PAL (IGCSE) – CHEMISTRY

Section 8 Acids, Bases and Salts

Acids, Bases and Salts
PAL (IGCSE) Chemistry
Revision Book - Section 8

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PAL (IGCSE) – CHEMISTRY Section 8 Acids. Bases and Salts Syllabus Content_______________________________ DIPONT Educational Resource – Science 2 .

Bases and Salts Syllabus Details________________________________ 8. bases. bases and salts 8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases Core • Describe the characteristic properties of acids as reactions with metals. Acids.PAL (IGCSE) – CHEMISTRY Section 8 Acids. carbonates and effect on litmus Reactions of ACIDS with BASES Acid + Base Salt Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium hydroxide HCl + NaOH Sulphuric Acid + + Sodium chloride + Water NaCl + H2O Calcium hydroxide H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 Nitric Acid Calcium sulphate + Water CaSO4 Potassium hydroxide HNO3 + KOH DIPONT Educational Resource – Science + Water KNO3 + 2H2O Potassium nitrate + Water + H2O 3 .

(aq) Hydrogen ion + Hydroxide ion H2O(l) Water BASES TURN RED LITMUS BLUE DIPONT Educational Resource – Science 4 .PAL (IGCSE) – CHEMISTRY Section 8 Acids. Bases and Salts Reactions of ACIDS with CARBONATES Acid + Carbonate Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium carbonate 2HCl + Na2CO3 Sodium chloride + Water + Carbon dioxide 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 Acid + Hydrogencarbonate Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium hydrogencarbonate HCl + NaHCO3 Sodium chloride + Water + Carbon dioxide NaCl + H2O + CO2 ACIDS TURN BLUE LITMUS RED • Describe the characteristic properties of bases as reactions with acids and with ammonium salts and effect on litmus Neutralization Reactions Acid + Base Salt Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium hydroxide HCl + NaOH + Water Sodium chloride + Water NaCl + H2O H+(aq) + OH.

0  Too acid or basic soil will lead to plants dying  The acidity can be controlled by using… o Lime to reduce acidity o Peat to increase acidity Supplement • Define acids and bases in terms of proton transfer. Potatoes pH 4.5 – 6.g. Bases and Salts • Describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of pH (whole numbers only) measured using Universal Indicator paper pH Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 12 13 14 ACIDS ALKALIS NEUTRAL • Describe and explain the importance of controlling acidity in soil Acidity in soil  Plants prefer a certain degree of acidity or alkalinity o E. limited to aqueous solutions ACIDS: A molecule or ion that is able to donate a proton (H+) to a base BASES: A molecule or ion that is able to accept a proton (H+) • Describe the meaning of weak and strong acids and bases Strong acids: Completely ionized in solution in water Weak acids: Partially dissociated in solution in water Strong bases: Completely ionized in solution in water Weak bases: Partially dissociated in solution in water DIPONT Educational Resource – Science 5 .PAL (IGCSE) – CHEMISTRY Section 8 Acids.

Al2O3 Basic CaO. SO2 Neutral H2O. separation and purification of salts as examples of some of the techniques specified in section 2.3 Preparation of salts Core • Describe the preparation. CO. related to metallic and non-metallic character Supplement • Further classify other oxides as neutral or Amphoteric Non-metal Oxides Acidic CO2. NO Metal Oxides Amphoteric ZnO. given appropriate information DIPONT Educational Resource – Science 6 .2(b) and the reactions specified in section 8. MgO.1 Supplement • Describe the preparation of insoluble salts by precipitation Precipitation:   Salt Soluble salt in water Insoluble salt in water The sudden formation of solid in a solution due to… the mixing of two solutions or the bubbling of gas through the solution Separation technique Evaporation Purification Re-dissolve and evaporate Filtration Re-dissolve and evaporate Steps to preparation of a salt  Place acid in a burette  Measure known volume of base in a beaker  Add suitable indicator to base (blue litmus)  Add acid drop-wise until colour change  Record volume of acid added  Repeat process without the indicator • Suggest a method of making a given salt from suitable starting material. CuO 8.2 Types of oxides Core • Classify oxides as either acidic or basic. Bases and Salts 8.PAL (IGCSE) – CHEMISTRY Section 8 Acids.

hydrogen (using lighted splint).PAL (IGCSE) – CHEMISTRY Section 8 Acids.) anions: carbonate (by reaction with dilute acid and then limewater). iron(II). DIPONT Educational Resource – Science 7 . oxygen (using a glowing splint). ammonium. carbon dioxide (using limewater). iron(III) and zinc (using aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia as appropriate) (Formulae of complex ions are not required. copper(II). calcium. nitrate (by reduction with aluminium). chloride (by reaction under acidic conditions with aqueous silver nitrate). chlorine (using damp litmus paper). iodide (by reaction under acidic conditions with aqueous silver nitrate). Bases and Salts 8. sulfate (by reaction under acidic conditions with aqueous barium ions) gases: ammonia (using damp red litmus paper).4 Identification of ions and gases Core • Describe the following tests to identify: aqueous cations: aluminium.