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introduction to FEM

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Gaurav

Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar

gauravs@iitgn.ac.in

Short course on

Soil-Structure Interaction

Computer Applications and Material Models

19-23 January, 2015

q

x

k

y, v

04-02-2015

Analytical Solution

exact solution

Difficult for nonlinear problems defined in non-regular

geometries

Finite Difference Method

Easy computer implementation

Difficult for problems defined in non-regular geometries

Applicable in most scenarios, nice mathematical

structure

Cumbersome computer implementation

Other methods

We dont work with PDEs directly unlike the finite difference

method

Discretize domain into multiple finite sub-domains

Compute quantities in all elements individually

Gather (assemble) contributions of all elements in a central

location

Enforce boundary conditions

Solve resulting system of algebraic equations

Compute quantities of interest (stress, strain, etc.)

4

04-02-2015

Assembly

characteristics of numerical methods

that use discretization to solve

governing equations

Element-level contribution

Linear elements

Quadratic convergence

p Pn

1

2

3

1

Quadratic elements

Cubic convergence

This is a typically observed error

convergence behavior in FEA.

n

6

04-02-2015

Approximating center of mass of an arbitrarily shaped

object

Estimation of the value of

q(x)

x, u(x)

Analytical solution

04-02-2015

n=1

n=2

e=1

x=0

e=2

x = L/2

n=3

x=L

9

u(x) = N1(x) u1 + N2(x) u2 + N3(x) u3

Known shape functions

2(0.5 x/L)

1

u(0) = u1

Unknown nodal

displacements

2x/L

2(1 x/L)

u(L/2) = u2

2(x/L 0.5)

u(L) = u3

Partition of unity

10

04-02-2015

u(x)

u2

uexact

u3

u1

How?

Principle of minimum potential energy (MPE)

11

We have

Strain energy

Stiffness matrix

External work

Force vector 12

04-02-2015

Know: u1 = 0

Cancelled equation

No! Stiffness matrix is singular

Need to apply boundary conditions

13

14

04-02-2015

different ranges of x

Integrations over individual elements limits depend on

elements

Makes it less amenable to computer implementation

Solution?: Define standard reference element

Real Element

Reference Element

15

u1

u2

N1(r)

N2(r)

Reference Element

16

04-02-2015

method

Properties: A, E, L

AE/L

AE/L

1

a

AE/L

a

AE/L

1

b

17

Gauss-Legendre quadrature

ri

wi

NGP = 1

If 2NGP n+1,

quadrature is exact!

NGP = 2

0.677 350 269 189 626

NGP = 3

0.744 596 669 241 483

18

04-02-2015

y, v

Shape functions

Strain energy

Element Stiffness

19

q=1

y, v

EI = 1

L=1

q=1

What can we say about errors?

20

10

04-02-2015

Considers shear deformation, separate approximations

for v and .

Beam-column element

Considers axial deformations as well

Essentially, combination of beam and bar elements

Also possible to do 3D1D idealizations

Three displacements (u, v, w) and three rotations (x, y,

z) at each node

A.J.M. Ferreira, MATLAB Codes for Finite Element Analysis: Solids and Structures, 21

Springer, 2009.

Real Element

Reference Element

22

11

04-02-2015

N1(r, s)

Shape functions

s

1

N1(r)

r

23

Shape functions

24

12

04-02-2015

Numerical quadrature

Gauss-Legendre quadrature

s

25

Triangular elements

Degenerate quadrilateral elements

Obtained by contracting two nodes of the quadrilateral

s

N1(r, s)

1

r

r

26

13

04-02-2015

order of polynomial

node

Linear 1D case

Linear 2D case:

27

N2(r)

Reference Element

N3(r)

N1(r)

28

14

04-02-2015

s

29

Other possibilities

Combine Lagrange polynomials of different order for r

and s

e.g.: N(r, s) = l22(r) l11(s)

Serendipity elements

Elements with no interior nodes

s

30

15

04-02-2015

Gaurav

Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar

gauravs@iitgn.ac.in

16

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