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Northern California Entomology Club Meeting

Davis, CA
May 5, 2000

Red Imported Fire Ant
Treatments and Surface Water
Regulatory Issues
Kean S. Goh, Dave Kim,
Johanna Walters, Roger Sava
Environmental Monitoring & Pest Management
Department of Pesticide Regulation

Department of Pesticide Regulation
www.cdpr.ca.gov

Outline

Introduction











Introduction
Monitoring Plan
Insecticides
Surface Water Regulatory Issues
Results & Discussion
Conclusions

RIFA treatments - large geographic area
Surface-water runoff potential
Historical monitoring data
Aquatic toxicity
Runoff prevention and mitigation
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

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Monitoring Program
• Offsite Movement
– Insecticide Concentration
– Aquatic Toxicity

• Dissipation study
– Turf, Soil, Water

• Assessing Mitigations

Other Organophosphates





Dimethoate
Fonofos
Malathion
Methidathion
Methyl parathion
Phosmet

The RIFA Insecticides





Bifenthrin (Talstar®)
Chlorpyrifos (Dursban®, Lorsban®)
Diazinon
Fenoxycarb (Award®)
Hydramethylnon (Amdro®)
Pyriproxyfen (Distance®)

Physico-Chemical Properties
Pesticide

Sol.

Koc

Bifenthrin

0.1

302,000 345

FD

Chlorpyrifos

1.4

12,000

Diazinon

60

1,800

30

Fenoxycarb

5.7

2,600

36

Hydramethylnon

0.9

360,000 55

Pyriproxyfen

0.4

34,000

56

86

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Aquatic Toxicity (LC50)
Pesticide

R. Trout (ppb)

D.Magna (ppb)

Bifenthrin

0.15

0.16

Chlorpyrifos

3

1.7

Diazinon

2600

0.96

Fenoxycarb

1600

400

Hydramethylnon

160

1140

Pyriproxyfen

325

400

Malathion

170

1.8

Federal Clean Water Act
• Impaired water bodies – 303 (d) list.
– Physical, chemical, biological
– Sediment, metals, pesticides, pathogens,
nutrients, toxic organics, toxicity,
salinity, other
– Calif 509 bodies listed (1998)

TMDL Process
Total Maximum Daily Load
Regional Water Quality Control Board
Numeric Standards
Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos




Results and Discussion



Insecticide Concentration
Toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia
Urban vs. Nurseries
Regulatory Issues

SF – urban creeks (diazinon)
CC- Pajaro R, Watsonville Slough
CV-Sac/SJR Delta
SA- Newport Bay
SD- Chollas Cr./SD Bay (diazinon)

3

Bee Canyon Drain
8

Concentration (ppb)

7
bifenthrin

6

chlorpyrifos
5

diazinon
dimethoate

4

fonofos
malathion

3

m. parathion
2

8

90

7

80
70
60
50

4
3

40
30

2

20

1

10

0

0
Jun-99 Sep-99 Oct-99 Dec-99 Jan-00 Feb-00
Month

8

m. parathion

7

malathion
fonofos

6

diazinon
chlorpyrifos
bifenthrin
% mortality

bifenthrin
chlorpyrifos

Concentration (ppb)

100
Mortality of C. dubia (%)

Concentration (ppb)

9

5

fonofos

Central Irvine/Hines Channel

Bee Canyon Drain

6

diazinon

Jun- Jul- AugSep- Oct- NovDec- Jan- Feb99 99 99
99
99
99 99
00
00

bifenthrin

0

m. parathion

1

diazinon
dimethoate

5

malathion

4

m. parathion
3
2
1
0
May- Jun99
99

Sep99

Oct99

Dec99

Jan00

Feb00

4

Marshburn Slough

100
90

4

80
70

3

60

2

50
40

1

30
20

0

10
0

3
m. parathion
malathion
fonofos
dimethoate
diazinon
chlorpyrifos
bifenthrin
% mortality

Concentration (ppb)

5

Mortality of C. dubia (%)

Concentration (ppb)

Central Irvine/ Hines Channel

bifenthrin
chlorpyrifos
diazinon
malathion

2

1

0
Feb-00

May-99 Jun-99 Sep-99 Oct-99 Dec-99 Jan-00 Feb-00

Month

San Diego Creek

Marshburn Slough

diazinon

3

chlorpyrifos
bifenthrin
% mortality

2

1

0
Feb-00

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

2
Concentration (ppb)

Concentration (ppb)

malathion

Mortality of C. dubia (%)

4

chlorpyrifos
diazinon
dimethoate
fonofos
malathion

1

0
Mar- Apr- May- Jun- Sep- Oct- Dec- Jan- Feb99 99 99 99 99 99 99 00 00

5

Bonita Creek

San Diego Creek

0

malathion
fonofos

Concentration (ppb)

1

3

Mortality of C. dubia (%)

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

dimethoate
diazinon
chlorpyrifos
% mortality

Mar- Apr- May- Jun- Sep- Oct- Dec- Jan- Feb99 99 99 99 99 99 99 00 00

diazinon
malathion

2

1

0

Sep-99 Oct-99 Nov-99 Dec-99 Jan-00 Feb-00

Westcliff Park

Bonita Creek

80
% mortality
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

1

0

Sep-99 Oct-99 Dec-99 Jan-00 Feb-00

3
Concentration (ppb)

100
malathion
90
diazinon

Mortality of C. dubia (%)

2
Concentration (ppb)

Concentration (ppb)

2

chlorpyrifos

2

diazinon
methidathion

1

0
Dec-99

Jan-00

Feb-00

6

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

2

1

0
Dec-99

Jan-00

malathion
fonofos
methidathion
diazinon
chlorpyrifos
% mortality

Feb-00

Bolsa Chica Channel

Bolsa Chica Channel
3

Concentration (ppb)

diazinon
dimethoate

2

malathion

1

Concentration (ppb)

3

malathion
dimethoate
diazinon

2

%mortality

1

0

0
Apr-99 May-99

Jun-99

Sep-99

Oct-99

Month

Dec-99

Jan-00

Feb-00

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Mortality of C. dubia (%)

Concentration (ppb)

3

Mortality of C. dubia (%)

Westcliff Park

Apr-99 May-99 Jun-99 Sep-99 Oct-99 Dec-99 Jan-00 Feb-00

Month

7

East Garden Grove Channel

East Garden Grove Channel
3

diazinon

90

malathion

chlorpyrifos

80

2

1

% mortality

70

2

60
50
40
1

30
20

Mortality of C. dubia (%)

diazinon

Concentration (ppb

malathion

100

chlorpyrifos

10
0

0

Jun-99 Jul-99 Aug-99 Sep-99 Oct-99 Nov-99 Dec-99 Jan-00 Feb-00

0
Jun-99

Sep-99

Oct-99

Dec-99

Jan-00

Feb-00

Arroyo
Oso Trabuco
Creek
22
Concentration
Concentration (ppb)
(ppb)

Concentration (ppb

3

bifenthrin
fenoxycarb
bifenthrin
hydramethylnon
fenoxycarb
pyriproxyfen
hydramethylnon
chlorpyrifos
chlorpyrifos
diazinon
diazinon
fonofos
dimethoate
malathion
fonofos

11

malathion

00

Mar- Mar- Apr- Apr- Apr- Apr- May- Jun- Sep- Oct- Dec- Jan- FebMar- Mar- Apr- Apr- Apr- Apr- May- Jun- Sep- Oct- Dec- Jan99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
00
00

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

00

Feb00

8

San Juan Creek
Arroyo Trabuco

1

0

Mortality of C. dubia (%)

Concentration (ppb)

2

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

malathion
fonofos
diazinon
chlorpyrifos
pyriproxyfen
hydramethylnon
fenoxycarb
bifenthrin
% mortality

Concentration (ppb)

2
3

chlorpyrifos
diazinon
fonofos
malathion

1

0
Apr99

Mar- Mar- Apr- Apr- Apr- Apr- May- Jun- Sep- Oct- Dec- Jan- Feb99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
00
00

May99

Sep- Oct-99 Dec99
99

Jan00

Feb00

San Juan Creek
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

1

0

Management Agency Agreement
Mortality of C. dubia (%)

Concentration (ppb)

2

malathion
fonofos
diazinon
chlorpyrifos
% mortality




Preventive (outreach and education)
Self-regulatory (voluntary programs)
Regulatory (DPR)
Regulatory (Federal and Regional Boards)

Apr-99 May- Sep-99 Oct-99 Dec-99 Jan-00 Feb-00
99

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Conclusions
• All RIFA insecticides were detected
• Single detects: hydramethylnon,
pyriproxyfen, fenoxycarb
• Nurseries: Bifenthrin, Diazinon,
Chlorpyrifos, (Malathion), (Dimethoate)
<3 ppb
• Urban: Diazinon, Malathion, Chlorpyrifos
<1 ppb

Acknowledgment
• Calif. Dept. of Food & Agriculture
– Center for Analytical Chemistry
– Pest Detection/Emergency Project







Santa Ana RWQC B
State Water Resource Control Board
Calif. Department of Fish & Game
County Agric. Commissioners
UC Cooperative Extension
Nursery Industries
Dept. of Health Services

Conclusions (continued)
• Toxicity to C. dubia
• Nursery sites:
– 10 attributable to Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Bifenthrin,
Malathion, Dimethoate, Fonofos
– 1 unknowns

• Urban and integrated sites:
– 12 attributable to Diazinon, Malathion, Chlorpyrifos
– 24 unknowns

Kgoh@cdpr.ca.gov
(916) 324-4072
830 K Street
Sacramento, CA 95814

www.cdpr.ca.gov

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