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ENVIRONMENTANDHUMANSOCIETY

Thehumanbeings(Homosapienssapiens),evolvedmorethantwomillionyearsago.Theyevolvedwithalargebrain,
thatenabledthemtothink,andusetheirjudgment.Humanswalkederectontwolegs,whichmadetheirhandsfreeto
negotiatemanualfunctions.

Asiswithotheranimals,thesurvivalofhumansalsoentirelydependedontheirobtainingfoodfromthe
environment.Beingintelligent,humanbeingsexploitenvironmentalresourcesformanypurposesotherthanjust
forprocuringfood.Inthelastfewcenturies,theexploitationofenvironmentalresourceshasdramatically
increased,leadingtoseriousdamageanddegradationoftheenvironment.Inthislessonyoushalllearnaboutthe
utilizationandexploitationofnaturalresourcesandhow,theyarebeingoverexploited.

INTHEENVIRONMENT
Primitivehumansinteractedwithenvironmentforsurvival.Ashumansbecamemoreand
morecultured,theydevisedmeansofusingenvironmentalresourcesformakinglife
comfortableandprotectingthemselvesfromvariousenvironmentalstresses(danger).

2.1.1Abioticresources
Abioticresourcesarethephysicalresourcesofnaturethataredescribedbelow.

NATURAL
RESOURCES
AVAILABLE

Land:Manyorganismsincludinghumansliveonland.Landformsjust
approximately29%ofearthssurfaceincludesmountains,rocks,deserts,swamps,
forestsandgrasslands.Humansuselandforgrowingcropsthatprovidethemwith
food.Theyalsoneedlandtobuildshelters,roadsandcattlesheds.Theneedforland

usageissteadily
growing.Tocaterto
theneedsofthe
growingpopulation,
urbanizationand
industrialization,
landisbeingused
forbuildingdams,
flyovers,subways
andfactories.Land
resourcesarefast
diminishing.
Water:Thenatural
waterbodies
includeoceans,
seas,andsurface
waterbodiessuch
asrivers,lakes,
waterfallsand
ponds.Almost80%
oftheearthsfresh
waterremains
frozenathigher
latitudeandon

mountainstops.Only20%isavailableinliquidform.Theprimarysourceofwateron
landistherainfall.Waterisanessentialrequirementofalllivingbeings.Wateris
requiredfor

irrigationofagriculturalcrops.
industries
buildingconstruction
cultureoffish,prawn,aquaticplants(aquaculture)
drinking,bathing,cleaning,washing,gardening,potterymakingetc.
Waterthoughanaturallyreplenishableresource,butoveruseandwastageofwater
isleadingtoitsscarcity.
Energy:Theprimesourceofenergyissolarradiation.Primitivehumansusedfirewood
andcowdungandotheranimalwastesforheatingandcooking.Oilextractedfromseeds
andfishwasusedbythemtolightcavesandshelters.Anothermajorsourceofenergyis
fossilfuelsuchascoal.Coalasyouknowhasbeenformedfromvegetationwhichgrew
millionsofyearsago,fellandgottrappedinsediments.Underimmensepressureand
intenseheatforyears,tressandvegetationburnedinsedimentstransformedintocoal.
Coalisusedasafuelforcooking,forrunninglocomotives,furnacesindustriesand
generatingelectricity.Coalisalsousedforextractionofmetalsandmineralsandin
thermalpowergeneration.

14

EnvironmentandHumanSociety
Petroleumandnaturalgasarealsofossilfuels.Petroleumprobablyoriginatedfrom
marineanimalsthatlivedduringpastgeologicalperiods,justascoalwasformed
fromvegetation.Petroleumandnaturalgasareobtainedfromdeepinsidetheearth
andtheyarenonrenewableenergyresources.Petroleumproductsareusedfor
runningautomobiles,steamers,aeroplanesandformakingplasticsandfertilizers.
Petrolanddieselarerefinedpetroleumproducts.YoumighthaveheardaboutCNG
(compressednaturalgas),whichisnowbeingusedtorunautomobilesandconsidered
tobearelativelycleanfuel.Naturalgasanddieselareusedforelectricitygeneration.
LPG(LiquidPetroleumGas)comesincylindersorthroughpipesandisusedasfuel
forcooking.

Petroleumisalsocalledmineraloil.Likepetroleum,naturalgasisamixtureof
gaseoushydrocarbons.
Energyisalsoharnessedfromsun(solarenergy),wind(windenergy),animalexcreta

(biogas),sea(tidal
energy)and
radioactive
minerals(nuclear
energy).
Metaloresor
minerals:Metalores
arechemical
compounds(salts)of
metalsuchas
Aluminium,iron,
copper,lead,zinc,
manganeseetc.These
oresarefoundas
depositsinearth.
Aluminiumisusedto
makeutensils,parts
ofvehicles,aircraft,
andspacecraft.Iron
anditsalloysareused
formaking

armaments,heavymachinery,railwayengines,railwaylinesandawidevarietyofarticles..
Copperisusedformakingindustrialcontainers,electricwireandalsousedinelectronicand
telecommunicationindustries.Alloyssuchasbrassandbronzecontaincopper.However,the
availabilityofmetaloresislimitedandtheirincreasingminingdepletesthemfast.Silver,
goldandplatinumareamongthepreciousmetalsusedandtreasuredbyhumans.

2.1.2Bioticresources(livingnaturalresources)
BioticresourcesTheseincludeplants,animalsandmicroorganisms.

usedfor
transportationas
draughtanimals.
Yaksandsheep
yieldwoolfor
woolens.Silk
wormaregrown
forsilk.

Plants:Thenaturalfoodresourcesincludedinhumandietarethevariouscereals,
legumes,vegetablesandfruits.Humanscultivateplantstoobtaingoodgrains,
pulses,spices,vegetables,fruits,sugarandoil.Fibreyieldingplantsaregrownto
humansobtaincotton,juteandflexetc.Flowersofvariouskindsarecultivated
forornamentalpurposes.Someplantshavingmedicinalvaluehavebeen
extensivelyusedfromtimeimmemorial.Industrialrawmaterialsuchasrubber,
resins,woodareirreplaceableplantproducts.
Animals:Goat,fish,eggs,poultry,prawnsandcrabsaresourceoffoodfor
humanbeings.Horses,bullocks,elephant,oxen,camels,donkeys,yaksetc.are

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Microorganisms:providesantibiotics.Theiruseinfermentationandinbreweries
isanageoldpractice.Microbesareresponsibleforprocessingwasteanddead
plantsandanimals.
Theenvironmentalresourcesprovidehumans,substancesforsurvival,
entertainment,maintenance,decorationandforseveralotherpurposes.Butfor
howlong?
Ontheonehandnaturalresourcesarefastdepletingbecauseofoverexploitation
byhumans.Ontheotherhand,earthisbecomingabigdumpinggroundforwaste
generatedbytheactivitiesofthefastgrowinghumanpopulation.Thisisfast
becomingcausefordeteriorationofhuman,animalandplantlife.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

RELATIONSHIPBETWEENPRIMITIVEHUMANSOCIETYAND
ENVIRONMENT
Humanbeingshavelivedonearthforapproximatelymorethan2millionyears.Recordsofprimitive
humansandtheiractivitiesareburiedintherocksalongwiththeirfossils.Thefossilrecordsshownot

onlydipictsthevariousstagesofhumanevolutionbutalsothelifestyleandbehaviourofprimitive
humans.
2.2.1Storyofhumanevolution
Whenhumanevolutionbegan,forestshaddwindledbecauseofglaciation.Muchofthelandsurfacewas
however,stillcoveredbyforest.Thecommonancestorsofapesandhumanshadtocomedownfrom
treeswheretheylived.Theywalkedonallfoursonthegroundusingallfourlimbs.Recentmolecular
studieshaverevealedthatfromcommonancestors,evolutionofapes(chimpanzee,gorilla,gibbonand
orangutan)andthatofhumansdivergedabout6millionyearsago.

EnvironmentandHumanSociety
Theearliesthumanancestors,theAustralopithecineswhichwalkedupright,
evolvedaround3.5millionyearsagoinSouthAfrica.Theymadetoolswith
variousmaterials.(Seepictorialtable2.1)
Table2.1:Evolutionarystagesofhumansspecies
Nameofstages

TimePeriod
Australopithecus
Homohabilis
Homoerectus
ofexistence
5millionyears
2.5millionyears
1.5millionyears

Tools
Crudetoolsmade
Pebbletoolswith
Simplehandaxes
ofbonesand
aflakeremoved
madeofstones
pebbles
formakingcutting

edge

Behabiour
Apemanwho
Huntergatherers
Huntedlargeanimals
walkederect

Australopithecines
gaverisetoHomo
habilis,probably
around2million
yearsago.These
humanancestorshad
apelikelongarms
butlargerbrainthan
theapes.Thenext
stage,Homo
erectus,issupposed
tohaveexisted
between1.5million
yearsto200,000
yearsago.Their
fossilshavebeen
foundinChina
(Pekingman),Jawa

(Jawaman),Germany(Heidelbergman).ThissuggeststhattheyevolvedinAfricaand
thenspreadtoAsiaandEurope.Theirbrainsizewasintermediatebetweenapesand
humans.Alsotheyhadheavyridgesaboveeyesliketheapes.Homoerectusmadestone
axes.

species.(Fig.2.1)
(Homo:belongingto
familyHominidae,
sapiens:wise)

NexttoevolvefromHomoerectus,weretheNeanderthalman(Homosapiens
neandertalensis)buttheybelongedtothesamespeciesasdothemodernhumansHomo
sapiens.RemainsofNeanderthalshavebeenfoundinEurope,AsiaandAfrica.They
fashionedalargevarietyofwellmadetoolsandweresuccessfulhunters.Foralmost
about35,000years,Homosapienssapiensormodernhumansaretheonlylivinghuman

17

Ramapithecus
Homosapienssapiens

Apes

Homoerectus

Dryopithecus

Homosapiens

(Commonancestor)

neanderthalensis

Homohabilis
A.beisei

Fig.2.1:Evolutionofhumansshowingancestorcommontoapesandhumans
2.2.2Primitivehumansashuntersgatherersandnomads

Australopithecus
A.tobustus

Primitivehumanslivedinforests,nearwaterbodiessuchasriversandlakeslocatedonthe
edgesofforests.Theirmainpreoccupationinlifewastoprocurefood.Theirdietconsisted
ofseeds,rootsandfruitsofplantsandsmallanimalswhichtheykilledwithtoolstheymade
frompebblesandstones.Theyroamedintheforestsinsearchoffoodduringthedayand
returnedtothecavesatsunsettosavethemselvesfromtheattackofwildanimals.

Walkingonhindlimbs,primitivehumanswerefreetousetheirhandsto
uprootplantsforedibleroots,
pluckfruitsandvegetables,
africanus

pickuppebblesfrombanksofriversandstonesfromotherplacesand
maketoolsfromthem

huntanimals,skin
themandtheneat
them.

capturingwildanimals.

Thusprimitive
humanswere
huntersand
gatherers.They
livedingroupsof
20to30andapart
fromcollecting
plantfood,they
collectedeggsof
birdsandcaught
fish.Theyhunted
animalswith
pebbleandstone
tools.Women
huntedsmall
animalsand
collectedfruitsand
seedsfromtrees.
Maleshuntedbig
animals.Primitive
humansalsoate
turtles,oystersand
mussels.
Thereisevidence
toshowthat
primitivehumans
sharedfoodand
alsogathered
knowledgeabout
edibleplants,
ripeningseasonsof
fruits,animaldens
andmethodsof

18

EnvironmentandHumanSociety
Primitivehumans,thehuntersandgatherersmovedfromplacetoplaceas
foragers.Theyledanomadiclife.Asnomads,theyroamedlargeanddistant

areas.Theyhadno
permanentabode.
Theylivednear
riverbedswhere
plantsandanimals
wereabundant.

Theyalsolivedincaves.Astheymovedalong,theyleftbehindtheirstoneand
boneimplements.(seepictorialtable2.1)

TOOLMAKINGBYPRIMITIVEHUMANSANDDISCOVERYOFFIRE
Thegatheringoffoodfromplantsandhuntinganimalsservedasstumuliformakingavarietyoftools.
Thereisevidencethataustralopithecinesmadetoolsprobablyto(i)driveawaywildanimalsand(ii)
huntanimalsforfood.PebbletoolshavebeenfoundinfossilsitesofaustralopithecinesinAfrica.
HomoerectusmadebettertoolswithstonesandthetraditionofmakingtoolspassedontoHomo
sapiensneandertalensisorNeandertalmanaswellastoHomosapienssapiensormodernman.
ToolsofHomoerectuswereflinttoolsandtherockstheyusedformakingtoolswerequartz,quartzite
andothervolcanicrocks.
ThestonehandaxesthatHomoerectusmadehadsharpedgeswhichwereachievedbyhammeringandchipping
awayflakeafterflakewithapieceofboneorhardwood.Theywerefarsuperiortopebbletools(of
AustralopithecinesandHomohabilis)andcouldeasilyuprootediblerootsandotherplantpartsfromtheground.
Thesharpedgescould

huntanimalsaslargeaselephants,horses,rhinocerosandgiantbaboons.

ToolsoftheNeanderthals

Notes
Environmental
ScienceSenior
SecondaryCourse
cutupanimalprey
andskinit.The
woodenspearsand
bonedaggersthat
theymadehelpedto

ThetechniquesoftoolmakingandthetoolsoftheNeanderthalsweremoreadvanced.
Theideaofchippingoutflakesfromflintstoneswasalreadyknownandtheyusedan
antler,bone,woodenhammerandhammerstonetochipoffuniformflakesfromtherock.

Theyalsomadeknives,pins,needlesandfishhooksandharpoonswithbones.
Neanderthals,liketheirpredecessorsdidcooperativehuntingandkilledlargeanimals
likeelephants(mammoths),woollyrhinoceros,bisons,wildhorses,bear,wildcattle
andwildboars.Theywerecalledbiggamehunters.Thereisevidenceofthatthey
usedspearliketoolsthatcouldbehurledatanimalsfromadistance.

ToolsmadebyprimitivehumansfromstonesusheredintheNeolithicorNew
StoneAge(Fig.2.2).Thetoolsweremoregrandandpolishedbuttheiruse
diminishedashumanssteppedintotheageofagriculture.

STONEAGETOOLS
Stoneandaxe(showingdifferentviews)

Toolsofmidpaleolithic

ToolsoflowerpaleolithicmadebyHomoerectus

Polishedstoneaxe(Showingdifferentviews)

Stoneblade(Showingdifferentviews)

MadebyHomosapiensofneolithicage

Toolsofupperpaleolithic

Fig.2.2:ToolsmadebyPrimitiveman
UseofFire
TheprimitivehumanHomoerectus,discoveredfiremorethan200,000yearsago.Discoveryoffirehad
aprofoundinfluenceontheirlifestyle.Primitivehumansusedfireforvariouspurposes

EnvironmentandHumanSociety
Theyrealisedthatuseoffirealsoenabledthemtocolonisethecolderpartsofthe
earthandmeatbecomestenderwhencookedinfire,makingitmoredigestible.
Firewasalsousedtoscareawaydangerousanimals.
Firebroughtaboutculturalevolutionofhumansaswellasincreasing
exploitationofnaturalresources.

INTEXTQUESTIONS2.3
.

______________________________________________________________
Thehuntersandgatherersfinallybegantogiveupnomadiclife.Bythistimetheyhadmovedoverand
dispersedtomanypartsoftheworldprobablyasforagers(searchersoffood).Theirtemporaryshelters,asyou
havelearnt,werethecavesinmountains.

Fromanarchaeologicalstudy,itisclearthatforagerslivedintemporaryovalhutlikeshelters(Fig.2.3)
whichtheyoftencoveredwithplants.

Fig.2.3:Sheltersofprimitivehumans(wearingclothesmadeofanimalhide)
Oncetoolswereimproved,firediscoveredandcultivationoffieldsbegun,humansstartedsettlingdown.
Theymadesheltersandlivedingroups.
21

MODULE - 1
Environmentthrough
Ages

Notes
Environmental
ScienceSenior
SecondaryCourse

ORIGINANDEVOLUTIONOFAGRICULTUREAND
DOMESTICATIONOFANIMALS
Youhavelearntthatlivesofprimitivehumansdependedlargelyontheavailabilityof
food.Theyhadsmallfamilieswhichincludedchildrenandgrandchildren.They
roamedforestsforfoodandlivedincaves.Man,thehunterwasdependentonhis
luckinchasing,andhunting,asalsoontheabundanceofanimals.
Ashumansbuilttemporarysheltersandbegantostaytogetherforthreetofourmonthsat
aplace,theydiscoveredthatseedsoffruitsandgrainsthrowninfrontoftheirhuts
sproutedintosaplings.Intelligentbeingsastheywere,theyrealizedthatinsteadof

foragingtheycan
growfoodplantsfor
themselves.Around
12,000yearsago
humanlearntto
cultivatecrops.
Cultivationalso
attractedanimals,
whichtheycould
trapforeating.This
ideaofagriculture
forgetting
continuousand
relativelystablefood
supplyledtothe
formationofa
primitive
agriculturalsociety
about10,000years
ago.

agricultureandusedplantandanimalresiduesasmanure.Theyalsobegan
irrigationoftheircultivatedfields.Thusevolvedthesocalledagrohorticultural
societies.
Sooninfertilevalleys,foodbecamesurplusthroughcontinuouscultivation.Humansalso
begandomesticationofanimalsandraisingcattle.Thefirstdomesticatedanimalwasthedog.
Theyalsomaintainedfisheries.Furtherimprovementincultivationanddomesticationof
animalsencouragedhumansettlementsbytheriverbanksandvalleys.Thusprimitive
agrariansocietyevolvedandpractisedtraditionalagriculture.(Fig.2.4aand2.4b)

Astimepassed,
humanslearntto
usemetaltoolsfor

Huntingandgathering
Food

Primitiveagriculture
Food
Shelter

Agrohorticulturalsocieties
Food
Shelter
Clothing

Agrariansocieties
Food
Shelter
Clothing

Fig.2.4a:Beginningofagricultureand
domesticationofanimals

Fig.2.4b:Evolutionofinduced
agroecosystem

22

EnvironmentandHumanSociety

MODULE - 1
Environmentthrough
Ages

Domesticationofanimals
Theseprimitivehumansneededtotillthelandforfarmingandtomovefrom
placetoplacesotheystartedusingbullockstotillthelandandmanysomeother
animalssuchascamels,elephants,bullocksetc.wereused(Fig2.5)totransport
humansandtheirwaresfromoneplacetoanother.Theanimalsusedforcarrying
goodsfromoneplacetoanotherarecalleddraughtanimals.(Fig.2.5)

Notes

Earlyhumansalsorearedanimalsforfoodsuchasthegoat,sheep,pig,deer,
poultrybirdsandkeptthemwiththem.
Oncehumansbecamepermanentsettlers,theirpopulationbegantoincrease.Natural
resourcesgotdepleted,andthenarosetheneedtogetmaterialfromoutside.Alsoculturally
theymovedonestepfurtherandtheirrequirementforclothes,ornamentsandagricultural
implementsetc.increased.Thosenotdirectlyinvolvedinfarmingbecamecraftsmen.Surplus
agriculturalproducewasbarteredfornonessentialgoodssuchaspottery,ornamentsetc.

Fig.2.6:Humansusevariouskindsofsubstancesandmetal,clay,wood,leatheretc
Fig.2.5:Animalsusedfortransportationofselfandmaterials

2.6INVENTIONOFTHEWHEEL
Earliesthumanswalkedtogofromoneplacetoanother.Buttravelingbyfeetwasslowandtookvery
longtime.Sotheyusedmulesandcamelstocarrythem.
Nooneknowsexactlywhoinventedwheel.Butpeoplewereusingitaround5000yearsagoinIraq,
Syria,Turkeyetc.Thefirstwheelswereprobablyroundslicesoflog.Thelogscouldrollobjectsona
plankofwoodkeptonthelogs.

Thefirstwheeledvehiclewasachariotwhichwasatwowheeledcartpulledbydonkeysandthenby
horses.GreeksandRomansusedthemwhenfightingwars.

23

MODULE - 1
Environmentthrough
Ages

Rickshaw
Tractor

Notes
Environmental
ScienceSenior
SecondaryCourse

Thediscoveryof
thewheelwas
priortothemaking
ofmetaltools.By
about3000BC
wheelsmadeof
logswerebeing
usedinprimitive
carts.Thesolid
woodenwheels
wereusedforother
purposestoo,such
asbythepottersto
mouldearthenand
terracottapots
around1000BC.
(Thepotters
wheel)(Fig.2.7).

Car
Buggy

Truck
Buggy

Buggy
Aeroplane

Fig.2.7:Innovationofwheels
Woodenwheelswereheavyandoncemetalswerediscovered,metalwheelswith
spokesreplacedwoodenwheelsastheyweremuchlighterandstronger.

INTEXTQUESTIONS2.4
Accordingtoanarchaeologicalstudy,howdidforagerslive?
______________________________________________________________

24

EnvironmentandHumanSociety MODULE - 1
Environmentthrough
2.

Whenwasprimitiveagriculturalsocietyformed?

______________________________________________________________
3.

Whichwasthefirstdomesticatedanimals?

______________________________________________________________
Namethreedraughtanimals.
______________________________________________________________
Whenandwherewaswheelinvented?

Ages

BEGI
NNI
NG
OF
IND
UST
RIAL
IZAT
ION

______________________________________________________________
Notes
Amoresecurefoodsupplyandimproveddietmadeagriculturalcommunitiesmovetonewlandsforfarming.It
alsoledtoasubstantialincreaseinpopulation.Somepeoplebecameminers.Theyminedflinttomakeflintaxes.
Thusgrowthofagriculturewasaccompaniedbygrowthoftoolmakingthatprovidedcrudeagricultural
implements.

Theearliestindicationsofindustrializationweretheengineeringinwoodandstonethatprimitivemen
undertook.Itwasunspecializedandrequiredhardlabour.Tomineflintfromrocks,minersuseddeerantlers
andshovelsmadefromshoulderbladesofcattle.Theyworkedbythelightusingsmalllampsmadefrom
hollowedpiecesofchalkcontaininganimalfatandwicksmadeofmoss.(Fig.2.8)

Fig.2.8:Beginningofindustrialization
Flint(atypeofrock)axeswereimportantforfarmersforclearingdenseforestlandtoraisetheircrops.
Stoneaxeswereusedtofelltrees.
Thusmakingwheels,constructingbuildings,miningorestomaketoolsandornamentswereastep
towardsindustrialization.
25

MODULE - 1
Environmentthrough
Ages

Notes
Environmental
ScienceSenior
SecondaryCourse

strongertools.ThisdiscoverybroughthumansoutoftheStoneAgeandmarkedthe
beginningsofindustrialrevolution.
Thepotterswereusinghightemperaturekilnsorovenstofiretheirwares.Accidentally
theydiscoveredthatlumpsofgoldandcopperalsomeltedathightemperatureandcould
bemouldedintoshape.Sothemetalsmithsdiscoveredthatintenseheatcouldextract
copperfrommetalbearingoreburiedinrocks.thisprocessisnowcalledsmelting.
TheuseofmetalwasfirstdiscoveredinIranandTurkeyapproximately8000yearsago.
Theearlyuseofcopperandgoldwasformakingornaments.Twothousandyearslater,
humanbegantomakecopperaxesandweaponswithsharpcuttingedges.Soonsmiths
mixedmetalsandproducedbronzefromcopperandtin.Thisalloywasharderandeasier
tocastintoknivesandaxes.By2500BC,bronzebecamethedominantmetal.

From1000BC,farmershadbetteraxes,sicklesandknives.Carpentersalsohad
bettertools.

2.7.1Discoveryof
Metal

FromBronzeagetoIronAge

Humansdiscovered
thatcopper,iron,
bronzemade

From7thand6thcenturyBC,humansbegantouseirontomakeweaponsand
foundittobemuchsuperiortobronze.By1200BC,westernAsia(Iran,Turkey
etc.)hadcomeoutoftheBronzeAgeandenteredintotheIronAge.Irontools
andweaponsreplacedthosemadefrombronze.

FACTORSTHATLEDTOGROWTHOFINDUSTRIALIZATION
Severalfactorswereresponsibleforthegrowthofindustrialization.
Technicaldevelopment:Thediscoveryofmetalsformakingbettertoolsandweaponsinitiated
technology.
Economicdevelopment:(i)Theestablishmentofagrariansocietiesengagedpeopleinsellingsurplus
produceorbarteringit.Thismadethemeconomicallysound.
(ii)Intheagrariansociety,peoplegotbusywithoccupationsotherthanagriculture.
Inventionofwheel:Thisledtofastertransportationandmarkedthebeginningofthetransportation

industry.Notsolongagomantraveledbybullockcarts.Todaythecar,thebus,thetrainandaboveall
theaeroplaneareacommonsight.

26

EnvironmentandHumanSociety MODULE - 1
Environmentthrough
Ages
Beginningofmining:
Itwasrelatedtounearthingflint.Laterorescontaining
copper,iron,andaluminumaremined.Thisledtothe
formationofminingindustry.Miningofmineralandmetalous
fossilfuelslikecoalandnaturalgasarecommoneventoday.

Agriculture:
Notes
Agriculturebeganwithprimitivehumans.Buttoday
agriculturefurnishesmeansoflivelihoodformillionsof
people.Theyproducefood,fibersandrawmaterialsfor
industry.Modernfarmingmethodshaveproducedfoodfor
teemingmillions.Agricultureitselfhasbecomeanindustry.It
hasalsoledtotheformationoffoodindustrysomuchso
thatevenreadymadebreakfastsarenowavailable.
BronzeageandIronage:BronzeageandIronageandthediscoveryoffiremuch
earlierledtothemakingofmachinetoolindustry.Machines

formakingsyntheticcloth,forprintingclothusheredintextile
industry.
Language:
Humanaretheonlyanimalsendowedwithawelldeveloped
capacityforspeech.Spokencommunicationledto
developmentoflanguage.Languagehelpedinworkingin
groupswhichenhancedthepaceofeconomicdevelopment
Thusnotonebutseveralfactorsledtoindustrialization.

BEGINNINGOFEXPLOITATIONOFNATURALRESOURCES
Sincehumanbeingsfirstevolvedtheyhavebeencompletelydependentonforestsandtheirproduce.
Seeds,fruitsandwildanimalslivingintheforestconstitutedthedietofprimitivehumans.Leaves,
branchesandbarkwereusedasclothesandpebbles,stonesandbonesofdeadanimalswereusedas
weapons.
Forestswerecutdowntomakeagriculturalfields.Theyproducedenoughfoodanddevelopedsheltersandthis
leadtoasizeableincreaseinthepopulation.Moremouthstofeedandtobeprovidedwithfacilities.With
advancementofcivilizationandgrowthofurbancultureforestswerewipedoutfromlargeareasofforest.Trees
werefelledforwood,formakingshelters,cartsfortransportation,etcandalsoasasourceoffuel.
Withthediscoveryoffire,morewoodwasneededforcooking.Humansbegantominenotonlycoalforfuelbutalso
oresofmetalstomakewheelsandornamentsetc.Initiallythedamagewasnotsogreat.Aftertheindustrialrevolution,
inthelast400years,forests,theoriginalhabitatofhumans,havedwindledatanalarmingrate;wildlifehasbeen
threatened

27

MODULE - 1
Environmentthrough
Ages

Notes
EnvironmentalScienceSeniorSecondaryCourse

toextinction.Somewildanimalshavevanished.Pollutionfromindustrieshas
madetheairimpureandwaterbodiesfulloffilth.

Theassociation
betweenprimitive
humansandthe
environmentin
whichtheylivedwas
oneoffearand
respect.Ashumans
becamemoreand
morecivilizedand
createdinnovative
newertechnology,
thetreasurednatural
resourcessuchasthe

soil,theforest,theminerals,metals,theair,thewater,plantsandanimalswere
increasinglyoverexploited.Coupledwiththeexploitationwastheenormousincreasein
humanpopulation.Inthelastdecade,environmentalistshavemadealarmingdiscoveries.
Environmentalresourcesarelimitedandfastgettingdepletedduetooverexploitation.

Pollutionofair,waterandlandcausedbyhumanactivitiesisposingseriousthreat
tohumansurvivalandwellbeing.
Therelationshipbetweenhumanandtheirenvironmenthaschangedspecially
sincethebeginningofindustrialrevolution.Ithasbecomeconfrontationalandthe
consequenceshavealreadystartedsurfacing.Youwilllearnmoreabout
environmentdegradationinthenextlesson.

INTEXTQUESTIONS2.5
Listsomestepstowardsindustrialization.
______________________________________________________________
Whichmetalswerediscoveredbytheprimitivehumans.
______________________________________________________________
Listfourfactorsthoseledtogrowthofindustrialization.
______________________________________________________________
Whatistheimpactofindustrializationuponnature.
______________________________________________________________

WHATYOUHAVELEARNT
Theearthbearsseveralnaturalresourcesofwhichthenonlivingorabioticresourcesareland,water,
air,fossilfuelsandminerals,andthelivingorbioticresourcesareplants,animalsandmicroorganisms.
Humansapartfromfoodrequire,twomajortypesofresourcesnamely(1)materialsand(2)energyfor
comfortandeconomicdevelopment.
Eversincehumansappearedonearththeyhavebeendrawingtheirfood,clothingandothersubstances
fromnature.
28

EnvironmentandHumanSociety MODULE - 1
Environmentthrough
Ages
Humanswereevolvedmorethan2millionyearsagowhentheydivergedfromapes
withwhomtheysharedacommonancestor.
TheearliestbipedalhumansweretheaustralopithecuswhoevolvedinAfrica.They
wereapelikebuthadlargerbrains.
Notes
ThenextstageinhumanevolutionwasHomoerectuswithlargerbrainanderectposture.Theirfossils
havebeenfoundinJawaandChina.
HomosapiensneanderthalensisorneanderthalmanarosefromHomoerectus.Soontheybecameextinct
butanotherlineofhumanstheHomosapienssapiensevolvedandtheyareconsideredtobethedirect
ancestorsofthemodernhumans.

Primitivehumanslivedinforestsandusedtheirhandstouprootedibleplantsroots,andpluckfruitsand
collectseeds.Sincehandswerenotusedforwalking,theywereusedtomaketoolsalso.
Primitivehumanswerehuntersandgatherersandmovedfromplacetoplaceinsearchoffood.(nomadic
life)
Alongwithhumanevolution,skillsalsoimprovedprogressivelyintoolmaking.Humansmadesimple
toolswithstones.Thetimeperiodoftheirexistenceonearthiscalledoldstoneageorpaleolithicage.
Startingfromcrudepebbletools,astimepassed,theymadebetterandsharpertools.IntheNeolithicor
newstoneage,thetoolswerepolishedandground.
Laterhumandiscoveredfireanduseditforcooking,drivingawaypredatorsandcapturinglarge
animals.
Fromanomadiclife,humansbegantosettleandmakeshelters.
Around12,000yearsagohumanslearnttocultivatecrops.Agriculturalpracticesimprovedandhumansgrew
enoughfoodandtheirpopulationincreased.

Surpluscultivatedcropswastransportedtootherplaceswerebartered.
Wheelwasdiscoveredandtransportationbecameeasier.Theymovedtonewerplacestoraisenewcrops
andalsobegantodomesticateanimals.
Whileprimitivehumanswereminingflinttomaketools,theycomeacrossmetaloresandminingand
refiningmetalsbyheatingbegan.
Theymadelotsofthingswithbronze,analloyofcopperandtinandlaterwithiron.

Soontheystartedmanufacturingactivityandthusbeganindustrialization.
Rapidexpansionofindustrializationhasresultedin(i)depletionofnaturalresourcesand(ii)pollutionof
theenvironment
Thevarysurvivalofhumansisnowthreatenedbecauseofenvironmentaldegradation.
29

MODULE - 1
EnvironmentalScienceSeniorSecondaryCourse

Environmentthrough
Ages

TERMINALEXERCISE

1.
Nametheabioticandbioticnaturalresources.

Notes
2.
Ofwhatuseareplantsandanimalstohumans?

3.
List10usesofwaterforhumanbeings.
4.
Listthevarioussourcesofenergy.

5.
Tracetheevolutionofhumansuptomodernman.
6.
Whatdoyoumeanbythestatementearlymenwerehuntersandgatherers.
7.
Statethepurposesforwhichprimitivemanmadetools.
8.
Primitivehumanswerethrilledtodiscoverfireandwhy?
9.
Howdidhumansthinkofcultivatingcrops?
10.
Whatchangestookplaceinthebehaviourandlifestyleofprimitivehumansafterthey

becameagriculturists?
11.
WhatdoyoumeanbybronzeageandIronage?
12.
Statethefactorswhichledtoindustrialization.
13.
Whatimpactdidyearsofusebygrowingpopulationofhumanshaveonenvironmental

resources?

ANSWERTOINTEXTQUESTIONS
2.1

1.

Air,water,substratum(anytwo)

2.
(i)Landtomakeshelter,foragriculture,potteryetc.(ii)Metalstomaketools,ornamentsandother
things

3.

Asfood,transport

2.2
1.

Australopithecus

2.

2millionyearsago

3.

Forage,plucksfruitsanduprootsplantsandhuntanimals

30

EnvironmentandHumanSociety
Caves
Handsbecamefreetomaketoolsandcarryoutmanyotheractivities.
2.3
Stoneandmetals
Uprootplants,killanimals
Cookfood,heatuprooms,andscareawayanimals(anytwo)
2.4
Intemporaryovalhutshelterwhichoftencoveredwithplants.
About10,000yearsago.
Dog
Bullock,camel,elephant.
Around5000yearsagoinIraqandSyria.
2.5

Makingwheels,
constructing
building,mining
oretomaketools
andornaments.

Copper,ironand
bronze
Technical
development,
economic
development,
inventionofwheel,
beginningof
mining,agriculture
etc.(anyfour)
Forestcutdown,
wildlifehasbeen
threatenedto
extinction,and
pollutionfrom
industrieshas
madeairimpure
andwaterbodies
fulloffilth.

MODULE - 1
EnvironmentthroughAges

Notes

ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND RULES Major environmental laws dealing with protection of
environment can be dived into following categories [1]: A. Water pollution B. Air pollution
C. Environment protection D. Public liability insurance E. National environment appellate
authority F. National environment tribunal G. Animal welfare H. Wildlife I. Forest
conservation

31