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• Darwinism o The Origin of Species o The Descent of Man o Social Darwinism o Natural selection Marxism o Carl Marx/Frederick Engels o Working class revolution o Industrialized places (London) Nationalism o Great pride in one’s homeland Socialism o Redistribution of wealth Nepotism o Favoritism in politics, giving friends and family power Liberalism o Civil Liberties and Natural rights of man Great Irish potato famine o UK did nothing, led to IRA o Women had diminished role Imperialism o Matthew Perry opened up Japan o India o China – Open door policy, boxer rebellion (society of closed fists) Samurai/Shogun Shogun was the militaristic ruler, Samurai were aristocracy o Yamamoto*** o Mejii Restoration – samurai replaced shogun with royalty; emperor now in power o Bushido- die a hero, like then Spartans Russo-Japanese war – Japan wins Queen Victoria became empress when GB took over India Spanish-America War – over Cuba; William Randolph Hearst; Teddy Roosevelt; Roughriders; Pres. McKinley assassinated, Teddy youngest American President o Philippines/Hawaii – Created sugar planter’s rebellion to get stronghold in o We did not give Cuba nor the Philippines freedom WWI- Started by “The Black Hand” – Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated in Bosnia – Austria declares war on Serbia (Germany did NOT initiate WWI)

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o In WWI, Japan took the Allies’ side, same with Russia but Russia left early o Zimmerman Telegram** o Lusitania** o Trench Warfare o The OSS o Woodrow Wilson was pres. o Blackjack Pershing AEF o Airplanes and dogfighting rise, Red Baron o Treaty of Versailles** o ARTICLE 231*** German war guilt clause • RUSSIAN REVOLUTION o Lenin- anti-czar, his brother had been assassinated by pro-czar people o Women’s march- ST. Petersburg o Lenin kicked out of Russia, sent to Siberia because off anarchist ideals o White Army/ Red Army o Provisional government in between Czar abdication and Lenin/socialism (moderate liberals) o White = anti-Bolsheviks o Red = Soviets (Bolsheviks) o Rasputin – “cured” Alexis the Hemophiliac o Rasputin survives numerous assassination attempts, gets thrown in river and drowns o Leon Trotsky** UNITES STATES 20s – 30s o Dawes Plan- Germany was about t go under, was US’s economic stimulus plan until the Great Depression o NEW DEAL - FDR- pull us out of Depression o Prohibition o Rudolph Valentino – sex symbol of the time ITALY o Benito Mussolini - Facism (Black shirts) o Church supported him because he promised to eradicate Communism o Facist Party/ Non-Facist Party o Francisco Franco was head of Facist Party o Abraham Lincoln Brigade – sponsored by USSR (they were American volunteers in the Spanish war) o Germany came into war to try out their new weapons o Catholic church backed Franco JAPAN o Invaded Manchuria – Nanking (Rape of Nanking) o They wanted to get the US out of the war

o Yamamoto – Pearl Harbor plan o Tojo was head of Japan during WWII o Hirohito was emperor o Japan is unstoppable in beginning, control South Asia o Japan takes no prisoners; In the Philippines, Bataan Death March PACIFIC o Turning point was the Battle of Midway, unusual in that it was fought only by planes o Iwo Jima >>> Two of the last island o Okinawa >>> battles fought in the Pacific campaign o Invasion against Japanese mainland would be stricken with high casualties o First bomb- Hiroshima Aug. 6, 1945- Enola Gay o August 9, 1945 - Nagasaki – JP and US diplomats met afterward, not unconditional surrender, Hirohito was allowed to stay on the throne GERMANY o Hitler – Born in Austria o Served in WWI as a messenger – fought for Germany even though he was Austrian o National Socialist Party- the Brown Shirts (SA) o Mein Kampf – in jail Autobiography and his philosophy about Aryan perfectionism o At the time, Germany was the Weimar Republic o (SA)- victims of Night of the Long Knives o Kristallnacht- Night of Broken Glass o Head of SS- Heinrich Himmler o Evil SS Doctor - Dr. Mengele o Goering- Head of Luftwaffe o Superman theory*** Friedrich Nietzsche’s philosophy