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04-02-2015

Gaurav
Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
gauravs@iitgn.ac.in
Short course on
Soil-Structure Interaction
Computer Applications and Material Models
19-23 January, 2015

Beam on elastic foundation


q

x
k
y, v

Seepage through a porous medium

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Analytical Solution
exact solution
Difficult for nonlinear problems defined in non-regular

geometries
Finite Difference Method
Easy computer implementation
Difficult for problems defined in non-regular geometries

Finite Element Method (FEM)


Applicable in most scenarios, nice mathematical

structure
Cumbersome computer implementation
Other methods

Express the problem in energy/weak form


We dont work with PDEs directly unlike the finite difference

method
Discretize domain into multiple finite sub-domains
Compute quantities in all elements individually
Gather (assemble) contributions of all elements in a central

location
Enforce boundary conditions
Solve resulting system of algebraic equations
Compute quantities of interest (stress, strain, etc.)
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Assembly

It can be shown that

This is one of the desired


characteristics of numerical methods
that use discretization to solve
governing equations

Element-level contribution

Linear elements
Quadratic convergence
p Pn

1
2

3
1
Quadratic elements
Cubic convergence
This is a typically observed error
convergence behavior in FEA.

n
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Approximating area of circle


Approximating center of mass of an arbitrarily shaped

object
Estimation of the value of

q(x)

x, u(x)

Governing differential equation (strong form)

Analytical solution

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Equivalent governing equation (energy form)

Discretize geometry (say, we use three nodes)


n=1

n=2

e=1

x=0

e=2

x = L/2

n=3
x=L

Energy form can be distributed over individual elements


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Represent u(x) using piecewise linear functions


u(x) = N1(x) u1 + N2(x) u2 + N3(x) u3
Known shape functions

2(0.5 x/L)
1

u(0) = u1

Unknown nodal
displacements
2x/L

2(1 x/L)

u(L/2) = u2

N1(x) + N2(x) + N3(x) = 1

2(x/L 0.5)

u(L) = u3

Partition of unity

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Represent u(x) using piecewise linear functions


u(x)

u2

uexact
u3

u1

Want u(x) as close to uexact as possible


How?
Principle of minimum potential energy (MPE)
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We have

Strain energy

Stiffness matrix

minimize wrt {u}

External work

Force vector 12

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u(0) = 0, AE = 1, L = 1, P = 1/3, q(x) = x2.


Know: u1 = 0
Cancelled equation

Can we solve for {u} in its present form?


No! Stiffness matrix is singular
Need to apply boundary conditions

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u(0) = 0, AE = 1, L = 1, P = 1/3, q(x) = x2.

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Can we further improve/streamline the process?

Shape functions defined in x different definitions in

different ranges of x
Integrations over individual elements limits depend on
elements
Makes it less amenable to computer implementation
Solution?: Define standard reference element

Real Element

Reference Element
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This allows formulation of standard, linear bar element


u1

u2

N1(r)

N2(r)

u(x) = N1(r) u1 + N2(r) u2


Reference Element

What does Kij physically represent?

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Derivation of stiffness matrix using unit deflection

method
Properties: A, E, L
AE/L

AE/L

1
a

AE/L
a

AE/L

1
b

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Reference element formulation also

allows use of numerical quadrature


Gauss-Legendre quadrature

ri

wi
NGP = 1

0.000 000 000 000 000

If 2NGP n+1,
quadrature is exact!

2.000 000 000 000 000

NGP = 2
0.677 350 269 189 626

1.000 000 000 000 000

NGP = 3
0.744 596 669 241 483

0.555 555 555 555 556

0.000 000 000 000 000

0.888 888 888 888 889

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y, v

Shape functions

Strain energy

Element Stiffness

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q=1

y, v

EI = 1
L=1
q=1
What can we say about errors?

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Timoshenko beam element


Considers shear deformation, separate approximations

for v and .
Beam-column element
Considers axial deformations as well
Essentially, combination of beam and bar elements

These were 2D1D idealizations


Also possible to do 3D1D idealizations
Three displacements (u, v, w) and three rotations (x, y,

z) at each node

A.J.M. Ferreira, MATLAB Codes for Finite Element Analysis: Solids and Structures, 21
Springer, 2009.

Parallels 1D FE formulation via the reference element


Real Element

Reference Element

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N1(r, s)

Shape functions

s
1

N1(r)

Bilinear shape functions

r
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Shape functions

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Numerical quadrature
Gauss-Legendre quadrature
s

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Triangular elements
Degenerate quadrilateral elements
Obtained by contracting two nodes of the quadrilateral

s
N1(r, s)

1
r

r
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Based on Lagrange polynomials


order of polynomial

node

Linear 1D case
Linear 2D case:
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2nd order 1D element


N2(r)

Reference Element

N3(r)

N1(r)

28

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2nd order 2D element


s

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Other possibilities
Combine Lagrange polynomials of different order for r

and s
e.g.: N(r, s) = l22(r) l11(s)
Serendipity elements
Elements with no interior nodes
s

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04-02-2015

Gaurav
Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
gauravs@iitgn.ac.in

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