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Control of Distributed Generation

Eugeniusz Rosoowski
Protection and Control
of Distributed Energy Resources
Chapter 4
eugeniusz.rosolowski@pwr.wroc.pl

1.Introduction

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

GeneralConsiderations
From the economical point of view, optimal control
maximizes the financial return on DG system
investment.
The fundamental goal of the control scheme is to
determine whether or not the onsite generation
should be operating during a particular hour.
Buyback priority is used in cases where the operator
wishes to produce electricity and sell any or all of the
produced power back to the utility.

2.DCsources

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DCcources interconnetion tothe Grid

A PV or Fuel Cell grid-connected DG system with


energy storage

2.DCsources

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Control ofDCsources interconnetion tothe Grid

Grid-connected power flow control scheme


through output voltage regulation

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

WindTurbine Structure

NelsonV.,WindEnergy.CRCPress,2009

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Turbine Regulation
Pitch controller objectives:
to regulate aerodynamic torque in aboverated wind
speeds;
to minimize peaks in gearbox torque;
to avoid excessive pitch activity;
to minimize tower base loads as far as possible by
controlling tower vibration, and
to avoid exacerbating hub and blade root loads.

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Turbine Characteristics
The power transferred by the turbine blades is given by:
1
Pm = Ar C p Vw3
2
where:
air density;
Ar area swept by the rotor;
Vw wind velocity;
Cp power coefficient;
pitch angle.

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Theoreticalcurvesoftorqueversusrpmfordifferent windspeeds

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

WindTurbine Control
A pitch control system is one method to control rpm, start up
(need high torque), and overspeed.
The pitch can be changed to maintain a constant rpm for
synchronous generators. For an induction generator, variable
speed generator that operates over a range of rpm in the run
position, over this range the tip speed ratio is constant, and
the unit operates at higher efficiency.
Doubly fed induction generators have a large rpm range,
around 50%, and are used because of the increased
aerodynamic efficiency with blades in the run position for
large wind turbines.

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

MainControlLoopforaFixedspeedPitchregulatedTurbine

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Connectionofembeddedwindgeneration
Consideration of whether a wind generation scheme may be
connected to a distribution circuit is based on its impact on
other users of the network. Similar considerations apply to the
connection of any load.
The main parameters relevant to the connection of wind turbines:
Slow (or steadystate) voltage variations,
Rapid voltage changes (leading to flicker),
Waveform distortion (i.e., harmonics),
Voltage unbalance (i.e., negative phase sequence voltage), and
Transient voltage variations (i.e., dips and sags).

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

LightningProtection
Lightning is a significant potential hazard to wind turbines and that
appropriate protection measures need to be taken. Some years ago,
it was thought that as the blades of wind turbines are made from
nonconducting material (i.e., glass or woodepoxy) then it was not
necessary to provide explicit protection for these types of blades.
However, there is now a large body of site experience to show that
lightning will attach to blades made from these materials and can
cause catastrophic damage if suitable protection systems have not
been fitted.
The main protective measures are good bonding, effective shielding
and the use of appropriate surge protection devices at the zone
boundaries.

4.WindDrivenGenerators

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Type ofRotating Generators


Fixed Speed Induction Generator (FSIG).
Synchronous Generator (SG).
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG).
DoublyFed Induction Generator (DFIG).

4.WindDrivenGenerators

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Generatorasthree terminalunit

4.WindDrivenGenerators

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Turbine Regulation
DFIG wind turbines with converters rated at about
2530% of the generator rating are becoming
increasingly popular.
These studies showed that DFIGbased wind turbines
do not have an impact on oscillation, as it has modern
power electronic devices to perform reactive power
compensation and smoother grid connection besides
speed control.

4.WindDrivenGenerators

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Scheme ofthegridconnectedvariablespeedwind
generator

4.WindDrivenGenerators

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Scheme ofthegridconnectedvariablespeedwind
generator

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DoublyFed Induction Generator


DFIG/DFIM
DFIGbased wind turbines offer variable speed
operation, fourquadrant active and reactive power
capabilities, lower converter cost, and reduced power
loss compared to wind turbines using fixed speed
induction generators or fullyfed synchronous
generators with fullsized converters.

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIG Model
Recent interest in distributed generator installation into
low voltage buses near electrical consumers, has
created some new challenges for protection engineers
that are different from traditional radially based
protection methodologies.
Therefore, typical protection configurations need to be
re-thought such as re-closures, out-of-step monitoring,
impedance relay protection zones with the detection of
unplanned islanding of distributed generator systems.

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGModel

General structure of DFIG based Generator

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGModel

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Available Measurements

uABC(s) 3-phase stator voltage,


iABC(s) 3-phase stator current,
iABC(r) 3-phase stator current,
r rotor angular velocity.

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Machine Coordinates System


3-phase stator coordinates:
uABC(s) 3-phase stator voltage
iABC(s) 3-phase stator current
0 stator coordinates:
i0 0 stator current
u0 0 stator voltage
3-phase rotor coordinates:
dq0 rotor coordinates:
idq0 dq0 rotor current
uABC(r) 3-phase rotor voltage
udq0 dq0 rotor voltage
iABC(r) 3-phase rotor current
xy stator flux oriented coordinates:
ixy(s), ixy(r) xy stator or rotor currents
uxy(s), uxy(r) xy stator or rotor voltages

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration
,

Machine Coordinates System


Basic transformations:
x 0 = C1x ABC
x ABC = Cx 0

where:

C = 1

1
3
2
2
1 3

2
2
1

1
1 1

2
1
1

C1 = 1
3
2
2

3 3
0

2
2

Zero-sequence component may be omitted, then:

x = x + jx for voltage, current or flux, stator reference.


x dq = x e j for voltage, current or flux, rotor reference.
-j
x xy( s ) = x e = xsx + jxsy for stator voltage, current or
e

sm

x xy( r )

flux, stator flux reference.


j( e sm )
= x dqe
= xrx + jxry for rotor voltage, current or flux,
stator flux reference.

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Machine Coordinates System


sm t

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIG equivalent scheme in dq axis

u dq( s ) = Rs i dq( s ) Rr i dq( r ) Lsl

d
d
i dq( s ) Lrl i dq( r ) j(Ls i dq( s ) + Lm i dq( r ) ) + u dq( r )
dt
dt

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration
,

Control Algorithm
DFIG control algorithm is based on the observation that
active and reactive stator power: Ps, Qs may be
independently defined as the functions of rotor currents
in xy coordinates:

2 Ls
2
Ps = (u sx isx + u sy isy )
U s iry
3
3Lm
2 Ls
2
Qs = (u sy isx u sx isy )
U s (irx ism )
3
3Lm
In these equations rotor current components can be
forced by changing the rotor voltage.

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration
,

Control Algorithm
The algorithm is as follows:
1. Read the input measurements: uABC(s), iABC(s), iABC(r) and
transform its to coordinates.
2. Read the rotor velocity r and calculate the
instantaneous rotor angle and slip:
t

e = p r d + e 0

sl = s pr

3. Calculate the rotor current in dq coordinates.


4. Calculated the magnetizing current in xy coordinates:
ismd
ismq

Ls
= ird
i s
Lm
L
= irq s is
Lm

I sm = i

2
smd

+i

2
smq

sm = arctg

ismq
ismd

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration
,

Control Algorithm
5. Calculate the current in xy coordinates:

i xy = i dq e j

sm

6. Perform the PI algorithm for regulation of active and


t
reactive power:
irxref = K P1Q + K I 1 Qd + irxref 0
P = Pref P
0
Q = Qref Q

iryref = K P1P + K I 1 Pd + iryref 0


0

7. Perform the PI algorithm for regulation of rotor voltage:


t

irx = irxref irx


iry = iryref iry

u prx = K P 2 irx + K I 2 irx d + u prx 0


0
t

u pry = K P 2 iry + K I 2 iry d + u pry 0


0

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration
,

Control Algorithm
8. Determine the rotor voltage in xy coordinates:
urx = udrx + u prx
udrx = slLr iry
where:
ury = udry + u pry
udry = slLr ( 1 I sm irx )
9. Determine the rotor voltage in 3-phase coordinates:

u ( r ) = u xy ( r ) e j(

sm e

u ABC ( r ) = Cu ( r )
10. Apply for controlling the Electronic Converter:

u ABC ( r ) PWM

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration
,

Control Algorithm

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration
,

Control Algorithm

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration
,

Control Algorithm

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Comparison ofsynchronous (a)andinduction (b)generators Shortcircuit currents

(a)

(b)

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGShortcircuit at the Terminal


The stator voltage equation of the induction machine is
determined as follows:
d s
+ j s s
u s = Rs i s +
dt

When the voltage drops to zero (in case of a fault at the


generator terminals), the stator flux space vector stops
rotating (dc component). This produces big current
oscillations in rotor windings and, consistently, high
voltage in supplying converter scheme.
Remedium is adequate protection.

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Grid Code requirements


The latest grid code requirements specify the behaviour
of wind generators when dips occure:
under what type of dips the turbine must remain
connected to the grid ;
how much reactive power the wind generator must
provide to the grid in order to contribute to the fault
clearance.
Grid Code: a document establishing the rules governing
the operation, maintenance and development of the power
system and sets out the procedures for governing the
actions of all power system users.

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Low Voltage Ridethrough (LVRT)


The LVRT requirements specify the above conditions (the
wind generators connection to grid and demands of
reactive power).
The main requirement is the ability of wind generator to
remain connected to the grid during and after faults. This
is known as low voltage ride through ability.
Different countries define their own Grid Code
requirements.

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Low Voltage Ridethrough requirements


fordifferent grid codes

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGprotection methods
1. Software protection: adequate control of electronic
converters in case of:
unbalance condition (unbalance load or unbalance
voltage);
small voltage dip.
2. Hardware protection:
crowbar activation;
braking chopper;
replacement loads;
series resistors.

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Crowbar application

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Breaking chopper application

Usually appliedwith acrowbar

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Replacement loads application

Usually appliedwith acrowbar

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Series resistors application

Usually installed in awindfarm

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGShortcircuit Voltages

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGShortcircuit Currents

7.WindFarm

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Wind Farm Interconnection

7.WindFarm

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Wind Farm Interconnection

HVDC Connection of the Off-shore Farm