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Eugeniusz Rosoowski

Protection and Control

of Distributed Energy Resources

Chapter 4

eugeniusz.rosolowski@pwr.wroc.pl

1.Introduction

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

GeneralConsiderations

From the economical point of view, optimal control

maximizes the financial return on DG system

investment.

The fundamental goal of the control scheme is to

determine whether or not the onsite generation

should be operating during a particular hour.

Buyback priority is used in cases where the operator

wishes to produce electricity and sell any or all of the

produced power back to the utility.

2.DCsources

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

energy storage

2.DCsources

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

through output voltage regulation

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

WindTurbine Structure

NelsonV.,WindEnergy.CRCPress,2009

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Turbine Regulation

Pitch controller objectives:

to regulate aerodynamic torque in aboverated wind

speeds;

to minimize peaks in gearbox torque;

to avoid excessive pitch activity;

to minimize tower base loads as far as possible by

controlling tower vibration, and

to avoid exacerbating hub and blade root loads.

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Turbine Characteristics

The power transferred by the turbine blades is given by:

1

Pm = Ar C p Vw3

2

where:

air density;

Ar area swept by the rotor;

Vw wind velocity;

Cp power coefficient;

pitch angle.

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Theoreticalcurvesoftorqueversusrpmfordifferent windspeeds

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

WindTurbine Control

A pitch control system is one method to control rpm, start up

(need high torque), and overspeed.

The pitch can be changed to maintain a constant rpm for

synchronous generators. For an induction generator, variable

speed generator that operates over a range of rpm in the run

position, over this range the tip speed ratio is constant, and

the unit operates at higher efficiency.

Doubly fed induction generators have a large rpm range,

around 50%, and are used because of the increased

aerodynamic efficiency with blades in the run position for

large wind turbines.

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

MainControlLoopforaFixedspeedPitchregulatedTurbine

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Connectionofembeddedwindgeneration

Consideration of whether a wind generation scheme may be

connected to a distribution circuit is based on its impact on

other users of the network. Similar considerations apply to the

connection of any load.

The main parameters relevant to the connection of wind turbines:

Slow (or steadystate) voltage variations,

Rapid voltage changes (leading to flicker),

Waveform distortion (i.e., harmonics),

Voltage unbalance (i.e., negative phase sequence voltage), and

Transient voltage variations (i.e., dips and sags).

3.WindTurbine

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

LightningProtection

Lightning is a significant potential hazard to wind turbines and that

appropriate protection measures need to be taken. Some years ago,

it was thought that as the blades of wind turbines are made from

nonconducting material (i.e., glass or woodepoxy) then it was not

necessary to provide explicit protection for these types of blades.

However, there is now a large body of site experience to show that

lightning will attach to blades made from these materials and can

cause catastrophic damage if suitable protection systems have not

been fitted.

The main protective measures are good bonding, effective shielding

and the use of appropriate surge protection devices at the zone

boundaries.

4.WindDrivenGenerators

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Fixed Speed Induction Generator (FSIG).

Synchronous Generator (SG).

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG).

DoublyFed Induction Generator (DFIG).

4.WindDrivenGenerators

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Generatorasthree terminalunit

4.WindDrivenGenerators

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Turbine Regulation

DFIG wind turbines with converters rated at about

2530% of the generator rating are becoming

increasingly popular.

These studies showed that DFIGbased wind turbines

do not have an impact on oscillation, as it has modern

power electronic devices to perform reactive power

compensation and smoother grid connection besides

speed control.

4.WindDrivenGenerators

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Scheme ofthegridconnectedvariablespeedwind

generator

4.WindDrivenGenerators

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Scheme ofthegridconnectedvariablespeedwind

generator

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIG/DFIM

DFIGbased wind turbines offer variable speed

operation, fourquadrant active and reactive power

capabilities, lower converter cost, and reduced power

loss compared to wind turbines using fixed speed

induction generators or fullyfed synchronous

generators with fullsized converters.

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIG Model

Recent interest in distributed generator installation into

low voltage buses near electrical consumers, has

created some new challenges for protection engineers

that are different from traditional radially based

protection methodologies.

Therefore, typical protection configurations need to be

re-thought such as re-closures, out-of-step monitoring,

impedance relay protection zones with the detection of

unplanned islanding of distributed generator systems.

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGModel

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGModel

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Available Measurements

iABC(s) 3-phase stator current,

iABC(r) 3-phase stator current,

r rotor angular velocity.

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

3-phase stator coordinates:

uABC(s) 3-phase stator voltage

iABC(s) 3-phase stator current

0 stator coordinates:

i0 0 stator current

u0 0 stator voltage

3-phase rotor coordinates:

dq0 rotor coordinates:

idq0 dq0 rotor current

uABC(r) 3-phase rotor voltage

udq0 dq0 rotor voltage

iABC(r) 3-phase rotor current

xy stator flux oriented coordinates:

ixy(s), ixy(r) xy stator or rotor currents

uxy(s), uxy(r) xy stator or rotor voltages

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

,

Basic transformations:

x 0 = C1x ABC

x ABC = Cx 0

where:

C = 1

1

3

2

2

1 3

2

2

1

1

1 1

2

1

1

C1 = 1

3

2

2

3 3

0

2

2

x dq = x e j for voltage, current or flux, rotor reference.

-j

x xy( s ) = x e = xsx + jxsy for stator voltage, current or

e

sm

x xy( r )

j( e sm )

= x dqe

= xrx + jxry for rotor voltage, current or flux,

stator flux reference.

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

sm t

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

d

d

i dq( s ) Lrl i dq( r ) j(Ls i dq( s ) + Lm i dq( r ) ) + u dq( r )

dt

dt

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

,

Control Algorithm

DFIG control algorithm is based on the observation that

active and reactive stator power: Ps, Qs may be

independently defined as the functions of rotor currents

in xy coordinates:

2 Ls

2

Ps = (u sx isx + u sy isy )

U s iry

3

3Lm

2 Ls

2

Qs = (u sy isx u sx isy )

U s (irx ism )

3

3Lm

In these equations rotor current components can be

forced by changing the rotor voltage.

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

,

Control Algorithm

The algorithm is as follows:

1. Read the input measurements: uABC(s), iABC(s), iABC(r) and

transform its to coordinates.

2. Read the rotor velocity r and calculate the

instantaneous rotor angle and slip:

t

e = p r d + e 0

sl = s pr

4. Calculated the magnetizing current in xy coordinates:

ismd

ismq

Ls

= ird

i s

Lm

L

= irq s is

Lm

I sm = i

2

smd

+i

2

smq

sm = arctg

ismq

ismd

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

,

Control Algorithm

5. Calculate the current in xy coordinates:

i xy = i dq e j

sm

t

reactive power:

irxref = K P1Q + K I 1 Qd + irxref 0

P = Pref P

0

Q = Qref Q

0

t

iry = iryref iry

0

t

0

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

,

Control Algorithm

8. Determine the rotor voltage in xy coordinates:

urx = udrx + u prx

udrx = slLr iry

where:

ury = udry + u pry

udry = slLr ( 1 I sm irx )

9. Determine the rotor voltage in 3-phase coordinates:

u ( r ) = u xy ( r ) e j(

sm e

u ABC ( r ) = Cu ( r )

10. Apply for controlling the Electronic Converter:

u ABC ( r ) PWM

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

,

Control Algorithm

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

,

Control Algorithm

5.DFIG

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

,

Control Algorithm

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

(a)

(b)

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

The stator voltage equation of the induction machine is

determined as follows:

d s

+ j s s

u s = Rs i s +

dt

generator terminals), the stator flux space vector stops

rotating (dc component). This produces big current

oscillations in rotor windings and, consistently, high

voltage in supplying converter scheme.

Remedium is adequate protection.

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

The latest grid code requirements specify the behaviour

of wind generators when dips occure:

under what type of dips the turbine must remain

connected to the grid ;

how much reactive power the wind generator must

provide to the grid in order to contribute to the fault

clearance.

Grid Code: a document establishing the rules governing

the operation, maintenance and development of the power

system and sets out the procedures for governing the

actions of all power system users.

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

The LVRT requirements specify the above conditions (the

wind generators connection to grid and demands of

reactive power).

The main requirement is the ability of wind generator to

remain connected to the grid during and after faults. This

is known as low voltage ride through ability.

Different countries define their own Grid Code

requirements.

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

fordifferent grid codes

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGprotection methods

1. Software protection: adequate control of electronic

converters in case of:

unbalance condition (unbalance load or unbalance

voltage);

small voltage dip.

2. Hardware protection:

crowbar activation;

braking chopper;

replacement loads;

series resistors.

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

Crowbar application

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGShortcircuit Voltages

6.DFIGProtection

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

DFIGShortcircuit Currents

7.WindFarm

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

7.WindFarm

4.ControlofDistributedGeneration

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