samples. Typical points of interest when testing a material include: ultimate tensile strength (UTS) or peak stress.3 FLEXURAL TEST: 37 .11 Universal testing machine 3.3.2 TENSILE TEST: The tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress that it can take before faliure. peak load.6.

the Izod impact test is carried out. size and volume of coarse aggregate used.6. Flexural strength is about 10 to 20 percent of compressive strength depending on the type. It is measured by loading desired shape specimen(6x6-inch) with a span length at least three times the depth.Flexural strength is defined as a materials ability to resist deformation under load. which generally promotes failure by inter-laminar shear. Here. The dimension of the specimen is (125x13x3)mm. The flexural strength is expressed as (MPa) . However the best correlation for specific materials is obtained by laboratory tests for given materials and mix design.12 Experimental setup for flexural test 3.4 IMPACT TEST: Impact energy is the energy which is absorbed by the specimen when the impact load is applied. The short beam shear (SBS) tests are performed on the composites samples to evaluate the value of interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). Fig 3. It is a 3-point bend test. This test is conductedas per ASTM standard using UTM. Izod impact testing is an ASTM standard method 38 .

The arm hits the sample and breaks it.5 WATER ABSORPTION TEST: The water absorption test is used to find the water absorption rate.13 Izod impact testing machine 3. From the energy absorbed by the sample. The impact specimen size is (65x13x3)mm. The test is similar to the Charpy impact test but uses a different arrangement of the specimen under test. A notched sample is generally used to determine impact energy and notch sensitivity. The specimens were weighed to an accuracy of 0. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing the composite specimens in distilled water in plastic tub at room 39 . Fig 3. The effect of water absorption on jute and glass reinforced hybrid composites were investigated . An arm held at a specific height (constant potential energy) is released.1mg.6. The specimens were dried in an oven at 50 0C and then they were allowed to cool till they reached room temperature.of determining the impact resistance of materials. its impact energy is determined.[1] The Izod impact test differs from the Charpy impact test in that the sample is held in a cantilevered beam configuration as opposed to a three-point bending configuration.

1 Composite Tensile Flexural Impact Water s strength strength Energy(J) absorption S1 S2 S3 (MPa) 15. flexural strength.35 (%) 17. Details of processing of these composites and the tests conducted on them have been described in the previous chapter.1 mg.941 18.53 10.362 43. CHAPTER 4 MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSITES This chapter presents the mechanical properties of the sisal and banana fiber reinforced epoxy composites prepared for this present investigation. From these two readings. the water absorption rate (%) was calculated.796 (MPa) 45. The specimen size is (30×30×3) mm.1 MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSITES The characterization of the composites reveals that the fiber weight(%) is having significant effect on the mechanical properties of composites. This includes evaluation of tensile strength.942 0.50 0.75 0.95 18.temperature for 24 hours duration. the specimens were taken out from the water and all surface water was removed with a clean dry cloth and the specimens were reweighed to the nearest 0.61 40 . flexural modulus. 4. The results of various characterization tests are reported here. The interpretation of the results and the comparison among various composite samples are also presented.541 18.317 39. Once in 24 hours. impact strength and water absorption (%) has been studied and discussed. The properties of the composites with different fiber weight (%) under this investigation are presented in Table 4.

The sample 2.1.1 Effect of fiber weight (%) on tensile strength of composites 4. pure banana shows high tensile strength.1.Table 4.3 and 4 shows the tensile strength of hybrid composites and in this hybrid composites. the sample 4( i.e 15% of sisal and 30% of banana fiber) shows the better tensile strength.1.3. EFFECT OF FIBER WEIGHT (%) ON TENSILE STRENGTH WITH BOLT JOINT 41 S4 S . From the results it is seen that the tensile strength of the composite increases with increase in banana fiber weight(%). EFFECT OF FIBER WEIGHT (%) ON TENSILE STRENGTH The test results for tensile strength are shown in Figures 4. 30 25 20 Tensile strength (N/mm2) 15 10 5 0 S1 S2 S3 Laminate samples Figure 4.1 Mechanical properties of the composites 4.2. The sample 1 and 5 shows the pure sisal and pure banana reinforced composites and in this composites.

5 Laminate samples Figure 4.3.The test results for tensile strength are shown in Figures 4. The sample 1 and 5 shows the pure sisal and pure banana reinforced composites and in this composites.e 30%% of sisal and 15% of banana fiber) shows the better tensile strength. The sample 1 and 5 shows the pure sisal and pure banana reinforced composites and in this composites. 16 15.3 and 4 shows the flexural strength of hybrid composites and in this hybrid composites.5 15 Tensile strength (N/mm2) 14. pure banana shows high tensile strength. EFFECT OF FIBER WEIGHT (%) ON FLEXURAL STRENGTH The test results for flexural strength are shown in Figures 4. The sample 2.5 13 12. pure banana shows high flexural strength.3 and 4 shows the tensile strength of hybrid composites and in this hybrid composites. From the results it is seen that the tensile strength of the composite increases with increase in sisal fiber weight(%).e 15% of sisal and 30% of banana fiber) shows the better flexural strength. From the results it is seen that the flexural 42 .1.5 14 13.1. the sample 3( i.1. the sample 2( i.3 Effect of fiber weight (%) on tensile strength of composites 4. The sample 2.

The sample 1 and 5 shows the pure sisal and pure banana reinforced composites and in this composites.e 30%% of sisal and 15% of banana fiber ) shows the better impact energy. the sample 2( i.strength of the composite increases with increase in banana fiber weight(%). From the results it is seen that the impact energy of the composite increases with increase in sisal fiber weight(%). 60 50 40 Flexural Strength (N/mm2) 30 20 10 0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Laminate samples Figure 4.1. EFFECT OF FIBER WEIGHT (%) ON IMPACT ENERGY The test results for impact energy are shown in Figures 4. and 4 shows the impact energy of hybrid composites and in this hybrid composites.3 Effect of fiber length on flexural strength of composites 4.1.4. 43 . The sample 2.3. pure sisal shows high impact energy.

1.2 0. the sample 3( i.5 EFFECT OF FIBER WEIGHT(%) ON WATER ABSORPTION RATE The test results for water absorption rate are shown in Figures 4.0.3 0.5 Impact energy (J) 0. From the results it is seen that the water absorption rate of the composite is less in sample 3.7 0.4 0.3 and 4 shows the water absorption rate of hybrid composites and in this hybrid composites. The sample 2.4 Effect of fiber length on impact energy of composites. 44 .1.8 0.e 22. 4. pure banana shows less water absorption rate. The sample 1 and 5 shows the pure sisal and pure banana reinforced composites and in this composites.5% of sisal and 22.1 0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Laminate samples Figure 4.5% of banana fiber ) shows the less water absorption rate.6 0.

5 Effect of fiber weight(%) on water absorption rate 45 .25 20 15 Water absorption rate (%) 10 5 0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Laminated samples Fig 4.

5 litre 900 4 Hardner 100 ml 250 5 Alumina 100 ml 500 6 Fabrication cost - 3000 7 Cutting of laminates - 500 8 Testing - Total Table 5.1 S.1 Cost of estimation 46 .CHAPTER 5 COST ESTIMATION This chapter presents the total cost of the project.NO DESCRIPTIONS QUANTITY AMOUNT(Rs) 1 Sisal fiber 1 kg 350 2 Banana fiber 1 kg 400 3 Epoxy resin 1. The cost estimation is listed in table 6. The process of cost estimation includes materials cost. fabrication cost and cost of testing.

This work shows that successful fabrication of a sisal and banana fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different fiber weight(%) is possible by compression molding technique. impact strength and water absorption rate of the composites are also greatly influenced by the fibre weight(%). REFERENCES 47 . 2.CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS This experimental investigation of mechanical behavior of sisal and banana fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites leads to the following conclusions: 1. flexural strength. flexural modulus. It has been noticed that the mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile strength.

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