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KINEMATICS OF PARTICLES

1.1

Explain the concepts of kinematics

Mechanics is a branch of the physical sciences that is concerned with the state of rest or motion

of bodies subjected to the action of forces. Engineering mechanics is divided into two areas of

study, namely, statics and dynamics. Statics is concerned with the equilibrium of a body that is

either at rest or moves with constant velocity. Here we will consider dynamics, which deals with

the accelerated motion of a body. The subject of dynamics will be presented in two parts:

kinematics, which treats only the geometric aspects of the motion, and kinetics, which is the

analysis of the forces causing the motion.

1.1.1 Explain the concepts of kinematics of particles

1.2

We will begin our study of dynamics by discussing the kinematics of a particle that moves along

a rectilinear or straight line path. Recall that a particle has mass but negligible size and shape.

The kinematics of a particle is characterized by specifying, at any given instant, the particles

position, velocity, and acceleration.

1.2.1 Describe position, velocity and acceleration motion of particles

1.2.1.1 Position

The straight-line path of a particle will be defined using a single coordinate axis s. The origin O

on the path is a fixed point, and from this point the position coordinate s is used to specify the

location of the particle at any given instant. The magnitude of s is the distance from O to the

particle, usually measured in meters (m) or feet (ft), and the sense of direction is defined by the

algebraic sign on s.

1.2.1.2 Displacement

The displacement of the particle is defined as the change in its position. For example, if the

particle moves from one point to another, the displacement is

s = s s

In this case s is positive since the particles final position is to the right of its initial position,

i.e. s>s. Likewise, if the final position were to the left of its initial position, s would be

negative.

1.2.1.3 Velocity

If the particle moves through a displacement s during time interval t, the average velocity of

the particle during this time interval is

If we take smaller and smaller values of t, the magnitude of s becomes smaller and smaller.

1.2.1.4 Acceleration

Provided the velocity of the particle is known at two points, the average acceleration of the

particle during the time interval t is defined as

The instantaneous acceleration at time t is a vector that is found by taking smaller and smaller

=

1.2.2 Solve problems regarding uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion.

Equation of motion

When the acceleration is constant, each of the three kinematics equations =

= + t -------------------- (1)

1

= + + 2 2 -----------(2)

2 = 2 + 2 ( ) --------------(3)

Graphical method

1.2.3 Explain the relationship between linear motion and angular motion

1.2.4 Solve problems related to relationship between linear and angular motion

1.2.5 Explain non constant acceleration motion

1.2.6 Solve problems related to kinematics of particles

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