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Chapter 2: Body coordination

2.1
Body Coordination
1. When we carry out an activity all the body parts of the body coordinate to cooperate
and work with one another to enable us to conduct the activity.
2. Body coordination = ability of all body parts to work together.
(a)Purpose: To control ones movements properly - involves muscle, nervous and
endocrine system

3. Body coordination is controlled by 2 systems that are:


(a) Nervous system has networks of nerves connected to the brain and gives response
to stimulus
(b) Endocrine system coordinates body functions by producing and sending out
hormones into bloodstream.
Nervous system
Deals with rapid but short lived response
Involves transmission of electrical impulses
along the nerve fibres

Endocrine system
Deals with slower but longer lasting
responses

Involves secretion and transport of chemical


substances
** NOTE: These 2 systems enable human to carry out necessary responses to adapt to
changes in both external and internal environment

1.1.2 The importance of Body Coordination


1. Both nervous system and endocrine system work together to coordinate body activities
and functions.
2. Below are the essential roles of the 2 systems in the body coordination:
(a) To carry out necessary activities
(b) To receive stimuli from environment and take necessary action
(c) To detect changes in the environment and take necessary action
(d) To develop good body posture
(e) To think about a problem or situation and find a solution to it
(f) Endocrine system controls all chemical and physiological functions in the body.

Exercise 1
1. What is meant by body coordination?
2. Name 2 systems responsible for body coordination

3. State one activity controlled by mainly the nervous system

4. State one body function controlled mainly by the endocrine system

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5. How are hormones sent to the desired organs in the body?

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5.2

Human Nervous system

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Controls voluntary actions

Controls involuntary actions

1. The nervous system consists:


(a) Brain
(c) nerves connecting to different parts
(b) Spinal cord
** A nerves consists of many a bundle of nerve fibres, surrounded by a protective sheath of
connective tissues.
**Inside each nerve bundle contains many neurones.
** Hence, nervous system is made up of millions of neurones. They are present in large
number and cannot be replaced when damaged
2. Function of nervous system:
(a) Transmit nervous impulses from one part of the body to another so that the activities of
the body are coordinated
3. The human nervous system is composed of 2 systems:
(a) The central nervous system (CNS) brain & spinal cord
(b) Peripheral nervous system cranial & spiral nerves and their branches that link the
receptors and effectors with the CNS

The central nervous system


Is the centre for receiving nervous impulses from the sensory organs, interpreting them
and deciding on the responses
Consists of:
(a) Brain
(b) Spinal cord
Brain
Spinal cord
Protected by cranium (hard
- Is a bundle of nerves running down from the brain
bony covering) and 3
inside the vertebral column
- Also protected by meninges
membranes (meninges)
- Enclosed within the backbone, shaped like an H
Fluid between meninges
- Has 3 sections:
protects the brain from shock
(a) central canal containing fluid
(shock absorber)
(b) White matter of nerve fibres situated on the
outer side
(c) Grey matter of the cell bodies situated on the
inside of the spinal cord

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Function:
(a) Interprets nervous impulses
sent by sensory organs and
decide the action to be taken
(b) Controls volunatry actions

Function:
(a) Transmits nerve impulses between the head and
the rest of the body.
(b) Control reflex action

The Peripheral Nervous System


Consists of nerves from brain (12 pairs of cranial nerves), the spinal cord (31 pairs of
spinal nerves), the glands and internal organs (autonomic nerves)
Is divided into 2 main systems that are:
(a) Somatic (body) nervous systems
(b) the autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous
Autonomic nervous system
system
Consists of cranial
- Consists of nerves from internal organs (eg. Heart, kidney, lung)
nerves (nerves from
and the glands
**dealing with the organs and galnds smooth muscle
eyes, ears, nose and
tongue) and spinal
Function: control involuntary actions such as heart beating,
nerves (from limbs,
abdomen and the skin) food digestion,swseating and breathing

Function: to control
voluntary actions.

Sympathetic NS

Parasympathetic NS

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Neurones (Nerve cells) ** each nerve consists of many neurones


1. Function: to receive and transmit nerve impulses
2. Neurones are divided into 3 types that are:
Sensory neurones
Transmit nerve impulses
from a sensory organ
(receptor) to the central
nervous system (brain &
spinal cord)

Pathway of impulse:
Receptor Dendron cell
body Axon spinal
cord/brain

Sensory neurones
Present in all parts of the
body
Transmit impulse from:
receptor CNS
Axon is shorter than dendron
Dendron is longer than axon

Cell body is between the


Dendron and axon

Relay neurones
Transmit impulses from the
sensory neurones to the motor
neurones.

Motor neurones
Transmit impulses from the
CNS to the effectors (Muscles
or glands)

Are found in brain and spinal


cord only

**is only found in the brain and


spinal cord

Relay neurones
Presents in the brain and
spinal cord only
Transmit impulse from:
sensory neuron motor
neuron
Axon is very short
Has short dendrons and
short dendrites on cell body
Cell body is located between
sensory and motor neuron
Similarities:

Pathway of impulse:
Spinal cord/brain dendrites
dendrons cell body
axon effector

Motor neurones
Present in all parts of the
body
Transmit impulse from:
CNS effector
Axon is very long
Has short dendrons and
short dendrites on the cell
body
Cell body is at the end of the
axon

All 3 neurons has:


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(a) Cell body


(b) Dendrons and dendrites
(c) Can receive and sent out nervous impulse
Neuron structure and its function
1

Structure
Nucleus & cytoplasm

Receptor

Effector

Functions
Nucleus: controls neurones activities
Cytoplasm: surround the nucleus
- Sensory organs/ nerve endings
- Receives stimuli from environment
Eg: muscle or gland
-

Cell body
(has a nucleus and
cytoplasm)
Axon

Dendron & dendrites

Responds to an impulse
Eg: muscle contract or relax
Glands secrete chemicals (eg; saliva)
Controls all the activities in the neurones

Long nerve fibre


Transmit impulses away from the cell body to an
effector
Long nerve fibre
Transmit impulses towards a cell body

Dendron
Dendron is
longer than
axon

Dendrites
Short and fine braches of nerve
fibres
-

Myelin sheath

Transmit impulses to cell body via


Dendron
A layer of fat that protects the axon and dendrons

Functions:
(a) Speed up the transmission of impulses
(b) Supplies nutrients to the axon and dendron
Exercise 2
1. State the 2 functions of the nervous system.

2. how is a neurone different from a typical animal cell such as check cell?

3. State 2 difference in function between a Dendron and axon

4. What is a synapse? State its function

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5. What is the function of the myelin sheath of a neurone

6. How would you differentiate a motor neurone from a relay neurone?


Summative Exercise
1

2
.

3
.

4
.

Body coordination can be defined as


A Control of body growth
.
B Control of hormonal secretion
.
C Regulations of body movement
.
D Control and regulation of body
.
activities in response to stimuli
Besides the nervous system, body
coordination also involves the
A Respiratory system
.
B Endocrine system
.
C Excretory system
.
D Reproductive system
.
The following are the importance of body
coordination to humans except to
A Ensure our surivival
.
B Enable our body to respond
.
appropriately to changes in our
surroundings
C Ensure only the proper
.
functioning of one system in the
body
D Help pur body maintain a
.
constant internal environment
Diagram shows part
of the human
nervous system. The
peripheral system is
made up of

5.

Diagram below shows one of the


neurones found in the human nervous
system. The function of the neurone is
to transfer the nervous impulse

A
.
B
.
C
.
D
.
6.

From the receptor organ


To the motor neurone
From the central nervous system

Diagram
represents a
neurone. Which of
the following
statements correctly describes the
neurone shown?
A
.
B
.
C
.
D
.

7.

To the receptor organ

It transfer impulses to a motor


neurone
It receives impulses from an
effector
It is located below the skin
It has no axon

The myelin sheath surrounding the


axon of a motor neurone
A.
B.

Makes the axon stronger


Quickens the transmission of
A.
P
C.
P
impulses
an
an
C. Is made up of protein substances
d
D. Slows down the transmission ofd S
Q
impulses
B R
D Q
8.
By referring to the diagram in question 6,
.
and
.
and
(a) Name the type of neurone
S
R
____________________________________________________________________________________
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(b) Where can this type of neurone be found?


____________________________________________________________________________________
(c) What is the function of this type of neurone?
____________________________________________________________________________________
(d) Draw in the space provided the pathway of an impulse in a nervous coordination.

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