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Viscous Liquids and pumps

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(and the mass of 1 gram) is subjected to shearing

action continuously. A shear stress in grams / cm2 is

necessary if fluid has to flow. The basic unit of viscosity

is POISE. The relation between Poise, shear stress

and velocity is as under :

Introduction :

Viscosity involves units of force, distance and time. Viscosity is the property of reluctance of liquids to flow i.e.

opposite of fluidity.

The resistance to flow is caused by shearing of adjacent

layers in a fluid. This resistance is due to the viscosity of

the fluid, and is proportional to the rate at which layers are

sheared.

1Poise =

one layer of fluid is made to move over the other with different velocity. Viscosity may also be defined as the ratio

to shearing stress or force between adjacent layers of

fluid to the rate of change of velocity perpendicular to the

direction of flow.

dyne-second

cm2

Where,

Dyne is a unit of force in C.G.S. system and one dyne is

that force which produces an acceleration of 1 cm / s2 in a

mass of 1 gram.

Veleocity gradient of a laminar flow in a pipe takes a parabolic shape. Along the pipe wall V = 0, while at axis it is

maximum.

is equal to one hundredth of Poise.

Measuring units for viscosity (in metric Units).

across the pipe, and energy is expended in acquiring relative velocity from layer to layer.

2) centistokes (Kinematic viscosity)

A force twice as large would be required to move the liquid twice as fast. Fluids which behave this way are called

Newtonian fluids, like :

water, milk, petrol, kerosene, mercury, hydrocloric acid

(31.5%), turpentine etc.

Fluids which do not behave this way are called

Non-Newtonian fluids like :

syrup, honey, molasses, slurries, etc.

Kinematic Viscosity =

(in Centistokes)

factor for converting viscosity units like :

problems if liquid has a viscosity upto 200 centistokes

or 924 SSU for normal design of pump. For viscosity conversion refer Fig. 53.

in a number of layers in different velocities. Now consider

the fluid mass of one gram on any layer moving with the

velocity of 1 cm/s in the direction of the arrows.Because

58

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from this point and cut Kh, KQ, KH curves and at each

meeting point turn to the left to get correction factors as

under :

As viscosity increases, the Q-H and power curves of centrifugal pumps handling water takes different shapes.

When viscous liquids are admitted both head and discharge are reduced while the power curve rises, because

of increased friction (Fig. 50.)

KH

KQ

0.95

0.63

The water values for pump will be obtained after dividing

them by individual correction factors as under :

Some symbols and factors are to be understood for reading the chart and those are as given below :

Qvis

= Viscous capacity

Hvis

= Viscous head

vis

= Viscous efficiency

Qw

= Water capacity

Hw

= Water head

i) Hw

ii) Qw

KQ

Kh

30

0.91

170

0.95

= 33.36m

= 178.9 m3/h

b.e.p. on water performance.

= Water efficiency

KH

However for predicting the efficiency when handling viscous liquids, multiply water efficiency by the Kh factor

(0.63).

If water efficiency is 81%, then the pump will give only

51% (81 x 63) when it handles viscous liquid under consideration.

Ordinary centrifugal pumps can handle viscous liquids

under certain conditions :

Refer Fig. 54, for performance correction chart for discharge below 20m3/h

closed impeller.

3. Adequate NPSH must be made available in order to

avoid cavitation (Flooded suction is preferable).

For a pump handling viscous liquid, selection is done on

the basis of water duties (Qw, Hw) arrived at after dividing

the given flow (Qvis) and Head (Hvis) by viscosity correction factors.

How to obtain these factors is explained in the example

given below.

DETERMINATION OF PUMP PERFORMANCE WHEN

HANDLING VISCOUS LIQUIDS

Fig. 50 provides a means of predicting the approximate

performance of a conventional centrifugal pump to be

selected for viscous liquids when its duty point and viscosity are given.

Example :

Select a pump to deliver 170m3/hr at 30 m total head of

liquid having a viscosity of 215 cst and a specific gravity

of 0.9. Find out the pump model (handling water) which

meets the duties of the viscous liquid.

To start with, enter the chart with 170 m3/hr, go up till head

line (30 m) intersects, then turn to the right horizontally

and proceed till you touch the slant viscosity line giving

the required viscosity number 215 cst; then go upward

59

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