You are on page 1of 109

FIRE PROTECTION

SYSTEM

ACTIVE

Hose reel

method
Means of
escape
Types of
exit

Portable fire
extinguisher

Riser

Soda-acid

-Operation/installation
-Components
-Drawings
-Functions/consideration

compartmentati
on

PASSIVE

location

Sprinkler
System

CO2
foam

Smoke
control
Pressurised
escape
routes
Smoke
reservoirs

3 parts
factors
Exit
Exit
access
Exit
discharge

door

ceiling

function

length

Dry

Fire
stopper

FIRE
PROTECTION
SYSTEM

Types

Wet

Fire
wall

definition

Consideration

Fire window

Needs/function

FIRE
TRIANGL
E

CONSIDERATION

The overall protection strategies for


development projects in Malaysia are
based on Fire Safety Philosophy of
the Malaysian Uniform Building ByLaws (1984) (UBBL)
UBBL are to ensure the safety of the
occupant in term of fire safety.

MALAYSIAN FIRE CODES & REGULATIONS

The

provisions of the fire


requirements
in
UBBL
are
implemented
by
several
Malaysian Fire Codes which are:
i) British Standard (BS)
ii) Malaysian Standard (MS)

A process of combustion characterized by the

emission of heat accompanied by smoke or


flame.

Mostly when the term fire is referred to, we

mean the uncontrolled fire such as happens


in furnaces, etc.

Fire

is
often
unwanted,
unexpected,
disastrous & costly, both in terms of human
life & business costs.

What causes a fire?


Fire

exist as a result of combustion


/reaction between 3 elements heat (high
temperature), fuel, oxygen.

There is an interrelationship between heat,

fuel & oxygen. This is known as fire


triangle.

Fire

cannot occur if one of the key


components is missing, i.e. : if the heat,
the fuel or oxygen is eliminated.

FIRE TRIANGLE

QSM 554

Methods of extinguishing fire


(Starvation.separation)

(1)EXCLUDE OXYGEN (smothering)


by covering the top surface of burning material
with foam, blanket, cover, lid, etc.

(2) COOLING
by applying water or other method to reduce
ignition temperature- sprinkler
(3) STARVATION (separation)
by reducing or separation fuel by
compartmentation, transferring liquid to
another tank, etc.

FIRE TRIANGLE
The

combustion process was


once depicted as a triangle with
three sides

Each

side
represented
essential ingredient for fire.

an

Heat, fuel and oxygen were

thought to be essential elements.

CLASSES OF FIRE
The classes of fire
Ordinary Combustibles
Fires in paper, cloth, wood, rubber, and many plastics
require a water type extinguisher labeled A.
Flammable Liquids
Fires in oils, gasoline, some paints, lacquers, grease,
solvents, and other flammable liquids require an
extinguisher labeled B.
Electrical Equipment
Fires in wiring, fuse boxes, energized electrical equipment,
computers, and other electrical sources require an
extinguisher labeled C.

FIRE PROTECTION APPROACH


Protection of a building and its
contents from damage by fire can
be divided into two (2) categories :
i) Passive
ii) Active

PASSIVE FIRE
PROTECTION SYSTEM

WHAT IS PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION?


the combination of all methods used in a building to warn people of
an emergency, provide for safe evacuation, and restrict the spread of
fire, and includes both active and passive protection.
PFP features relate to elements of construction which are generally
part of the fabric of the building as opposed to active features such as
sprinklers, detectors, alarms, etc.
Examples of PFP features in typical buildings are:
fire rated walls, floors, ceiling and roofs
fire and smoke control doors
fire and smoke stopping seals, collars, pillows, blankets, etc for
services penetrations
fire rated protective coatings for structural steel members etc
fire and smoke dampers/curtains
fire rated glass systems
fire rated lift landing doors
fire rated ducting

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


Control the fire growth through material control or

by providing physical barriers to the movement of


flame or smoke.

Often fixed in walls, floors, ceilings, beams,

columns, and shaft enclosures that are built to a


prescribed fire resistance rating.

Fire alarm systems used to initiate the closing of

fire doors and dampers (that may be otherwise


held open to allow normal building function.)

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


Passive fire protection systems
intended to maintain the following:

are

Provide structural integrity of floor,

wall, and ceiling assemblies during a fire


for a specified time period

Compartmentalize the fire room or space

to control the fire spread

Provide exiting systems for occupants

to evacuate the building safely.

COMPARTMENTATION

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


COMPARTMENTATION
A concept that reduce the likelihood of smoke

inhalation-deaths, these products of combustion


must be contained in the area of origin.

This is known as compartmentation - subdivided

a large building so that a fire starting anywhere


is caged within its cell of origin.

This compartmentation may be of; fire window,

fire door, fire wall, drywall, ceiling or fire stop.

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


COMPARTMENTATION

The Need
1. To subdivide a large building so that a fire

starting anywhere is caged within its cell of origin


2. To avoid large volumes and interconnecting

spaces
3. To contain specific hazards (bolters, fuel stores),

from the building and separate particular hazards


from high-risk occupancies
4. To isolate escape routes
5. To separate one building from another

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


Compartmentation The method
Obviously the smaller the compartment, the less potential
for damage , but there has to be sensible compromise.
The presence of sprinklers is a significant mitigation,

allowing larger compartment sizes perhaps double.

Walls and floors


Major compartment division will normally have longer fire

resistance periods than the enclosure to escape routes.

One hour is a common minimum, but up to four hours or

more are possible, demanded by fire authorities or insurers


anxious to minimise their risk.

Escalators in department stores break the compartmentation

between floors.

This I beam has a fireproofing material sprayed onto it as a


form of passive fire protection.

This diagram highlights the paths of fire propagation


through improperly sealed wall penetrations

Compartmentalization provided by concrete


floor slabs

Fire Boarding on Structural Steel

Intumescent Fire Protection on


structural steel showing:
1.Primer coat
2.Base Intumescent coat
3.Top sealer coat
4.Detail of final finish on Steel

Cementitious fire Protection coating

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


Compartmentation Door
Timber up to one hour, or steel more than one

hour. They can be self-closing and possibly, locked.

For ordinary circulations, i.e factory, they can be

counterweight or hung on inclined runners so that


they shut on the melting of a fusible link or the
release of an automatic catch.

Industrial scale take form of roller steel shutters.


Enclosure can include horizontal steel roller

shutters activated by detectors.

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


Metal door - wooden inner structure - Finishing
with, paint or stainless steel

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


Smoke curtains
Smoke curtains

(as part of a smoke and heat


ventilation system compartment
screens) may be required to form
part of the reservoir boundary
or to limit smoke travel from the fire
source.
Fixed smoke curtains are commonly

used in the roof


space of either large single
storey buildings, or above false
ceilings in commercial and retail
premises.

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

An electrically operated automatic smoke


curtain designed to restrict the lateral spread of
smoke within a building in the event of a fire.
The fabric is a woven glass fibre fabric,
reinforced with stainless steel wire and coated
on both sides with a specially formulated
micronised aluminium polymer, which provides
an effective heat reflective surface.

Compartmentation- Fire wall


Fire wall opening protection
Physical barriers such as fire damper & fire door
Fire damper

All ducts that pass through fire rated wall must be


equipped by fire dampers. Eg : in air conditioning
ducting.
Fire door

i) Horizontal type
ii) Overhead rolling
iii) Special fire door

COMPARTMENTATION Fire damper

DAMPER

Figure : Location of fire damper in the air conditioning ducting

COMPARTMENTATION Fire damper

DAMPER

Figure : Location of fire damper in the air conditioning ducting (at the
intersection of ducting)

COMPARTMENTATION Fire damper

DAMPER
DAMPER

Figure : Location of fire damper in the air conditioning ducting (at the
corner of ducting)

COMPARTMENTATION Fire damper

Fire/Smoke dampers prevent the spread of smoke/fire inside the


ducts. When a rise in temperature occurs, the fire damper closes,
usually activated by a thermal element which melts at temperatures
higher than ambient but low enough to indicate the presence of a
fire, allowing springs to close the damper blades. Fire dampers can
also close following receipt of an electrical signal from a fire alarm
system utilizing detectors remote from the damper, indicating the
sensing of heat or smoke in the building occupied spaces or in the
HVAC duct system.

COMPARTMENTATION - Fire door

A fire door is a door with a fire-resistance used as part of a passive fire protection
system to reduce the spread of fire or smoke between compartments and to enable safe
egress from a building or structure.

COMPARTMENTATION - Fire door

Horizontal type
-Mounted on roller and
suspended from a track

-It moves horizontally to


close the opening in the
fire wall.

Figure : Fire door, horizontal

COMPARTMENTATION - Fire door

Overhead rolling
Drop vertically into
place
-

Figure : Fire door, overhead rolling

COMPARTMENTATION - Fire door

Special fire door


- Installed in areas
such as where the
conveyor has to pass
through the fire wall.

Figure : Fire door, conveyor pass through

Compartmentation- the method :


Fire wall opening protection
Most fire door close by gravity through the

door own weight or weight on a closing


mechanism.

It is essential to installed fusible link so they

are exposed to heat transfer from either side


of the door.

Compartmentation- the method :


Fire wall opening protection
Regular checks should be made to ensure
that no materials are placed in the path of
the door.
Guides and bearings should be checked
regularly, as should the counter-balance
weights.
Any time that the facility is not in normal
operation, fire doors should be closed
manually.
This is particularly important if no guard or
security service is available in the plant.

This situation will provide a


path of travel for fire to
breach the wall & floor

Figure : unprotected opening through fire wall & floor

Compartmentation- the method :


Fire wall opening protection
Ducts and Pipes
Service runs often have
compartment divisions.

to

pass

through

Duct and pipe sections immediately adjacent to the

compartment wall or floor are made fire resisting


and the gap around them, where they pass
through, is minimal and filled with a non
combustible or intumescent packing .

The packing has to be flexible enough to allow for

the ordinary vibration of the service run, and its


expansion and distortion in fire.

An Intumescent is a substance which swells


as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing in
volume, and decreasing in density.
Intumescents are typically used in passive fire
protection.
Intumescent: Any substance that
expands as a result of heat exposure is
considered an intumescent.
Intumescents used as firestops can be
made from a variety of flame-retardant
materials, such as graphite, hydrates,
and sodium silicates. They are
especially useful firestopping materials
for electrical cables, which can
completely melt or burn away in a fire.

Common Firestop Materials


firestop mortar: Cements made from lightweight
aggregates, such as vermiculite or perlite, can be used
as firestopping. They are typically colored to distinguish
them from other types of cement that lack firestopping
characteristics.
intumescent: Any substance that expands as a result
of heat exposure is considered an intumescent.
Intumescents used as firestops can be made from a
variety of flame-retardant materials, such as graphite,
hydrates, and sodium silicates. They are especially
useful firestopping materials for electrical cables, which
can completely melt or burn away in a fire. The
expanding intumescent will partially or completely cover
the exposed opening created by a melted wire.

firestop pillows: These items contain various flameretardant and intumescent substances, such as
rockwool or graphite. They are filled loosely inside of a
fiberglass fabric case that resembles a small pillow.
Firestop pillows can be inserted into openings in
firewalls and used in conjunction with other firestopping
materials.
In summary, firestops are designed to prevent the
spread of fire through unprotected openings in
rated firewalls.

Pipe Fire Penetration Protection

Fire-boarding cable fire penetration protection

Fire Protection on front (L) and rear (R) of electrical sockets on a 60 - 120 minutes fire rated wall

MEANS
OF
ESCAPE

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


Means of Escape
Means of escape is a continuous, unobstructed

path for evacuees from any point in a building to a


public way.

Its 3 parts are:

exit access that portion that leads to an


entrance to an exit
exit the portion that is separate from all
other buildings spaces by construction or
equipment required to provide a protected
path to the exit discharge
exit discharge the portion that connects
the termination of an exit to a public way

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


Means of Escape
The effectiveness of All the exits must be ensured

by these following factors:

clear and unobstructed access is provided to


all exits
exits are identified and well lit
the proper type of door is used and it opens
in the direction of travel
exits are equipped with the proper opening
and locking hardware
Clear exits discharge to a public way

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


Means of Escape
Types of exit

corridors
exit passageway
exit doors
interior stairs
exterior stairs

Figure : Types of exit

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


SMOKE CONTROL
Pressurized escape routes
to create greater air pressure in escape routes such as

corridors and stairs, than the remainder of rooms

Usually in an office block and other large and high-rise

compartmentation buildings.

The effect is to contain smoke -and fire at its point of

outbreak

allowing it to leak out through windows or purpose-made


ventilation grills.

In a building, an escape route is maintained at a higher air pressure than its


surroundings; in the event of fire, the higher pressure helps prevent smoke from
spreading into the escape route.

SMOKE CONTROL
Pressurized escape routes

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Figure : Plan of escape route and rooms

Figure : Pressurised escape route

Smoke Reservoirs

Most enclosed shopping centre have a mall

with a parade of shops.

A fire in a shop or in the mall can cause a

rapid spread of smoke and hot gases

If the centre is sprinkler the water may cool

the smoke and hot gases so reducing their


buoyancy and possible fogging at floor level.

Smoke Reservoirs
Smoke can be controlled by:
(a) providing smoke reservoirs into which the
smoke can flow through before being
extracted by either mechanical or natural
means;
(b) allowing cooler air to enter the centre at low
level to replace the smoke flowing out of the
centre

Automatic opening vents (AOV) are


used to maintain the smoke reservoir
within the atria to assist with the
means of escape strategy.

SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEM

ACTIVE FIRE
PROTECTION SYSTEM

WHAT IS ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION?


Active Fire Protection (AFP) is characterized by items
and/or systems, which require a certain amount of
motion and response in order to work, contrary to
passive fire protection.
Fire can be controlled or extinguished, either manually
(firefighting) or automatically.
Manual includes the use of a fire extinguisher.
Automatic means can include a fire sprinkler system.
Automatic suppression systems would usually be found
in large commercial kitchens or other high-risk area.

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Main groups under which active precautions must
be considered:
Installation of an alarm and detecting system to

give warning of outbreak.

Installation and equipment for automatic fire

extinction

Provision of first-aid fire fighting equipment

Provide for facilities to assist the fire services

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Active fire protection system involves systems

which designed to:

1. Detect
2. Suppress a fire

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Water Suppression System
1. Automatic sprinkler system
-most common & effective fire suppression system
with a success rate of 98.5%.
-not suitable for electronics industry, and electrical
sub-station
2. Water spray system
3. Deluge system
4. Wet riser system
5. Hydraulic hose reel system
6. Hydrant system

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Foam
1. High expansion foam
2. Low expansion foam
3. Premix foam
Smoke & Fire Detection
1. Ionisation detector
2. Optical detector
3. Heat detector
4. Beam detector
5. Line detector
6. Infrared detector, flame detector

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Gas Suppression System
1. Halogenated hydrocarbon
2. CO2 system
3. Halon alternative

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Active approach means of fire protection and fire
engineering is a specialised area of building
services and the following will be considered:

i)

portable extinguishers

ii)
iii)
iv)

hose reel and hydrants


automatic extinguishers
alarm detection

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Portable extinguishers
Colour-coded cylinders
containing compressed liquids and gases appropriate to

various sources of fire

Standards fire-fighting equipment in all commercial and

public buildings.

Objectives : to remove or sufficiently reduce at least one

element of the fire triangle discussed previously.

A portable fire extinguisher must contain type of fire

extinguishing agent
extinguish.

suitable for the fire it is required to

It is identified by colour coding for its intended purpose.

Figure 1 : A Fire extinguisher

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Portable extinguishers

Figure : Colour coded cylinders and content

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Portable extinguishers
Types available:
Group 1: Water extinguisher
i) water (soda-acid)
ii) water (gas pressure)
Group 2: CO2 extinguisher
Group 3: Vapourising liquid extinguisher

i) bromochlorodifluoro methane
Group 4: Dry Powder extinguisher
Group 5: Foam extinguishers
i) foam (chemical)
ii)foam (mechanical or gas pressure)

TYPE OF PORTABLE FIRE


EXTINGUISHER
WATER

POWDER

Soda-acid water
fire extinguisher

It has a small glass


container of sulphuric
acid

It is released into the


water cylinder when a
knob is struck.

The acid mixes with the


water which contains
carbonate of soda to
create a chemical
reaction producing
carbon dioxide gas

The gas pressurises the


cylinder to displace water
from the nozzle

Figure : Soda- acid water fire extinguisher

Foam fire
extinguisher
Foam is formed by
chemical reaction
between sodium
bicarbonate and
aluminium sulphate
dissolved in water in
the presence of a
foaming agent
When the extinguisher
is inverted the
chemicals are mixed to
create foam under
pressure which is
forced out of the
nozzle.
Figure : Foam fire
extinguisher

Carbon dioxide fire


extinguisher

Carbon dioxide is
pressurised as a liquid
inside a cylinder
Striking a knob at the
top of the cylinder
pierces a disc to release
the carbon dioxide
It then converts to a gas
as it depressurises
through the extinguisher
nozzle.

Figure : Carbon dioxide fire


extinguisher

Dry Powder Extinguisher


Dry powder extinguishers

put out fires by coating the


fuel with a thin layer of fire
retardant powder,
separating the fuel from the
oxygen.

The powder also works to

interrupt the chemical


reaction, which makes
these extinguishers
extremely effective.

Dry powder extinguishers

are usually rated for class B


and C fires and may be
marked multiple purpose
for use in A, B, and C fires.

They contain an extinguishing

agent and use a compressed,


non-flammable gas as a
propellant.

Dry Chemical extinguishers will

have a label indicating they may


be used on class A, B, and/or C
fires.

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Hose reel
Fire fighting equipment for use as a first aid

measure by building occupants


Location : in recess along corridors
Length : provided with up to 45m of
reinforced rubber hose (to cover 800m2 floor
area per installations)
A range of hose reels is available including
manual and automatic, fixed, swinging and
recessed and come with detachable mounting
plate for fast installation by one person

Figure : Fixed Manual Hose Reel

Figure : Swinging Manual Hose Reel

Figure : Recessed Manual Hose Reel

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Hose reel
Water supply
Water can be supplied directly from the mains
if the supply to the highest reel can be
200kPa and also supply sufficient discharge.
If the supply cannot be supplied from the
main automatic pumping equipment will have
to be installed.

Operation

Source : R Greeno (2000). Building Services, Technology and Design.


Pearson Education Ltd. Edinburgh. Figure 9.18 & 9.19

The
hose
reel
should be able to
discharge
0.4litre/second at
a distance 6m
from the end of
the nozzle.

If a suction tank is
required it should
hold a minimum
volume of 1.6m3
water.

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Hydrant (wet & dry riser)

Dry and wet rising mains are

intended for use by the Fire


Brigade
or
other
trained
personnel
It provide a readily available
means of delivering considerable
quantities of water to extinguish
or to prevent the spread of fire.

Hydrant (wet & dry riser)


Dry risers comprise vertical mains,

which
are
fitted
into
staircase
enclosures or other suitable positions
with outlet valves on each floor
inlets fitted at ground level to enable
the Fire Brigade to connect into the
water supply.

Hydrant (wet & dry riser)


Wet riser is a pipe kept permanently

charged with water available either


direct from a storage tank, via a
booster pump, or fed directly from
the towns main water supply.
Before installation of a dry or wet
riser mains the local Fire Brigade
must be consulted, to ascertain
their exact requirements.

Hydrant (wet riser)


Wet risers are a form of internal hydrant for

the firemen to use and are always charged


with water.
Wet risers are only required for buildings
where the topmost floor is-higher than 30.5
m above the fire appliance access level.
Wet riser system comprises duty fire pump
with standby pump discharge into a 150mm
diameter riser pipe with landing valves at
each floor.
A jockey pump is usually provided to maintain
system pressure.
For high rise buildings, each stage of the wet
riser should no exceed 71m.

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Hydrant (wet riser)
Installations :
The wet riser is permanently filled with water

to supply hydrant valves on each floor,


ensuring an immediate supply of water.
This system provide infrastructure for Fire
Brigade to connect its pipes and pump the
water from outside the building (mains).
Hoses supplied with water from standpipes
(vertically) are the usual means of manual
application of water to interior building fires.

(contd)

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Hydrant (wet riser)
Installations :
Standpipes are usually designed for this

use by the fire department, but building


occupants also can use them.
Provision of a wet riser system, however,
establishes the need for building occupants
to be trained in the use of fire hoses.
Experience
is
normally
required
to
effectively use fire hoses because nozzle
reaction forces can be considerable.

Operations :
The duty pump is

activated by a fall
in
water
level
registering at the
pipeline switch.
The
flow
and
pressure
switch
responds to water
flowing
when all hydrant
landing valves are
closed , lack of
hydraulic
movement engages
the
flow
and
pressure switch to
disconnect
the
pump.
Source : R Greeno (2000). Building Services, Technology and Design.
Pearson Education Ltd. Edinburgh. Figure 9.21

wet riser
Operations

:
The duty pump is activated by a fall in water
level registering at the pipeline switch.
The flow and pressure switch responds to
water flowing
when all hydrant landing valves are closed ,
lack of hydraulic movement engages the flow
and pressure switch to disconnect the pump.

Hydrant (dry riser)


Dry risers are a form of internal hydrant for the

firemen to use and are only required for buildings


where the topmost floor is higher than 18.3m and
less than 30.5m above the fire appliance access
level.
Dry risers are normally dry and depend on the fire
engine to pump water into the system.
Dry riser system comprises a riser pipe with landing
valves at each floor and to which rubber-lined hose
with nozzles can be connected to direct the water jet
at the fire.
Breeching inlets into which the firemen pump water
are provided at ground level and connected to the
bottom of the dry risers.

Source : R Greeno (2000). Building Services, Technology and Design.


Pearson Education Ltd. Edinburgh. Figure 9.20

Dry riser

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


(Sprinkler system)
The most widely used apparatus for fire

protection in buildings is the automatic


sprinkler system

Special treatment and use of additional

extinguishing agents, though, may be


required in many high-hazard, industrial and
storage occupancies ( ie: foam, Carbon
dioxide)

Sprinkler system consists of a network of

piping installed at the ceiling or roof and


supplied with water from a suitable source

Figure : Sprinkler heads

Source : R Greeno (2000). Building Services, Technology and Design.


Pearson Education Ltd. Edinburgh. Figure 9.25

ceiling mounted sprinkler head

Figure : Simplified sprinkler


installation

Sprinkler system
i)

On the piping at systematic intervals are


placed heat-sensitive heads, which discharge
water when a predetermined temperature is
reached at any head

ii) A stop/gate valve is installed in the main

supply, and drains are provided

iii) An alarm can be connected to the system so


that local and remote signals can be given
when the water flows
(concurrently : water flow and alarm)

The types of fire sprinkler systems:


Dry pipe system
This fire sprinkler system does not use water.
It uses dry air and it can cover a vast area.
It is mostly used in refrigerated coolers.
Air is pumped in the pipes then out.
A dry pipe sprinkler system is one in which pipes are filled with pressurized air or nitrogen, rather than water. Located in a
heated space, the dry-pipe valve prevents water from entering the pipe until a fire causes one or more sprinklers to operate.
Once this happens, the air escapes and the dry pipe valve releases.

Advantages of using dry pipe fire sprinkler systems include:


Dry pipe sprinkler systems provide automatic protection in spaces where freezing is possible. Typical dry pipe installations
include unheated warehouses and attics, outside exposed loading docks and within commercial freezers.

Wet pipe system


This is more popular than the dry pipe system.
This fire sprinkler system uses water.
It is more common in homes and small business premises.

The types of fire sprinkler systems:


Deluge Fire sprinkler system
This system uses open pipes.
Deluge valves open up and allow water
to flow into all the sprinklers.
It uses open pipes connected to the water
system. Water flow is constant in all
the sprinklers.
The arrangement of deluge system piping is similar to a
wet or dry pipe system with two major differences:

A. Standard sprinklers are used, but they are all open.

The activating elements have been removed so that when


the control valve is opened water will flow from all of the
sprinklers simultaneously and deluge the area with water.

B. The deluge valve is normally closed. The valve is opened by the activation of a separate fire
detection system.

Deluge systems are used where large quantities of water are needed quickly to control a fastdeveloping fire. Deluge valves can be electrically, pneumatically or hydraulically operated.

The types of fire sprinkler systems:


Foam water fire sprinkler system
This uses foam and water. It is commonly used in gas stations and places
dealing with highly flammable goods like airports. This system is more
efficient than the wet system.
Pre action system
This is a combination of all the above mentioned
fire sprinkler systems. This system is used to protect
artefacts or things of great value. There are single
interlock pre action systems that operate like
the dry pipe systems. The double interlock
systems operate like the deluge systems.
pre-action sprinkler system is similar to a deluge sprinkler
system except the sprinklers are closed. This type system is
typically used in areas containing high value equipment or
contents and spaces which are highly sensitive to the effects of
accidental sprinkler water discharge. The pre-action valve is normally
closed and is operated by a separate detection system.

Sprinkler system

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Sprinkler system
Operation :
The water from the appropriate supply is fed to an
automatically controlled pump and then to the
main control valve of the system.
Immediately above the main control valve is alarm
valve which separates the sprinkler systems from
the supply.
When a sprinkler operates, this pressure falls and
valve opens under the excess water pressure
beneath it, allowing water to flow into the system
to replace that discharged at the sprinklers.

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Sprinkler system

Operation :
Water passing through the valve flows up a

vertical riser and then to the main distribution


pipes at each ceiling level in the protected
premises.

From the main distribution pipes it passes to

the distribution pipes and range pipes, on which


the sprinkler heads are mounted.

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Sprinkler system

Operation :
It is then discharged at those sprinklers which

have been caused to operate by the hot gases


rising from the fire.
The sprinkler therefore acts as a detector as
well as a distributor, and its opening brings
the sprinkler system into operation
automatically.

Sprinkler system

Sprinkler system and dry riser piping layout

AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM


1.

2.
3.

SMOKE DETECTOR
HEAT DETECTOR
GAS DETECTOR

END