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Vectors and Scalars

A vector has magnitude as


well as direction.

Some vector quantities:


displacement, velocity, force,
momentum
A scalar has only a magnitude.
Some scalar quantities: mass,
time, temperature

Distance: A Scalar Quantity


Distance is the length of the actual path
taken by an object.
s = 20 m
A

A scalar quantity:
Contains magnitude
only and consists of a
number and a unit.

(20 m, 40 mi/h, 10 gal)

DisplacementA Vector Quantity


Displacement is the straight-line
separation of two points in a specified
direction.
D = 12 m, 20o
A

A vector quantity:
Contains magnitude
AND direction, a
number, unit & angle.

(12 m, 300; 8 km/h, N)

More about Vectors


A vector is represented on paper by an
arrow
1. the length represents magnitude
2. the arrow faces the direction of
motion

A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and


direction. It is represented by an arrow. The length of
the vector represents the magnitude and the arrow
indicates the direction of the vector.

Blue and orange


vectors have
same magnitude
but different
direction.

Blue and purple


vectors have
same magnitude
and direction so
they are equal.

Blue and green


vectors have
same direction
but different
magnitude.

Two vectors are equal if they have the same direction and
magnitude (length).

Magnitude of a Vector

(Magnitudeof A) A A

The magnitude of a vector is a positive number (with units!)


that describes its size.

Example: magnitude of a displacement vector is its length.

The magnitude of a velocity vector is often called speed.

The magnitude of a vector is expressed using the same letter as


the vector but without the arrow on top of it.

x2 , y2

Terminal
Point

Initial
Point

x1, y1

Some Vector Properties

Two vectors that have the


same direction are said to be
parallel.
Two vectors that have
opposite directions are said
to be anti-parallel.

Two vectors that have the


same length and the same
direction are said to be
equal no matter where they
are located.
The negative of a vector is a
vector with the same
magnitude (size) but
opposite direction

3-2 Addition of VectorsGraphical Methods

For vectors in one


dimension, simple
addition and subtraction
are all that is needed.
You do need to be careful
about the signs, as the
figure indicates.

Easy Adding

All these planes have the same reading on


their speedometer. (plane speed not speed
with respect to the ground (actual speed)

What
factor is
affecting
their
velocity?

Addition of VectorsGraphical Methods


If the motion is in two dimensions, the situation is
somewhat more complicated.
Here, the actual travel paths are at right angles to
one another; we can find the displacement by
using the Pythagorean Theorem.

Perpendicular Vectors
When 2 vectors are perpendicular, you may use the
Pythagorean theorem.
A man walks 95 km, East
then 55 km, north.
Calculate his
RESULTANT
DISPLACEMENT.
55 km, N

c 2 a 2 b2 c a 2 b2
c Resultant 952 552
95 km,E

c 12050 109.8 km

Example
A bear, searching for food wanders 35 meters east then 20 meters north.
Frustrated, he wanders another 12 meters west then 6 meters south. Calculate
the bear's displacement.

- =
12 m, W

- =

6 m, S

14 m, N

20 m, N

35 m, E

R
q

23 m, E
The Final Answer:

23 m, E

14 m, N

R 142 232 26.93m


14
Tanq .6087
23
q Tan1 (0.6087) 31.3

26.93m31.3
26.93m,31.3

To
Toadd
addvectors,
vectors,we
weput
putthe
theinitial
initialpoint
pointof
ofthe
thesecond
second
vector
vector on
onthe
theterminal
terminalpoint
pointof
ofthe
thefirst
firstvector.
vector. The
The
resultant
resultantvector
vector has
hasan
aninitial
initialpoint
pointat
atthe
theinitial
initialpoint
point
of
ofthe
thefirst
firstvector
vector and
andaaterminal
terminalpoint
pointat
atthe
theterminal
terminal
point
pointof
ofthe
the second
secondvector
vector(see
(seebelow--better
below--bettershown
shown
than
thanput
putin
inwords).
words).
Terminal
point of w

vw

Initial point of v

w
Move w over keeping
the magnitude and
direction the same.

Vector Addition
Vector C of a vector sum of vectors A and C.
Example: double displacement of particle.

Vector addition is commutative (the order of vector


addition doesnt matter).
18

The negative of a vector is just a vector going the opposite


way.

v
A number multiplied in front of a vector is called a scalar. It
means to take the vector and add together that many times.

3v

v
v

v
u

Using the vectors shown,


find the following:

u v

3w

w
w
w

u v
u

2u 3w v v
u

u
v

w
w

Vector Subtraction
Subtract vectors:

A B A (B)

23

3-4 Adding Vectors by Components


Any vector can be expressed as the sum
of two other vectors, which are called its
components. Usually the other vectors are
chosen so that they are perpendicular to
each other.

3-4 Adding Vectors by Components


Remember:
soh
cah
toa

If the components are


perpendicular, they can be
found using trigonometric
functions.

Adding Vectors by Components

Adding Vectors by
Components
A

Transform vectors so they are head-totail.

Adding Vectors by
Components
Bx
B
B

Ay
Ax

Draw components of each vector...

Adding Vectors by
Components
B

Ay

Ax

B
y

Bx

Add components as collinear vectors!

Adding Vectors by
Components
B

Ay

B
y

Ry
Ax

Bx

Rx

Draw resultants in each direction...

Adding Vectors by
Components
B

A
R

q
Rx

Ry

Combine components of answer using the head to tail


method...

Adding Vectors by
Components
Use the Pythagorean Theorem and Right Triangle Trig
to solve for R and q
2

R Rx Ry

R
1
y
q tan
Rx

Analytical (component)
Method
Polar Form of Vectors
= ,
=
=

Example
= 10 , 45
= 10
= 450

Caution
Addition of vectors in polar form cannot be
done algebraically
Ex. A = 5 km, 45 deg
B = 4 km, 135 deg
C = 3 km, 270 deg
R = 12 km, 450 deg
Vectors can only be added algebraically if
they are parallel or antiparallel

Component Form
= ,
= cos + sin
and
= 10 , 45
= 10 (45) + 10 sin 45
= 7.07 + 7.07

= 10 , 45
= 10 (45) + 10 sin 45
= 7.07 + 7.07

10

7.07

7.07

= 20 , 120
= 20 (120) + 20 sin 120
= 10 + 17.32

20

17.32

10

= 7.07 + 7.07
= 10 + 17.32
R = -2.93 km x + 24.39 km y

17.32
10
7.07
7.07

Graphical Representation of the


Analytical Method
= 12 km, 30 deg
= 6 km, 60 deg

+=

= +

= +

1 +2 + 3 =

Component Method
x
D1
D2
D3

620km, 0 deg
440km, 315 deg
550 km, 233 deg

620km (cos 0)
440km (cos 315)
550km (cos 233)

y
620km (sin 0)
440km (sin 315)
550km (sin 233)

x
D1
D2
D3

620km, 0 deg
440km, 315 deg
550 km, 233 deg
R

620km
311km
-331 km

0km
-311 km
-439 km

600 km

-750 km

Adding vectors:
1. Draw a diagram; add the vectors graphically.
2. Choose x and y axes.
3. Resolve each vector into x and y components.

4. Calculate each component using sines and


cosines.
5. Add the components in each direction.
6. To find the magnitude of the vector, use:

2 + 2

x
+y

Direction:

1. Resolve what quadrant


is the vector pointing at?

x
y

2. Get the Reference Angle =


3. if

Quadrant 1 =
Quadrant 2 =
Quadrant 3 = +
Quadrant 4 =

Q2

Q3

Q1

Q4

+x
+y

+x
y

From Component to Polar


Magnitude of R =
960
Angle of R =

6002 + 750

1 750

600

360-51

=51 deg at Q4

= 309 degrees

= 600 750
600

750

Adding Vectors by
Components
Mail carriers displacement.
A rural mail carrier leaves the post office and drives
22.0 km in a northerly direction. She then drives in a
direction 60.0 south of east for 47.0 km. What is her
displacement from the post office?

Magnitude
22
47

Direction
90
-60

X
0
23.5
23.5

Y
22
-40.70319398
-18.70319398

23.5

+ 18.7

23.5

+ 18.7

= 30.0

Magnitude
22
47

Direction
90
-60

X
0
23.5
23.5

Y
22
-40.70319398
-18.70319398

18.7
1
=

23.5

():
=
= 180
= 180 +
= 360
()=

Scaling Vectors
31 22 + 43 =
D1
D2
D3

620km, 0 deg
440km, 315 deg
550 km, 233 deg

3*D1 = 1860 km, 0 deg


2*D2 = 880 km, 315 deg
+4*D3 = 2200 km, 233 deg
x

3*D1 = 1860 km, 0 deg


2*D2 = 880 km, 315 deg
4*D3 = 2200 km, 233 deg
R