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Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad

Department of English Language & Applied Linguistics

Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL)


The Language Skills-II (5660)


Autumn, 2015



Noor Mohammad
Roll No:

Method of Writing
What is the difference between grammatical form and its function?
Defining Form and Function
Major characteristics features of communicative writing:
Characteristics of communicative writing
Question No.-2:
Descriptive Writing
The poems, dealing with descriptions, which exhibit either subjective or subjective
approach to literature
Various writing components
Vocabulary and its various forms
Integrated Skills in an English Language Skills Classroom.
Its all components






The References
The End

Question No.1
What do you understand by the term Writing? What is the difference between
grammatical form and its function? Can writing be non-communicative in nature? Discuss
the major characteristic features of communicative writing in detail.
Writing is a method of representing language in visual or tactile form. Writing systems use sets
of symbols to represent the sounds of speech, and may also have symbols for such things as
punctuation and numerals.
Method of Writing:
There are mainly two methods of writing:

Alphabetic Method

ii. Word Method

Mechanics of Writing:

Handwriting ii. Spelling iii. Punctuation works

Features of communitive writing:

1. Purposeful

2. Logical, cohesive and coherent 3. Should have style

What is the difference between grammatical form and its function?

The difference between grammatical form and grammatical function is surprisingly difficult for
most grammar students to grasp. In grammatical form (what a word looks like) is clearly separate
from grammatical function (what a word does). But, how can more effectively explain this
Defining Form and Function
All languages contain a finite, or limited, number of grammatical forms. Traditional grammars
use the term parts of speech as the term for what a word, phrase, or clause looks like. The
English language has only eight grammatical forms or parts of speech:
1. Noun


6. Preposition

7. Conjunction

3. Determine

4.Verb 5. Adverb

All languages, too, contain a finite, or limited, number of grammatical functions. Traditional
grammars do not have a term for grammatical form, which is what a word, phrase, or clause
does. There are thirty-two grammatical functions in the English language: It will cover a huge
space if we go for writing all of those; I am just going to mention its fundamental components.
Similarly, out of the eight grammatical forms, some forms can perform only one function while
other forms can perform multiple functions. And, of the thirty-one grammatical functions, some
functions can be performed by only one form while other functions can be performed by multiple
Using Metaphor
The difference between grammatical form and grammatical function? Lets look at people and
their occupations.
Men and Women:
Since we do live in this kind of world, the concept of two types of people, or forms, is relatively
easy to grasp. So, the two forms of people are:
1. Man


In this metaphorical world we can choose to be mothers, fathers, or teachers. These three jobs are
the only ones available. And, since occupations are something people do, can be called these jobs
functions. So, the three functions of people are:
1. Mother



We now have our two forms (man, woman) and three functions (mother, father, teacher). The
forms are what people look like, and the functions are what people do. Still with me? Now lets
see which forms can perform which functions and which functions can be performed by which
What functions can the form of man do? Well, men can be fathers, and men can be teachers. So,
we can say that the functions of the form man are father and teacher. Similarly, woman can be
mothers, and women can be teachers. So, the functions of the form woman are mother and

The idea of only women being mothers and only men being fathers is pretty easy to understand.
If a man has a child, he is called a father. If a woman has a child, she is called a mother. A man
cannot be a mother, and a woman cannot be a father. Thats just the way it is.
But, what about teacher? Clearly, both men and women can be teachers. There is no rule that
states only men or only women can be teachers. So, the function of teacher can be performed by
two forms while the functions of mother and father can only be performed by one form.
The difference between form and function. Just remember: form does not equal function, but
more than one form can perform the same function, and one function can be performed by more
than one form.
Major characteristics features of communicative writing:
Communicative writing can be defined as the combination of the processes we implement to
share and convey information in a written form. However, effective communication only
happens if the sender (i.e. the person prompting the communication process) is aware of specific
elements which cater for an effective transfer of the message to the recipient.
There are 7 characteristics of communicative writing mentioned below:
To be effective, communication should be complete, i.e. it should include all the information the
recipient needs to evaluate its content, solve a problem or make a decision.
Conciseness in communication happens when the message does not include any redundant or
irrelevant information. Concise communication prompts a better understanding of the message,
because the recipient can focus on the key points and does not get distracted.
In communicative writing, a sender should always consider and value the recipient's needs,
moods and points of view. Tailoring the contents and style of the messages based on their target
audience strengthens the key points delivered within, as the sender can use argumentations and
examples relevant to the recipient's experience, thus catering for a more thorough understanding
of the message in a written form

When the message is supported by facts and figures. Concreteness in communication is also
about answering to questions timely and consistently, and developing your argumentations based
on real-life examples and situations rather than on general scenarios or theories.
Being respectful of the recipient's culture, values and beliefs. Also, it involves the need to adopt a
register your audience can easily relate to and understand. Courteous communication has a
positive impact on the overall communication, as it prompts a more positive and constructive
approach to the conversation.
To achieve clearness, the message should focus on a single objective, thus emphasizing its
importance and catering for a prompt understanding of its contents.
Using grammar and syntax correctly assures for increased effectiveness and credibility of the
age. In fact, grammar and syntax mistakes make it harder for the recipient to understand its
contents. Also, they have a negative impact on the overall communication, as they show that the
writer hasn't taken his time to expertise his messages more carefully.

Question No.-2:
Descriptive writing is considered to be one of the most commonly used writing sub-skills.
Depending upon the motive or a writer, a descriptive piece of writing can be either
subjective or objective in nature. Select any of your favorite poet of Romantic era and
search for his any two poems, dealing with descriptions, which best exhibit either subjective
or objective approach to literature. Compare and contrast both the poems and discuss their
salient features. Paste both poems in your assignment.
Descriptive Writing:
Descriptive writing is the clear description of people, places, objects, or vent using appropriate
details. An effective description will contain sufficient and varied elaboration of details to
communicate a sense of the subject being described. Detailed use are usually sensory and
selected to describe what the writer sees, hears, smells, touches and tastes.
Writing description is one of the most commonly used writing sub-skills. Quite often our
descriptions are highly subjective; our choice of adjective make clear to the reader our attitudes
towards the things we are describing.
Subjective description: This is as beautiful house; the rooms are spacious. Its wonderful to
have so many cupboards in each room.
Objective description: The rooms in this house are12*12 and each room has two full length
cupboards. The statement should be based on facts and figures.
Favorite poet of Romantic era: P. B. Shelley:
The poems, dealing with descriptions, which exhibit either subjective or subjective
approach to literature.
SHELLEY belongs to an age of English poetry which is known as the Romantic age, or the
period of Romantic revival (1798-1830). The Romantic Movement, may be described, in
general terms, as a c complex process of liberation of human heart, imagination and spirit from
fetters of the Eighteenth-century cult of Reason and mechanical conception of the Universe. It
was a revolt against the 18th century ways of thinking, writing and believing, and a revival of the

old Mediaeval and Elizabethan forms of poetry, library manner, and unsophisticated outlook,
together with renewed appreciation of Greek literature, myth and philosophy.
The English Romanticism took its rise in the very heart of the 18 th century neo classicism in
the form of sentimentalism in the literature of the Middle class, in whose heart the old fire of
puritanism was not completely defunct.
Shelleys poem: Ode to the West Wind is really an image of Shelley himself who, in his great
ode, prays to the Wild West Wind:
1. Oh, lift me as a wave, a leaf, a cloud!
I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed!
A heavy weight of hours has chained and bowed
One too like these: tame less, and swift, and proud.
In this Ode to the West Wind, he implores the impetuous force of Nature to drive his dead
thoughts over the universe to quicken a new birth:
Scatter, as from an unextinguished hearth,
Ashes and sparks, my words among mankind.
Shelley was an undaunted opponent of tyranny in all its forms and manifestations, religious,
social, political and moral and mature wisdom of the long-suffering Titan that the tyrant is an
object of pity, rather than of hate and contempt, because it is destined to be ultimately defeated
and overthrown by the Creative Law immanent in the universe itself, and that by multiplying his
atrocities and evil deeds the despot is only accelerating the process of his own undoing, is only a
mouthpiece of his creator in his bitter words addressed to the vision of the bleeding Christ:
2. Peace is in the grave
The grave hides all things beautiful and good
All things are still; alas I how heavily
This quiet morning weighs upon my heart;
There is no agony, and no solace left;

Compare and contrast of the poems: (Poem-1)

The first poem Ode to the West Wind Shelleys imagination of the destruction of the existing
system and wipe it out through the unlimited power of the Nature. In this poem
Shelleys imagination of turning the existing dead or corrupt system there is his (authors) role in
it to rebirth a new mechanism which is based on equality and equity in the society.
The poet refers to the eternal life and has given the allegory of grave, the end of life and is put
into a grave where there are no miseries and worries. There are no agonies and the person is free
from the worldly hardships and vicissitudes of life.
It is symbolic, allegorical meaning is the spiritually one is approaching the one ness with the
creator in the heaven.

Differentiate between controlled, free and guided writing with suitable and relevant
examples. Suppose you are required to teach narrative writing to your students, design two
activities for each of these three stages of development of writing skills. You may use
authentic material to make your activities both challenging and interesting.
There are three stages of writings;


What is Controlled Writing?

Controlled writing is all about students would require familiarity with sentence construction;
sentence combination, rearrangement, fill in the blanks. Controlled writing is all the writing the
students do for which a great of the content and form is supplied. In controlled writing, students
are given a focused tasks. Controlled writing can be done if students have acquired a
considerable level of writing skills. Controlled writing can be fit into a composition curriculum
at any level of student ability.
Some Examples:
In a beautiful park two young men walking with a newspaper carrying in their hand. The sat on a
bench in a corner and started reading the newspaper with full concentration. At the same time
there are some dogs barking on the streets of a nearby street. But the focused men are fully
engrossed in reading the newspaper.
Guided Writing:
Guided writing involves some original composition and may be in the form of question,
telegrams precis writing etc. At this stage most of the written work is guided by the teacher.
Similarly, in the guided writing, the teacher is the main resource person who gives topics, ideas,
and discussion topics to students and asks them to go ahead with the assignment given to them.

The class is its way to hiking; teacher concerned told them to write the steps from the starting
point to the ending point. Students were guided by the teacher to write 5-to 10 lines and write the
steps of enjoyment and the issues encountered during their trip.
Free Writing:
Students generate, organize and express their own idea in their own sentences. In this style of
writing students has the free will to elaborate the idea with providing the relevant information to
the readers.
Teacher cannot challenge the student in free writing style; of course, proficiency and proper use
of vocabulary is required to develop a free writing. In free writing students create a creative idea
by expressing their ideas logically. The level is considered to be an advance and elevated level
where the teacher can polish the script. Students will be largely working from their own
linguistic source or skill and they will definitely receive guidance from the teacher accordingly.
Activity for teaching narrative writing with the reference to Controlled Writing:
Teacher asked the students to describe filling a blank form:
Name----------------------(write your first name)-----------------(last name)
Address:-----------------Date of Birth:---------------------------------------------------------------------Birthplace:------------------------------------------------------------------------Name of your school__________________________________________
Address:---------------------------------------------------------------------------Hobbies:----------------------------------------------------------------------------Name of the Principals-------------------------------------------------------------The students are asked to fill the form.

Activity for Free writing:

The teacher asked the students to describe the cricket match played between Pakistan and India
in Dubai in your own words.
Students will narrate the match in their own language according to their own perception. The
have the liberty to use the appropriate language with regard to cricket; it may be related to their
favorite players or scores or any other form of cricket match.
The teacher will check the piece of writing presented by students and will be checked for further
Activity for Guided Writing\
Teacher, being the resource person asked the students to draw the outline for their thesis.
Students have to follow the rules and regulation of the instruction and the guidance given by the
teacher. Similarly, a group of students were asked to prepare a project on the importance of
linguistic skills at all educational level i.e. Primary to Tertiary level; they were guided to collect
data from various educational institutions by dividing work assignments and prepare a collective
project based on facts.
Authentic Material:
Authentic material are considered to be the material related to any form of teaching and learning
approved by a competent authority in order to be able to utilize for learning purposes. The use of
authentic material in this particular activity is to use them for the preparation of a project and
theses could be presented by the students.

What is the difference between active and passive vocabulary? Critically evaluate the
shortcomings of our current practices of presenting new vocabulary to our learners.
Suggest some useful ways and creative techniques for effective vocabulary teaching to
improve the existing situation.
Passive vocabulary: vocabulary we can understand but cant use when writing or speaking.
With passive vocabulary, we can listen and understand. Hearing the vocabulary used prompts us
to recall its meaning. In other words, we are being made to recall it. So its passive vocabulary.
Active vocabulary: vocabulary we can use when speaking and/or writing. Active vocabulary is
that we can recall and use it when the situation requires. We are choosing to use the word and
actively retrieving it from memory.
The important thing to know is that we will always have more passive vocabulary than active
The native speakers know more passive than active vocabulary. If we think about this in our own
native language regarding medical terms, legal terms, and even slang.
How to Increase Your Active Vocabulary
Before we start trying to make more vocabulary active, we need to make all passive vocabulary
active. Its smart to focus on what type of English we are going to use when trying to make
vocabulary active.
We can increase your active vocabulary by:

Using it by speaking and writing (we might need to take our time and work with a teacher

to help us)
Using digital flashcards
Repeating after native speakers
Getting lots of input and repetition
Focus on the English that you are going to use.

Similarly, after listening to and reading a lot of English, then we will subconsciously internalize
this English, and be able to use it during conversation.
Shortcomings in our current practices:
According to the Kaizan Theory (Japanese), the existing knowledge will be double in the
coming ten years; with regard to vocabulary every year10, 000 words are created newly
(lecture delivered by the Teacher). Under such circumstances there is a dire need to update our
skills every day; unless we learn something new especially the vocabulary, we will not be able to
cope with the changing world. Similarly, the latest scenario says that the existing knowledge
will be doubled by 2020 in 73 days. (Quotation taken from a training session carried out by
IBA Karachi for the faculty members of Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) at
It means the shortcoming are found in the current practices of updating skills with the emerging
situation of vocabulary creation whether or not our educational institutions in general and the
teachers concerned in particular are familiar with these theories; and do they update their skills in
accordance with challenges they encounter on daily bases.
The current practices have been that neither the institutions nor the individual persons with
concerned profession have developed any strategy to overcome the flaws with regard to
vocabulary building mechanism.
Suggestions for effective vocabulary teaching to improve the existing situation:
The following suggestion are highlighted below:

Pre-teaching vocabulary: teacher is needed to explain the vocabulary in the perspective of

the lesson;
Introduction of words: the same words are to be used time and again with repetition so

that the learners may be able to understand it thoroughly;

Key words methods: underline the structural words, nouns and adjectives and link them

with key words;

Words maps: vocabulary family by explaining the route analysis of putting prefixes and

suffixes with examples;

Context skills: vocabulary can be explored through context of the text;

More attention to new words: relate it the new knowledge and more attention through

constant practice is required;

Appropriate vocabulary: Various sources such as dictionary, spelling, pronunciation are

needed to be used for understanding appropriate vocabulary;

Trained Teachers: Professional and trained teachers with latest skills in linguistics should
be recruited at all levels.


What do you understand by the term integrated Skills? Design three information gap
activities to enable the learners to practice and develop integrated skills.
Integrated Skills:
Integration refers to teaching the many aspects of a skill and treat it as one of two or more
integrated skills. The teaching of pronunciation skills is integrated with both speaking and
listening instructions.
With regard to integrated skill lesson should take place, with the focus on Reading Skills;
Pre-reading discussing on a chosen topic to activate plans. Similarly, integrating listening to a
series of facts or statements related to the topic. A focus on a reading strategy like scanning; a
integrating writing some ideas of the reading passage. The appropriate manner to teach the
learners reading is to begin by processing letters, moving to the English spelling system and
vocabulary teaching.
Moreover, writing skills integrated with other skills, as the case in teaching integrated Reading
skills, students find a more relaxing and confident atmosphere when they are familiar with letters
and the signs used in reading. Much of the instruction used in the class written, grammar and
vocabulary tasks.
Furthermore, another approach for teaching writing together with reading is with the focus on the
language for specific purpose academic.
Integrated Skills in an English Language Skills Classroom.
The example of one image for teaching English as a second or foreign language is that of an
embroidery. The embroidery is knitted from many components, such as the characteristics of
the teacher, the learner, the setting, and the relevant languages (i.e., English and the native
languages of the learners and the teacher). For the instructional loom to produce a large, strong,
beautiful, colorful embroidery, all of these elements must be interwoven in positive ways. For
example, the instructor's teaching style must address the learning style of the learner, the learner
must be motivated, and the setting must provide resources and values that strongly support the
teaching of the language. However, if the components are not knitted together effectively, the

instructional loom is likely to produce something small, weak, ragged, and pale--not
recognizable as an embroidery at all.
Information Gap Activities:
1. Vocabulary:
One of the sub-skills: Vocabulary is one of the information gaps in the integrated skills; in
order to communicate properly in all four areas vocabulary matters a lot. Using the
proper meaning or words while using speaking, writing, skills is the fundamental keys to
carry the massage forward accurately. If not the objective or meaning can be led to wrong
2. Replacing words:
In the perspective of information gap the students who work in a peer do not have
sufficient information to pass on or does not have appropriate information. In this
scenario, the members have to replace the words to communicate with each other to be
able to understand the discussions.
3. Using structure:
Using various forms of structure can be used to avoid any information gap; the learners
can look the pictures in order for them to understand the entire structure of the story.


Define and explain the following levels of comprehension with examples.



Literal refers to: Accurate, Exact, and Precise;
The explanation of Literal with different forms are given below:
1. Taking words in their usual or most basic sense without allegory or exaggeration:
Dreadful in its literal sense, full of dread
2. Free from exaggeration or distortion:
You shouldnt take this as a literal record of events
3. informal Absolute (used to emphasize that a strong expression is deliberately chosen to
ones feelings):
Fifteen years of literal hell
4. representing the exact words of the original text:
A literal translation from the Spanish
5. (Of a visual representation) exactly copied; realistic as opposed to abstract or
6. (Of a person or performance) lacking imagination;
His interpretation was rather too literal
7. literal-minded, down-to-earth, factual, matter-of-fact, no-nonsense, unsentimental, hardheaded;
8. Unimaginative, colorless, tedious, boring, dull, uninspiring, Literal:
Students at the literal level can take their answers directly from the text.
Inferential level:
The students can take their answer from the text indirectly by reaching on an opinion and
collect information.

Evaluative level:
At this level students have to make use of their own experience and knowledge. The
step out of the text. At this level students commonly use information from many
sources to reach specific judgement.
Significant of Evaluation:
a. Facilitate students comprehension level;

b. To assess student progress;

c. To understand the students in their individual capacity;
d. To contribute to knowledge of abilities (the capacity and capability of a student).


Lectures delivered by the Teacher;

Book (The Language Skills-II
The Supplementary Reading Material (Code 5660)
Teaching of English (MA Education), JARDAN PUBLICATIONS.
Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary
Own experience,
Google, Net facility used for guidance