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PAL (IGCSE) CHEMISTRY

Section 8 Acids, Bases and Salts

Acids, Bases and Salts


PAL (IGCSE) Chemistry
Revision Book - Section 8

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PAL (IGCSE) CHEMISTRY


Section 8 Acids, Bases and Salts

Syllabus Content_______________________________

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PAL (IGCSE) CHEMISTRY


Section 8 Acids, Bases and Salts

Syllabus Details________________________________
8. Acids, bases and salts
8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases
Core
Describe the characteristic properties of acids as reactions with metals, bases,
carbonates and effect on litmus

Reactions of ACIDS with BASES

Acid + Base

Salt

Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium hydroxide


HCl + NaOH
Sulphuric Acid

Sodium chloride + Water

NaCl + H2O

Calcium hydroxide

H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2
Nitric Acid

Calcium sulphate + Water


CaSO4

Potassium hydroxide

HNO3 + KOH

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+ Water

KNO3

+ 2H2O

Potassium nitrate + Water


+ H2O

PAL (IGCSE) CHEMISTRY


Section 8 Acids, Bases and Salts

Reactions of ACIDS with CARBONATES

Acid + Carbonate

Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium carbonate


2HCl + Na2CO3

Sodium chloride + Water + Carbon dioxide


2NaCl + H2O + CO2

Acid + Hydrogencarbonate

Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium hydrogencarbonate


HCl + NaHCO3

Sodium chloride + Water + Carbon dioxide


NaCl + H2O

+ CO2

ACIDS TURN BLUE LITMUS RED


Describe the characteristic properties of bases as reactions with acids and with
ammonium salts and effect on litmus

Neutralization Reactions

Acid + Base

Salt

Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium hydroxide


HCl + NaOH

+ Water

Sodium chloride + Water

NaCl + H2O

H+(aq) + OH- (aq)


Hydrogen ion

+ Hydroxide ion

H2O(l)
Water

BASES TURN RED LITMUS BLUE

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PAL (IGCSE) CHEMISTRY


Section 8 Acids, Bases and Salts

Describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of pH (whole


numbers only) measured using Universal Indicator paper

pH Scale
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 12 13 14
ACIDS

ALKALIS
NEUTRAL

Describe and explain the importance of controlling acidity in soil


Acidity in soil
Plants prefer a certain degree of acidity or alkalinity
o E.g. Potatoes pH 4.5 6.0
Too acid or basic soil will lead to plants dying
The acidity can be controlled by using
o
Lime to reduce acidity
o Peat to increase acidity
Supplement
Define acids and bases in terms of proton transfer, limited to aqueous solutions
ACIDS: A molecule or ion that is able to donate a proton (H+) to a base
BASES: A molecule or ion that is able to accept a proton (H+)
Describe the meaning of weak and strong acids and bases
Strong acids: Completely ionized in solution in water
Weak acids: Partially dissociated in solution in water
Strong bases: Completely ionized in solution in water
Weak bases: Partially dissociated in solution in water

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PAL (IGCSE) CHEMISTRY


Section 8 Acids, Bases and Salts
8.2 Types of oxides
Core
Classify oxides as either acidic or basic, related to metallic and non-metallic
character
Supplement
Further classify other oxides as neutral or Amphoteric

Non-metal Oxides
Acidic
CO2, SO2

Neutral
H2O, CO, NO

Metal Oxides
Amphoteric
ZnO, Al2O3

Basic
CaO, MgO, CuO

8.3 Preparation of salts


Core
Describe the preparation, separation and purification of salts as examples of
some of the techniques specified in section 2.2(b) and the reactions specified in
section 8.1
Supplement
Describe the preparation of insoluble salts by precipitation
Precipitation:

Salt
Soluble salt in
water
Insoluble salt in
water

The sudden formation of solid in a solution due to


the mixing of two solutions
or the bubbling of gas through the solution

Separation technique
Evaporation

Purification
Re-dissolve and evaporate

Filtration

Re-dissolve and evaporate

Steps to preparation of a salt


Place acid in a burette
Measure known volume of base in a beaker
Add suitable indicator to base (blue litmus)
Add acid drop-wise until colour change
Record volume of acid added
Repeat process without the indicator
Suggest a method of making a given salt from suitable starting material, given
appropriate information

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PAL (IGCSE) CHEMISTRY


Section 8 Acids, Bases and Salts
8.4 Identification of ions and gases
Core
Describe the following tests to identify:
aqueous cations: aluminium, ammonium, calcium, copper(II), iron(II), iron(III) and
zinc (using aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia as appropriate)
(Formulae of complex ions are not required.)

anions:
carbonate (by reaction with dilute acid and then limewater), chloride (by reaction
under acidic
conditions with aqueous silver nitrate), iodide (by reaction under acidic conditions
with aqueous silver nitrate), nitrate (by reduction with aluminium), sulfate
(by reaction under acidic conditions with aqueous barium ions)

gases:
ammonia (using damp red litmus paper), carbon dioxide (using limewater),
chlorine (using damp litmus paper), hydrogen (using lighted splint), oxygen (using
a
glowing splint).

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