Topic 1

Networking at the Workplace

1.1 Starting a conversation
a. Introduce yourself: You need to use the right words, smile
and eye contact
Good morning, may I introduce myself?
My name is ... and I’m from the marketing department

b. Introduce others: you need to mention the name and position
of those you are introducing.
Hi everyone, meet ...
She is my personal assistant.

1.2 Making small talk:
chatting about things not related to anything in particular. Do not
talk about political, racial or personal issues. Talk about
holidays, weather etc. Start with exploratory questions or
statement to see whether person is eager to talk.
When you are at a loss for words, you can resort to „ice
breakers‰ such as the following:
_ How was your journey?
_ Is this your first visit to...?
_ Where are you staying?
_ How has your visit been so far?
_ Do you need any help or information?
_ Tell me more about your country.

1.3 Getting down to business
a. In conversing with people at your workplace, you will need to describe

your job and organisation. You need to project a positive professional
image of yourself and your organisation.
Below are examples of questions commonly asked and phrases
often used when people talk about their jobs or organisations:
(i) Which company are you with?
I am with XYZ.
(ii) What do you do at XYZ Company?
I am in charge of marketing.
I am responsible for sales.
I recruit and train employees.
b. You need to be familiar with the products or services that your

company specialise in. What does your organisation focus on? Does

it provide a product, a service, or both? Sometimes, a company is
described in terms of the products or services it offers. For example:
_ We design software.
_ We build storage units.
_ WeÊre in the insurance business.

c. The differences between sole proprietorship, partnership and

A sole proprietorship - is an unincorporated business owned by one
person. It is the most simple and basic form of business
organisation. Without
the owner, the business would not exist. The sole business owner
assumes all responsibilities, liabilities and risks, and of course takes
all the profit.
A partnership - is established by two or more people. All the
contribute something to the business _ money, labour, skills or
property _
and share the profits.
Corporations are businesses where the shareholders transfer money
property for the company’s capital stock. Profits are distributed
to investment in the capital stock. A corporation can take some of
the same
deductions as a sole proprietorship, while enjoying special tax
Most companies have their own logos to give them a sense of
Logos are also a form of branding to build the company’s image.
Some logos are recognised all over the world, for example,
McDonald’s, NikeÊs „ and Shell

Topic 2

Basic telephone skills

2.1 Getting ready:
a. Before calling:
i. Think about a suitable time to call
ii. What is your objective/s of calling?
iii. Anticipate question from the other person

iv. Have pen and papers ready
v. Update yourself of the most recent conversation
vi. Desk calendar ready at hand
vii. Fax ahead if it is your first call

2.2 receiving calls
train staff to be:
(a) BRIEF - Do not beat about the bush and waste the call recipient’s time;
(b) CLEAR - Explain the background and purpose of your call; and
(c) POLITE - Recognise and accept the other person’s point of view.

2.2.1telephone etiquette
a. answer phone promptly
b. identify yourself right away
c. use caller’s name
d. resolve caller’s problem, if not pass on to another and give reason
e. sound positive
f.reduce jargon
g. speak at appropriate pace
h. practise active listening
i. end the call with politely, Thank you
Do not:
(i) Eat and drink while talking on the phone.
(ii) Be too familiar with the person on the other end of the phone.
(iii) Talk to someone else in your office while you are still on the phone.
(iv) Allow too much background noise.
(v) Speak too quietly or loudly.
(vi) Use rude language
2.2.2 I’m calling because

Business calls: you need to save time by quickly asking probing questions
to get more information about the telephone call. You need to: example
complain about the product
i. Identify the problem
ii. Verify the product

iii. Determine if warranty applies
iv. Ascertain how the product has been used
v. Find out what steps have been taken to rectify the problem

2.2.3 Common telephone words
Learn and use standard phrases used in phone calls (p27)
(a) Introducing yourself:
_ Hello, Chan and Lee Clinic.
_ Good morning, this is Mariam.
_ Kenny speaking.
_ Good evening, Harris, Open University Malaysia.
_ Hi, my nameÊs .................. and IÊm calling from ..........................
(b) Finding out who is on the telephone:
_ Excuse me, who is this please?
_ May I ask who is calling, please?
_ WhoÊs speaking?
(c) Asking for someone:
_ Is Bob in, please?
_ Can I have extension 3421, please? (extensions are internal
numbers at a company)
_ IÊd like to speak to Max Thambirajah.
_ Can you put me through to Steven, please?
(d) Connecting someone:
_ Certainly, hold on a minute, I'll put you through ...
_ Can you hold the line?
_ Can you hang on a moment, please?
(e) Saying that someone is not available:
_ I'm afraid he's out at the moment.
_ IÊm sorry but the line is engaged... (when the extension
requested is being used).
_ IÊm sorry but Jack is not in at the moment.
_ Paul is on leave today.
_ Jim is in a meeting.
_ .................................................................................................................
(f) Asking the other person to repeat what was said:
_ IÊm sorry, but can you say that again?
_ Pardon?
_ Can you spell that please?
_ .................................................................................................................
(g) Ending a call:

...... ... I think that covers everything.. hold on a minute....? I need to talk to him about a collaborative project with Dinkins University......... Bye. Goodbye.. Dr Li : Bye 2....... 2... please? Operator : Certainly.. Arts Faculty.....3 Taking and leaving messages (a) Mention your name: Hello.. and this is Peter Ng. (e) End the call: Thanks... that's ..... Open University Malaysia. Dr Li : OUM. Can I take a message? Peter : Yes.... Peter... Dr Li : Thank you..... I'm calling to let you know that ............3. Aidah. (c) Make a request: Could you call me back? (d) Leave your number: My number is .. Peter : This is Peter Ng calling. Okay. Operator : Hello....... Can you think of other words? Fill in the blanks with some of these words/phrases. I'll put you through .... Thank you very much for your help. IÊll come by your office on Monday at 10am. (b) Leaving a message: _ Could you ask X to call me back please? _ Can I leave a message for X? _ _________________________ (c) Promising action: ..1 Language Checklist Below are words/phrases commonly used when you take or leave telephone messages. this is Ahmad Fauzi..... Is Professor Mahmud in? Dr Li : I'm afraid he's out at the moment...... (b) State time and reason for call: It's 10am.. Dr Li speaking.... Peter : Thank you so much. I'll pass the message to Professor Mahmud when he comes in........ It's urgent. IÊll check the details and get back to you later.. (a) Offering to take a message: _ Would you like to leave a message? _ Could I take a message..... Dr Li : Could you repeat the number please? Peter : Yes. please? _ Could I have your name and contact number.. Can I have extension 3421........ How can I help you? Peter : This is Peter Ng......._ _ _ _ _ _ Thank you for calling.. Could you ask him to call me at . I'll talk to you later..... please? _ ________________________.....

3. Topic 3Discussions and meetings 3. Use a pad/notebook to write down the details. we can start. Offer assistance. Quickly ascertain what the caller wants _ a return call. _ Answer all calls promptly. _ One needs to be firm. Record the date and time of message. when dealing with difficult calls. . Spell names accurately _ do not be afraid to ask the caller if you are unsure how his/her name is spelled. etc. iv. _ Phone messages should contain five elements _ the name of caller. Offer a three part greeting _ hello. clear and polite. and the name of person answering the call. I think we should begin . etc. vi. speak at a steady pace. persistent and well-prepared. basic telephone skills if you wish to be effective at the workplace. avoid technical jargon. the time and reason for the call. the request.. If everyone is here. the name of the organisation. - Each member need to contribute actively and be aware of the appropriate expressions and functions.. _ Observe telephone etiquette when answering phone calls _ sound positive and helpful. _ I will pass your message on. a contact number. you should: i. _ When making business calls. (a) Starting a meeting Well. Here are some examples of language forms and phrases that are commonly used at different stages of a meeting or discussion. 2.1 Meetings - Meetings are for exchanging information. v._ I'll give X your message as soon as he comes in. iii. _ Business calls often use standard phrases which are informal in tone. within three rings. action to be taken. ladies and gentlemen.2 Tips for effective message taking In order to help you take down messages accurately. ii. discussion and make decisions. remember to be brief. _ ________________________. do not eat or drink while on the phone. and a thank you. Follow up with appropriate action. _ Business calls usually have a purpose and you need to identify the objective of the call as quickly as possible. SUMMARY TOPIC 2 _ You need to have good.

Language in  Starting a meeting meetings  Introducing the agenda  Stating objectives  Keeping the meeting moving  Closing the meeting Why do you need to know all these? - Ideas in meetings need to be articulated tactfully... 3. Let us look at the first item on the agenda _ (c) Stating objectives The purpose of this meeting is..? . We want our message to be understood by everyone. we can stop here... (b) A neutral way.Shall we start? (b) Introducing the agenda Today we need to talk about . (d) Keeping the meeting moving Can you tell us more about . Asking for opinions Would you mind telling me what you think of _? What do you think about _? What is your opinion of _? How do you feel about _? What are your views on _ ? Any comments .2 Expressing Opinion An important part of meetings and discussions involves asking and giving opinions... or (c) A tentative way (with some hesitation or reservation).. to .. The main objective of our meeting is . to . and secondly.. firstly.. all the time showing respect for the others.. An opinion can be expressed in various ways: (a) A forceful way.? Shall we continue? (e) Closing the meeting Does anyone have anything else to add? If that is all..

I am in complete agreement. Table 3. I would not say that.Giving an opinion I think that _ I feel/believe that _ In my opinion/view. definitely. the expressions you use to voice your agreement will tell the listener the strength.3: Making and Asking for Suggestions . Suggestions can be made strongly. That is right. Why are there differences in giving opinions? Think Expressing agreement and disagreement about purpose/intention. Disagreement Neutral I do not agree. . AGREEMENT Neutral I agree. Strong I disagree completely. or degree. Precisely. That is true. neutrally or tentatively. Ways of Expressing Agreement and Disagreement Strong I absolutely agree. _ My opinion is that _ My point of view is _ 3. That is not how I see it. On the contrary. I think you are right. to which you agree. Yes.  Strong  Neutral Discussion will gain momentum as each responds positively or negatively. I think you are wrong. That is out of the question. I disagree. You are right there.3 Expressing agreement/ Disagreement When you agree with someone. - Making and requesting for suggestions during meetings are common. Expressing  Forceful opinions  Neutral  Tentative This occur both when asking and giving opinions. Exactly. Of course not! That is ridiculous.

. _ I am afraid I cannot accept that.. _ The advantage of_ is that .. then. _ Either we .... _ I can see why you want to do this but_ Building up arguments _ I am afraid that is not possible... Rejecting ideas _ I am sorry but I really do not think that_ is a good idea.. I would like to hear your suggestions. _ If we put off this decision any longer it will mean further delays.. _ That is a good idea. but that is not really practical. _ That is very interesting but ..4: Other Useful Expressions Presenting alternatives One possibility is to . What would you suggest? Do you have any suggestions? What do you recommend? What are your views on this? Neutral I think we should Tentative It might be good to . _ I have absolutely no objections... .. whereas_ Accepting proposals I am completely in favour of that... or ... can... I recommend that we _ I think we should _ I suggest that we _ My recommendation is that we .. . Table 3. Balancing points of view _ I accept what you say but . _ I am sure that is the best idea... _ I appreciate your point of view but_. _ If we . _ I am sorry..... _ I am in favour of that.. Secondly ... I would like to hear your ideas on this. As a result .Making Suggestions Asking for Suggestions Strong We must . Firstly ..... _ As I see it ..

it may cause .? _ If everyone is in favour. I would like to recommend . .. then I think we can end the meeting here.... Summarising and concluding the meeting _ If everyone is in favour of what I have suggested_ _ If everyone is in agreement to what I have proposed ._ The project may be profitable but on the other hand it may be.. _ Does anyone have anything else to add_? _ Right.. we can stop here.. _ Do you all agree that _. _ So if that is it. If we .....

- Brainstorming – where theme is central and develops into many branches.2 Making a presentation Ask our self the following question :1.3 Planning ideas. What visual aids can I use? 5.chronological . a.Structure of presentation. Why am I giving this presentations? 2. What can I do to make my talk interesting? . What do the audience know about the subject? 4. Organisational patterns: . opening lines. Mind mapping b.cause-effect . c.topical . What do the audience need/expect? 6.problem solution (i) Chronological order . collecting ideas and materials.2.Structure of subject matter or the facts and 4. . Arrangement of ideas to be presented. Consider mind mapping. visual aids and gestures.1 Structuring subject matter - Gathering. outlining and organizational patterns.comparison-contrast . What do I hope to achieve? 3. Outlining – ideas arranged in linear fashion.Topic 4 Making Presentations 4. brainstorming and sorting it into logical sequences. how to present it? Consider audience awareness. 4.spatial .

(iii) Topical order This is useful when you have a number of specific topics or subtopic for your talk. This is useful for narratives. (iii) Topic C. . you organise the information according to the similarities and/or differences between the various subjects you wish to talk about. as well as the positive and negative aspects of a subject or topic. that is. (v) Cause-effect order This pattern organises information according to the causes and effects of an action or initiative. explain how the presentation is organised: (i) Topic A. your talk will focus on a sequence of problems and their respective solutions. Give your talk. (ii) Topic B. Conclude with a powerful statement and allow questio ns. (iv) Comparison-contrast order For this. Presentation Format Step 1 Step 2 Introduce yourself. sequences. (vi) Problem-solution order For this structure.Using time as a framework. referring to visuals wherever necessary (i) Talk about topic A (ii) Summarise topic A Step 5 Step 6 (iii) Repeat for all the topics Summarise the main points of the whole presentation. Give the topic and the estimated amount of time for the Step 3 presentation. etc. you may begin with the most important topic and end with the least important. processes or series of events. Give an outline of the talk. (ii) Spatial order This may be used for describing buildings. Tell the audience when they can ask questions _ whether they can interrupt during the presentation or can only ask questions at the Step 4 end of the presentation. places or locations.

d. c.2 Structuring the Presentation a. Today. Appropriate visual aids – help audience follow ideas closely. Have a strong opening d.. gestures. Be clear about the objective of presentation b. Non-verbal communication – posture. diagram. Smile. Maintain voice control so that you are neither shouting nor speaking too softly. Effective opening lines – to create impression and capture attention. Let me begin by telling you a story on computer communication networks. You need to pitch your talk according to the requirements of the talk. visual aids to support the presentation f.4. I am going to talk about an innovation that has saved us much time and money.3 The Presentation proper a. Maintain frequent eye contact with everyone in the room. maps. and d. pictograph.2. Use relevant examples e. list. c. Audience awareness – focus on the needs and temperament of audience. b. show enthusiasm . even when you are pointing to something they have written or are reading. You may wish to heed these simple rules: a. Maintain a reasonable distance from individual members of the audience. It is thus important to be aware of the impact of your facial expressions. nod and move your arms moderately or only when necessary. or to drive home specific points. posture and movements during the presentation. Some common visuals include graph chart. or (ii) Ridicule _ they may think you are making fun of them or assuming that they are poorly informed. (i) Friendliness _ the audience may think you do not mind being questioned. will create indirect messages to the audience. Some examples of strong opening lines are: i. ii. Structure the content in simple. drawing. 4. and logical manner c. b.

.1. ii. Choose familiar words.5 Grammar: word order in sentences  Sentences should be complete .The subject is the person or thing that the sentence is about. Use logical connectors to help reader focus on intention and purpose 5.1. to persuade 5. be polite Topic 5 Business writing 1 5. ii.The complement tells you more about the subject. Word choice and order of information set the tone. .g. Be aware of gender bias 5. to instruct c.4Tone i. be concise and precise. organise ideas to suit the purpose: a.The object is the person or thing affected by the action or situation. .1 The language of business writing     Communicating message without misinterpretation Direct writing style / reader-friendly Remember tone and clarity sentence length and paragraphing 5. be sensitive to audience h. 5. Be courteous. Sentence usually between 15 to 20 words. coherence and cohesion. iii.2 Sentence Structure Readability (sentence length) and punctuation (adds clarity to message). Avoid imperatives.1. iii. Structure paragraph properly. Vary length of sentence.1 Choice of Words i. Avoid clichés and jargon unless familiar to reader. to inform b. ii.1. listen carefully to questions i.1.3 Paragraph Structure i.

Contains name and address of recipients. inclusion of title before name would be more formal. the organization and its address.2 1 2 The format of business letters  Formal communication to elicit specific response  Essential parts are details of the communication Parts of a letter  Letterhead Info on the writer. .  Inside address After the date and before salutation.  Greeting First name would be personal. Or Your ref  Date Between the letterhead and the inside address.  Attention line Below the last line of the inside address where a specific person’s name is mentioned. – Dear Sir. Dear Madam  Subject line Identifies writer’s purpose .Our Ref.5.

   Body Three parts including the opening and closing...Yours sincerely” Signature block The signature.Yours faithfully” “Dear. Complimentary close Match the form at salutation. “Dear Sir/Madam….(name)………. . name and post.

a number of .Are individual things.3. b. . bunches. minutes. boxes. a pound. these. If the final consonant of a noun is followed by _y.1 Countable nouns: .Are used with a/ an. a memo.Are units of measurement such as a metre. Singular nouns ending in _s Some nouns end in _s but are not plural: The news was good. a. We have opened new premises in Senawang.5.3 Plural Nouns Here are some rules on how to change a noun to the plural form. Their headquarters are in Johor. . a litre. several.Can be used in the plural (diaries... d. a kilo. or _ch or _sh. few. a letter. 5. deliveries c. . . The goods will be sent by special delivery. a mile. We add _s to form the plural of most nouns. and . memos). we add _es. a receptionist. the „y‰ is replaced with -ies. Examples: industries. Example: letters. a photograph. Examples: classes. Politics has never been one of my favourite subjects. a factory. _x. For example: Earnings per share have increased. a gallon. people and places: a diary.3.Follow words such as many. There are nouns which only occur in the plural. crashes.3 Grammar: Singular and plural forms  Countable nouns  Uncountable nouns  Plural nouns 5. If the noun ends in _s.

e.  Mixed style – comma is placed after the greeting and after the complimentary close.1 Full block layout – example Ms Jennifer Mead/Secretary/Fairview Residents Association/76 Fairview Park/43100 Petaling Jaya/Selangor We would be very happy to approve your request for Meena Trimble to speak at our next association meeting for approximately 20 minutes. The complimentary close and signature block will follow the sender’s address position. The business community in Sri Layang welcomes growth but at the same time . Groups and organisations Singular nouns such as bank or committee can be seen either as a number of people (plural) or as a collective unit (singular). other endings or stay the same. As a result. the verb or pronoun that follows such nouns may be either singular or plural.Economics is not an exact science. 5.4 Layout  Full block layout – all parts are aligned to the left.  Modified block layout with indented paragraphs (p95) Same as modified block except that each paragraph is indented from the left hand margin.4.5 Punctuation styles  Open style – punctuation used in the body of letter.  Modified block layout (p93) Senders address is at centre or aligned with the right hand margin. 5. Table 5.1: Irregular Plurals Singular aircraft criterion foot formula matrix person phenomenon Plural aircraft criteria feet formulae/formulas matrices people phenomena BUSSINESS LETTER 5. f. Irregular plurals Some words do not take an _s but have other forms.

2 Modified block layout .strives to be sensitive to the importance of preserving our landmarks. We appreciate the concern and dedication you and your group have in preserving our landmarks. Mr Wilkes will be contacting you by phone about the time slot we have for your remarks. Yours sincerely / Jose E Morales / Director 5.4. Thank you for the concern you demonstrate for our community.

3 Modified block layout with indented paragraphs .5.4.

Topic 6 Business writing 2 .

and _ Make a special offer for valued customers. _ Reply to an inquiry/request. 5. think about purpose rewrite Types of letters    Good news letters Neutral letters The first two are for asking or giving information. _ Inform about organisation’s services and activities. _ Acknowledge receipt of letter. _ Grant a loan or extend credit. 6.2 purpose of letter what to say jot down all ideas roughly order all points first draft read the letter. _ Forward a request. 7. 2. These letters usually try to achieve one or more of the following purposes or objectives: _ Make an inquiry.1 Good business letter  Well planned  Impress recipient of sender’s professional image and the importance of such communication. Bad news letters As the label suggests! Commonly. 4. . good news and neutral letters are written with the aim of giving or asking for information. 6.  The seven checklists 1. _ Confirm success at an interview.6. 3. _ Introduce self and organisation.

. WA 98795 Dear Mr Chia. author and publisher. _ Signature: Yours faithfully.. Would you please send me the following books via COD? According to your website. (b) Letter for placing orders After you are certain about the service or product that you want.. Title Driving Home Publisher Peter Lawford Author Jaber and Co Please contact me if you have any questions. _ Regarding your advertisement in . add a comma and continue _ for example.  The content of a good news letter follow this order :    (a) Purpose identified in the opening paragraph Place good news in the opening State details of good news in middle paragraph Close with statement of goodwill Letter of enquiry To ask for more info of product or service. Sample Letter _ Placing an Order (Letterhead) 23 September 2009 Mr Jack Chia. English Department .6. brochure.. _ Requesting a catalogue. p103 _ The start: _ Dear Sir or Madam. _ Although it is very formal. Yours sincerely Fred Lingam Fred Lingam Head..this is very formal as you do not know the person you are writing to. Neutral letter using good news letter format... would (could) you please send me .2.. Could you tell me whether. _ Giving reference: _ With reference to your advertisement in. „Referring to your advertisement. you may also use „To Whom It May Concern” as you do not know the person you are writing to..? _ Requesting further information: I would also like to know .. orders are to include the title. etc: After the reference. I look forward to doing business with you. Director Bookmark Online New Jersey. I have provided these below.1 Order of information  Good news and neutral business letters.

At various times throughout the year. you must apply your special discount first and then calculate your 2% discount for early payment. I can be reached at the number given in the letterhead. Invoices are payable within 30 days of receipt. I will be happy to answer any questions you may have regarding your new account. P104 A Letter Replying to an Enquiry Thank you for taking an interest in our bank. I would like to take this opportunity to briefly set forth our terms and conditions for maintaining an open account with our firm. we may offer our customers additional discounts on our products. As one of the leaders in this industry.FL/es (c)Letter of Reply to an inquiry Choice of using openings closing lines depend on purpose of letter and relations between the sender and receiver. We do. with a 2% discount available if your payment is remitted within ten (10) days of receipt. however. As the credit manager. In determining your cost in this case. we assure you that our products and services will not disappoint you. require that our invoices be paid within the specified time for our customers to take advantage of this 2% discount. We consider this incentive an excellent opportunity for our customers to increase their profit margin and therefore encourage the use of this discount privilege whenever possible. . Welcome to our family of customers.

I have developed excellent interpersonal skills and gained extensive experience in mediating problems to find acceptable solutions. I believe that I meet all your requirements as listed in the advertisement. I would like to meet with you to discuss the valuable contributions I could make to your company. Over the years. My present post is satisfying and the environment is pleasant but I feel that my career would benefit from a change. Malaysia. Letter of application for a job Claire Lopes 38 Jalan Hang Lekiu 75200 Malacca. A motivated worker with a strong foundation in business administration and customer service is the background that I would bring to your organisation. able to focus on the task at hand and have proven to be reliable in getting the job done. Sincerely. I excel in writing clear reports and letters which are easy to understand. I am also proficient in using most major office software and have experience in setting up an online customer service webpage. Application for the Post of Customer Service Representative Dear Mr Tong.d. Industrial Estate 40200 Shah Alam Selangor. In my present firm. I can be reached at 06-7053266. Your consideration and time are most appreciated. 11 November 2009 Stanley Tong Product Manager KLTEX Lot 5. I have had exposure to a wide variety of duties as a customer service representative. I am goal-oriented. In addition. Claire Lopes .

2.2 Bad news letter „Bad news business letters are written for various reasons. and _ Explain inability to fulfil an order. _ Refuse a request.   Telling unwelcome news Must convey message and maintain recipient’s goodwill . including the following: _ Refuse credit.6. _ Decline an invitation to speak at a function _ Notify an unsuccessful job applicant.

O. Box 2. P. 22-33 Uni Avenue ED/RS Singapore 1145 NK/ 22 Your ref: Our ref: 14 November 2009 Dear Ms Dan. 10810 Penang. Bayan Lepas Commercial Centre. which we received today. Nelson Kang Nelson Kang Chief Buyer (b) Reply to a letter of complaint CLASSY BIKES LTD 22 . 1145 Tel: 02 _ 22882882 Fax: 02 _ 22883883 Your ref: NK/ 22 .33 Uni Avenue. Singapore. I would appreciate it if you could advise us on what we should do with the forty bicycles wrongly supplied. We regret to inform you that upon examining the goods we found that forty of the bicycles delivered were racing bicycles instead of mountain bicycles. Yours sincerely. Dan Sales Manager Classy Bikes Ltd. I must ask you to arrange for the immediate despatch of replacements as we have firm orders from our own customers for the entire consignment. Malaysia Tel: 04 -2053060 Fax: 046622123 Ms E. Our order No 45256 I am writing with reference to the above order for mountain bicycles.Indirect order of information  Courteous opening  Explanation is provided first  Give the bad news  Close with positive paragraph (a) Letter of complaint The Bicycle Shoppe.

Yours sincerely. We have already despatched replacements for the forty racing bicycles and instructed our representative in Penang to collect the wrongly delivered goods as soon as possible.O. we would like to apologise for the inconvenience caused and to thank you for your patience in this matter. PERAK PHONE: 05 _ 5492 8280 _ MOBILE: 014 _ 2134 207 . Your order No 45256 We thank you for your letter of 14 November in which you informed us that we had made an error when supplying the above order. Elain Dan Elaine Dan (Ms) Sales Manager 6. We are very sorry we sent you forty racing bicycles instead of mountain bicycles.3 Resumes DAVID KHOO 38 PERSIARAN RIMBA HUTAN _ 31400 IPOH. Box 2 10810 Penang Malaysia Dear Mr Kang. There must have been a mix-up in the packing department.Our ref: ED/ RG 18 November 2009 Mr Nelson Kang Chief Buyer The Bicycle Shoppe Bayan Lepas Industrial Zone P. Finally. This time of the year is a particularly busy one for us and there are several orders coming in. We look forward to hearing of the safe arrival of the replacements and to doing further business with you.

- Functional resume – highlight skills and work experience. .2000 GCG Merchant Bank Systems Programmer Development and Company: Post: Responsibilities: of a new a financial databases Data International Trainee Systems Programmer Assisting in the development online information system for services company Referees Mr Joseph Tinggom Systems Manager Manager GCG Merchant Bank Jalan Harimau 31300 Ipoh 59200 Kuala Lumpur Mr Johan Bakar Data Processing Data International Jalan Lok Nawi Current Salary: RM38.000.Post applied for: Senior Systems Programmer Education 1982 _ 1995 St MichaelÊs School. - Basic resume – simple and short. achievements. - Specific resume – for specific post where it will follow the criteria set as advertised.a. Job functions of previous job will be highlighted. experience. for school-leavers.00 p. Ipoh Malaysian Higher School Certificate (STPM) Mathematics B Physics A Chemistry B General Paper A 1996 _1998 National University of Malaysia Bachelor of Computing Science (1st Class Honours) Work Experience 2001 .present programming of financial Company: Post : Responsibilities: systems using C/UNIX incorporating LAN/WAN technology and relational 1999 . - Statement of all qualifications. and anything that would of relevance to the reader written positively.

such as time and quantity.3 Pictographs A pictograph is a variation of a bar graph that uses symbols instead of bars to illustrate specific quantities of items. However.2 Bar Graphs A bar graph uses bars of equal width in varying lengths to represent: _ A comparison of items at one particular point in time. Normally. The use of pictographs is however. _ A comparison of items over time. Pictographs provide novelty and eye-catching appeal.1.Chapter 7 Tables. 7. .1. tables emphasise discrete rather than continuous data. Chart and Graph TYPES OF GRAPHIC AIDS 7. _ Changes in one item over time. a pictograph shows the changes in particular items over a period of time. Bar graphs cannot represent exact quantities or provide comparisons of quantities as precisely as tables can. .Tables are not visual.1. The horizontal and vertical axes represent the two elements being illustrated. for instance. Bars can also appear on both sides of the axis to indicate positive and negative quantities. 7. but are useful for readers who want to understand overall trends and comparisons. They are convenient for presenting lots of data and giving absolute values when precision is very important. The symbols should realistically correspond to the items.1 Tables . using the symbol of a cow to represent milk production. limited by the fact that symbols cannot adequately represent exact figures or fractions. Bars can extend in either a vertical or horizontal direction. you need to use your mind to translate each number into a relationship with every other number. This makes it hard to show trends or direction via tables. particularly in documents intended for consumers. and _ A comparison of portions of a single item.for presenting numerical data. since they present items one at a time in columns.

line graphs suffer from the same weakness as pictographs. These lines must be differentiated by colour or design and a key must identify them. They are useful if the whole unit has between three and 10 segments. 7. However.1. In preparing a pie chart.5 Pie Charts A pie chart or pie graph is a circle representing a whole unit. These charts are often used to indicate distribution trends. it is normal practice to place the largest segment at the 12 oÊclock position and then move clockwise. or in position. with segments of the circle or pie representing portions of the whole. Three or four lines representing different items can appear on the same graph for comparison.2 Describing Changes in Data . Line graphs usually plot changes in quantity.4 Line Graphs A line graph uses a line between the horizontal and vertical axes to show changes in the relationship between the elements represented by the two axes.2. 7.7. Pie charts or pie graphs are particularly good at providing a quick visual impression of a particular item but less effective in representing exact quantities.1. This difficulty can be overcome by using call-outs which indicate the exact quantity of the item. with the remaining segments in descending order of size. and are particularly useful for illustrating trends. Colours and shading are used to highlight segments of special importance or to separate one segment from the pie for emphasis.

that is. (a) To drop (e) To touch bottom (b) To soar (f) To remain at (c) To rise (g) To edge down (d) To fall 3. Three of the verbs above have an equivalent noun form. (iii) The price of oil rocketed gradually in 1973. (iv) The retail price index edged up sharply at the beginning of the year. For example. „to decrease‰(_) and „to stay the same. Some of them do not make sense.3. (v) Share prices dipped slightly towards the close of trading. (i) Sales of PCs fell steadily throughout last year. Do they have equivalent noun forms? If so. You need to be able to read and interpret data from graphs as well as to use data to plot graphs. Identify these three verbs. Indicate which of the given words below mean „to increase (_). (ii) Car sales plummeted marginally at the end of June. to remain constant‰(_). Think of other verbs that could be included in this list. Study it carefully and fill in the blanks in the the text below.Read the sentences below. Explain why and make the necessary changes. 7.1 Interpreting Line Graphs The line graph shows the movement in the price of gold in the year 2001. . what are they? LINE GRAPHS Line graphs usually plot changes in quantity or in position and are useful for highlighting movement or trends. 2. (vi) The government expects unemployment to continue to fall steadily. the noun form of to increase is an increase.

4 was created by Armin Ahzab. a development team leader at an advertising firm.using the words provided in the box. DÊlight Advertising. GETTING TO KNOW GANTT CHARTS A Gantt chart is used for scheduling and tracking key events that are necessary to complete a project. The Gantt chart in Figure 7. ArminÊs Gantt chart shows the key stages involved in developing an advertising clip for Brio ConfectioneryÊs latest product _ Snap It! . However. A Gantt chart shows the steps involved in a project and their relationships over time. it picked up _______marginely___(iv) again in November and December and is expected to rise ___steadily_____(v) in the New Year. when it fell _______sharply____(iii). Marginally slightly steadily sharply gradually The price of gold rose _sligthly________(i) during the first quarter from its turn-of-the-year price (RM255 per ounce) but turned up ______sharply_____(ii) towards the end of June and continued to climb until the end of the third quarter.

for example. For each task. In this chart. The Gantt chart can also contain features such as milestones. weeks or months). Dependencies are another variant. will commence on Nov 8. The vertical axis of the Gantt chart consists of a listing of the key tasks that make up the project. „Copywriting‰ is dependent upon the „Brainstorming‰ that precedes it. A milestone is an important checkpoint or interim goal for a project. the „Final Presentation‰ is considered a milestone. the length of the horizontal bar indicates the duration of that task or step. the project is scheduled to be completed between November 1 and 18. Work to prepare „Video Presentation‰. The graph area of the Gantt chart contains horizontal bars. In the Gantt chart above. In the example given. the key tasks begin with „Brainstorm ‰ and end with „Final Presentation.A Gantt chart is constructed with a horizontal axis representing the total time span of the project. As the . In the chart above. It sometimes helps to have an additional column containing numbers or initials which identify who on the team is responsible for which task. broken down into increments (days. Dependencies refer to the idea that some activities are dependent on other activities being completed first. A Gantt chart can also help a team to document progress on a project.

149. the chart is updated by filling in the task bar to a length proportional to the amount of work that has been finished. _ Reference initials (optional). style. written business communication. 8.1. It is used when a memo is sent to a group rather than an individual.1. blocked to the left margin). 8. Subject).1. Look at the overview of a memo P. Chapter 8 Memos. - Format. The names are listed at the bottom of the memo in alphabetical or rank order and indented to the first tab. - Less formal but a serious document. - Can be used for any number of reasons. and _ Attachment notation.2 Parts of a Memo A memo comprises the following parts: _ Heading (To. and organization vary greatly. - Detailed information can be presented logically and accurately. Date.1 Memorandum Advantages of memo - Many people will get the same message.3 Distribution List This is a list comprising the names of people to whom the memo will be sent. From. e-mail and faxes 8. - Takes little time to write but will have reference number. - Internal. _ Body (written in short paragraphs. .project progresses along.

8.2 There are five types of memo: - instruction - Request - Announcement - Transmittal - Authorization .

discussion and action. The body of the memo starts with a clear. a discussion of the important points. Transmittal Memo This is the first document in a report package.3 Trip Report Memo This is usually sent to a supervisor after an employee returns from a business trip. concise sentence that states the purpose of the memo.2. for example: The purpose of this memo is to let all members of the ABC department know that doughnuts will be provided every Friday morning at 8am.2. followed by a summary of the information requested.2 Response Memo The response memo responds to a request for information. and notes special points of interest. results. You then explain the rationale for such a decision or procedure 8. summary. 8.2.1 Directive Memo A directive memo states a policy or procedure that you want your coworkers to follow. and the action you are going to take or feel should be taken. conclusions and recommendations. The functions of the transmittal memo include announcing the release of a report (giving the date. 8. It comprises four parts _ the purpose statement. It also summarises conclusions and recommendations. In the action section. It follows the same format as the response memo. by whom the report was authorised and the general purpose of the report).4 Field Report Memo A field report memo highlights a problem and reports on the procedures taken to resolve the problem. methods. It has the following sub-sections _ purpose.8. credits the project team for their work. It always starts with a short paragraph stating the purpose.6 Announcement Memo This type of memo issues an announcement to all staff members at the . problem leading to the decision to perform the procedure. 8. include relevant information that you may have come across after returning from the trip or recommendations that you might want to make.2. summary.

the verb must agree with the subject closest to it. takes. When two or more subjects are connected by or or nor. has. does.g. S S (c) Either the union representatives or the section head V has to leave the meeting. S S V (d) Neither the manager nor the employees are to be blamed. every each one everyone anyone someone anybody somebody nobody 8. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT There are many rules on subject-verb agreement. 8. 2. Study the following rules and examples carefully: 1. S S Example: (a) Either the head of department or the section leader V has to attend the meeting.7 Instruction Memo This type of memo gives instructions that need to be complied with by 8. walks .2. Each of the words in the following list goes with a singular verb. S S V (b) Neither the representatives nor the members are absent today.2.4 e-mail singular verb e. is.8 Authorisation Memo This type gives the green light for an action to be taken.same time. was.

4.Use capital letters (shouting) . hth (hope this helps) and afaik (as far as I know).Be polite and civil -Keep e-mail short and brief -Respect privacy -Stay on topic Reply promptly Netiquette Don’ts .Electronic communication via internet What is netiquette? Refers to etiquette on the net Why would you need a layout to your e-mail if it is a formal communication? Netiquette Dos .Send out unsolicited mass e-mails .Use emotional language . fwiw (for what itÊs worth).4.Claim e-mail as urgent when they are not 8.4 Layout - receiver’s name - sender’s name - subject - date - body - e-mail address 8.4. fyi (for your information). The following are some examples: btw (by the way).2 Net Addresses Com Commercial business Org Non-profit organisations Edu Educational institutions Gov Government organisations Net Companies or organisations that run large networks 8.5 E-mail Abbreviations Abbreviations are sometimes used in e-mails.Post flame bait . imho (in my humble opinion). .

2 The layout should contain: - cover sheet - confidential information - intended recipient - advise to sender You need to attach a cover letter explaining about yourself and the materials you are sending. Best regards.5. If you require any further information. please phone (6) 03-2284 6545 immediately. please do not hesitate to contact me. advise the sender4 and destroy this document.3. Tan Sim Hock This fax may contain confidential information2. The following pages give details of the latest additions to our range. . Why? FAX COVER SHEET1 Date: 19 November 2010 To: Adeline Chan Number of pages including this cover sheet: 17 To fax number: +02 3976 3421 From: Tan Sim Hock Dear Adeline. 8. If you are not the intended recipient3. or if any pages are illegible. Faxes Faxes are widely used today and more convenient because you only need telephone lines. It was good to hear from you again. If you do not receive all pages.

Cover letter application of job Aloysius Tan Kim Hock 14.1 Cover Letters and resumes Cover Letter o Normally used when writing letter of application where the cover letter is the application letter.2 Useful Key Phrases Below are some useful key phrases you can use in your cover letter to apply for a position that has been advertised: a. Draw attention to relevant qualifications and work experiences listed in the resume. I have enclosed a copy of my resume for your review. e. As you can see from my enclosed resume. I would welcome the opportunity to meet with you to discuss my potential contributions to your company. g.1 Guidelines for writing a cover letter o Opening .. I look forward to an early reply. j.xxxx xxxx or at the address above. i. Please accept this letter as an expression of interest in the position of .Persuasive to get the reader interested in you. 9..To draw reader’s attention of the job you are applying for. I am enquiring about the prospects of employment in the Credit Division of your bank.. o 4 reasons why it is written a. b.1.1. o Middle . 9.. Make a match between what you have to offer and the potential employerÊs needs. I am writing to you in response to your advertisement for . b. I wish to apply for the position of _ c.Request for interview and leave contact number/correspondence address. An article in the xxxx stated that the bank is rapidly expanding and_ h. my work experience and qualifications match the requirements for this position . I can be contacted at 03. I look forward to an opportunity to speak with you in person. Persuade your potential employer to consider your application carefully.Chapter 9: 9. k.. and d. itself accompanied by resumes. I believe I possess the right combination of …skills. l. My current position has provided me with the opportunity to . o Closing . Jalan USJ2/4 Taman Crystal . f. c.. d.. Support your request for an interview.

experience. Persiaran Kelab Emas 47200 Klang. Job functions of previous job will be highlighted. c. achievements. and anything that would of relevance to the reader written in positively. Aloysius Tan Kim Hock Enclosure 9.2 Resume - Statement of all qualifications. / I / As you can see from my enclosed resume. Specific resume – for specific post where it will follow the criteria set as advertised. ./ match the requirements for this position / my experience and qualifications. Selangor Dear Mr Yeap..Subang Jaya 46000 Petaling Jaya 12 April 201_ Mr Yeap Hin Lee Personnel Manager Logistics Inc./ to an opportunity /I/ within the next five days to arrange an interview. / in our region. Application for the Position of Chief Supervisor In response to your advertisement for a Chief Supervisor specialising in Port Regulatory Law / am writing/ which appeared in the New Settlement Times on Sunday. During the four years that I worked for Gudang and Co. Basic resume – simple and short./ will call you. I / that I graduated from the Malaysian Marine School in Malacca /would like to point out/ I was hired directly upon graduation/ with a Diploma in Port management / due to my expertise in port authority regulations. for school-leavers. /further deepened /my knowledge of regulatory laws/ I / My employer / wanted to promote me to head the team of assistants / also thought highly of my abilities / after my first year of employment. Sincerely. 1516. - Types of resume a. Functional resume – highlight skills and work experience. b. I/ to personally discuss / look forward /the position with you. April 12.

provide background information. A formal report comprises: a. and (c) Periodic report. 10.2 Progress Report . e. (b) Progress report (and completion report). 10. and f.1 Justification Report This report highlights a course of action or idea. _ Conclusion _ Evaluates changes and provides recommendations. TYPES OF SHORT REPORTS There are three widely used types of short reports: (a) Justification report. need for change.2 Short report layout A good short report should contain the following characteristics: _ A clear indication of your purpose. 10. costs and benefits. Conclusion. and _ Appropriate formatting. Attachments (if they contain useful information). An introduction. make recommendations. his/her position and/or organisation.3. the recipientÊs name. the format is as follows: _ Introduction _ Presents purpose of report and describes proposal / course of action. or has been done. Basically. Sections with headings in the body. c. and then presents evidence to support why something should. a course of action etc. _ Body _ Describes the present situation.Chapter 10: 10. b.1 Business Reports Planning and writing reports - Reports are to inform. the writerÊs name and position (and organisation if appropriate) and the date. _ A suitable ordering of information. A title page containing the title of the report. descriptive headings are used to guide the reader through these reports. _ Accurate and objective information.3. d. Recommendations (if any). Sometimes.

_ Introduction _ Identifies the reportÊs purpose with a subject line and describes the current status of the project. Mr Edward Lee and Mr Idrus Mohd Ngah. a. From the above.4 PREPOSITIONS . General Manager Charlotte Soong.3 Periodic Report This report keeps management informed at regular intervals by providing information on some aspect of the organisationÊs operations over a specific period. 10. was the only applicant who had pursued further studies. During the interviews. interpersonal relationships and leadership. c. But in this case. In her annual appraisal for the last three years. even though several of the other applicants were more experienced and had greater seniority. b.3. _ Body _ Presents positive features of the operation. Conclusion _ Summarises the findings and closes with a recommendation if appropriate. her promotion would have been justified in terms of the companyÊs affirmative action policy.This report provides information on the progress of a project and forecasts future development. Introduction _ Identifies the reportÊs purpose with a subject line and then presents relevant facts and figures. Head of Research 21 June 2010 Appointment of Ms Norlaila Yakub to the position of Laboratory Supervisor Ms Norlaila was appointed to the position of Laboratory Supervisor on 20 May 2010 because she was clearly the best applicant for the position. If she had simply been as good as the other applicants. 10. she impressed us during the interview with her communication skills and understanding of her colleagues. These extra studies exactly fit Ms Norlaila for the new position. She has completed a special course on the ACOL computer analysis system which we propose to buy next year and she has completed the first two years of a management diploma. Sample of periodic report To: From: Date: Subject: Sinnathamby M. Furthermore. we shortlisted three applicants: Ms Norlaila Yakub. Ms Norlaila.. it can be seen that Ms NorlailaÊs promotion was not based on any discrimination against her male counterparts. _ Conclusion _ Points to the future. Ms Norlaila was promoted on the grounds of superior abilities. describes problems that arose and how they were solved. however. and includes schedule and costs. All three were equally well trained at a technical level and seemed equally diligent and productive. she scored higher than any other applicant in communication skills. Body _ Presents objective information on achievements and problems.

bad news document iii. The The The The report report report report about the manager by the manager for the manager in front of the manager The words in bold relate two nouns to each other. format 10. Justification – idea/action is presented and rationale is given. Progress – progress of a project and forecast its timetable for the future. Common preposition About Above Across before behind below during despite down of off on to toward(s) under Three types. Accurate and objective information iii. formal report: letter and memo formats d. it can sometimes be difficult to know what preposition comes after a noun or a verb so it is good to familiarise yourself with some of them. These relationship words are called prepositions. However. Order of information dependent upon: i. c.Prepositions may be defined as any word or group of words that relate a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence. Clear and logical order of information iv. direct approach v.3 Types of Short Reports a. good news document ii. Purpose ii. indirect approach e. . Periodic – information given at regular intervals or over specific periods. It should contain: i. persuasive document iv. b.

conclusions. Develop outline with main headings and sub-headings. Front matter. Start with purpose statement and introduction. Indentation iv.3 Parts of a long report a. Numbered lists or sections vi.2 i. the body and conclusion would be different as each will serve different purpose. Title page Presentation - Arrangement of information on the page. Headers and footers 10. title page. i. Main body d. Headings ii. References h. c. g. 10. Optional parts – preface. Table of contents and table of graphics 10. and recommendations. Draw conclusions and relate to purpose e. It will contain introduction. They are written to provide comprehensive information and expert opinion. letter of transmittal and table of contents . Space between paragraphs. Underlining iii. abstract.5.1 Sequence to follow when writing a long report a.5. Conclusions and recommendations f. Transmittal letter j. margins vii.In each one. 10.5 Writing Long reports f. body. b. - Content must be set out clearly.5. Shading v. synopsis g.

references. Final – conclusions and recommendations - Language used should be objective. discussion and analysis of findings.b. conclusions. solutions tendered. and recommendations c. terms of reference and scope. Body – research and analysis of findings. development of ideas. Sub-headings and numbering are used to show clarity. The body. introduction. . appendices - It must have three sections Introductory – statement of purpose. End matter.