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# 04-02-2015

Gaurav
Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
gauravs@iitgn.ac.in
Short course on
Soil-Structure Interaction
Computer Applications and Material Models
19-23 January, 2015

q

x
k
y, v

## Seepage through a porous medium

04-02-2015

Analytical Solution
exact solution
Difficult for nonlinear problems defined in non-regular

geometries
Finite Difference Method
Easy computer implementation
Difficult for problems defined in non-regular geometries

## Finite Element Method (FEM)

Applicable in most scenarios, nice mathematical

structure
Cumbersome computer implementation
Other methods

## Express the problem in energy/weak form

We dont work with PDEs directly unlike the finite difference

method
Discretize domain into multiple finite sub-domains
Compute quantities in all elements individually
Gather (assemble) contributions of all elements in a central

location
Enforce boundary conditions
Solve resulting system of algebraic equations
Compute quantities of interest (stress, strain, etc.)
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Assembly

## This is one of the desired

characteristics of numerical methods
that use discretization to solve
governing equations

Element-level contribution

Linear elements
p Pn

1
2

3
1
Cubic convergence
This is a typically observed error
convergence behavior in FEA.

n
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## Approximating area of circle

Approximating center of mass of an arbitrarily shaped

object
Estimation of the value of

q(x)

x, u(x)

## Governing differential equation (strong form)

Analytical solution

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n=1

n=2

e=1

x=0

e=2

x = L/2

n=3
x=L

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## Represent u(x) using piecewise linear functions

u(x) = N1(x) u1 + N2(x) u2 + N3(x) u3
Known shape functions

2(0.5 x/L)
1

u(0) = u1

Unknown nodal
displacements
2x/L

2(1 x/L)

u(L/2) = u2

## N1(x) + N2(x) + N3(x) = 1

2(x/L 0.5)

u(L) = u3

Partition of unity

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u(x)

u2

uexact
u3

u1

## Want u(x) as close to uexact as possible

How?
Principle of minimum potential energy (MPE)
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We have

Strain energy

Stiffness matrix

External work

Force vector 12

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## u(0) = 0, AE = 1, L = 1, P = 1/3, q(x) = x2.

Know: u1 = 0
Cancelled equation

## Can we solve for {u} in its present form?

No! Stiffness matrix is singular
Need to apply boundary conditions

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## Shape functions defined in x different definitions in

different ranges of x
Integrations over individual elements limits depend on
elements
Makes it less amenable to computer implementation
Solution?: Define standard reference element

Real Element

Reference Element
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u1

u2

N1(r)

N2(r)

## u(x) = N1(r) u1 + N2(r) u2

Reference Element

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## Derivation of stiffness matrix using unit deflection

method
Properties: A, E, L
AE/L

AE/L

1
a

AE/L
a

AE/L

1
b

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ri

wi
NGP = 1

If 2NGP n+1,

## 2.000 000 000 000 000

NGP = 2
0.677 350 269 189 626

## 1.000 000 000 000 000

NGP = 3
0.744 596 669 241 483

## 0.888 888 888 888 889

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y, v

Shape functions

Strain energy

Element Stiffness

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q=1

y, v

EI = 1
L=1
q=1
What can we say about errors?

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## Timoshenko beam element

Considers shear deformation, separate approximations

for v and .
Beam-column element
Considers axial deformations as well
Essentially, combination of beam and bar elements

## These were 2D1D idealizations

Also possible to do 3D1D idealizations
Three displacements (u, v, w) and three rotations (x, y,

z) at each node

A.J.M. Ferreira, MATLAB Codes for Finite Element Analysis: Solids and Structures, 21
Springer, 2009.

## Parallels 1D FE formulation via the reference element

Real Element

Reference Element

22

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N1(r, s)

Shape functions

s
1

N1(r)

## Bilinear shape functions

r
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Shape functions

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s

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Triangular elements
Obtained by contracting two nodes of the quadrilateral

s
N1(r, s)

1
r

r
26

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## Based on Lagrange polynomials

order of polynomial

node

Linear 1D case
Linear 2D case:
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## 2nd order 1D element

N2(r)

Reference Element

N3(r)

N1(r)

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## 2nd order 2D element

s

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Other possibilities
Combine Lagrange polynomials of different order for r

and s
e.g.: N(r, s) = l22(r) l11(s)
Serendipity elements
Elements with no interior nodes
s

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04-02-2015

Gaurav
Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
gauravs@iitgn.ac.in

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