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Finite element simulation of cutting

processes
Simulation Techniques in Manufacturing Technology
Lecture 8
Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering
Chair of Manufacturing Technology

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. F. Klocke


WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Outline
1

Introduction

Requirements of the FE cutting simulation

CAD modelling for the FE cutting simulation

Constitutive material laws for the FE cutting simulation

Damage models for the FE cutting simulation and multiphase simulation

Friction and wear models for the FE cutting simulation

Criteria for the evaluation of FE software

Applications of the FE cutting simulation at the WZL

Summary and Outlook

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 2

Influencing factors on the cutting process


Bild
eines
Prozesses

Workpiece material
structure

Cutting zone
chip forming
mechanisms

texture
mechanical
properties
hardness
residual stresses

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Tool
cutting material

Machine
machine design

coating

cooling lubricant
geometry
cutting parameters

contact
conditions
e.g.: friction, wear
heat transfer

drive system
M

tool holder

clamping device

Seite 3

Cutting process in comparison to other processes


Process

Strain

Strain rate / s-1

Thomolog

Extrusion

25

10-1 10-2

0.16 0.7

Forging /
Rolling

0.1 0.5

10 10+3

0.16 0.7

Sheet metal
forming

0.1 0.5

10 10+2

0.16 0.7

Cutting

15

10+3 10+6

0.16 0.9

Cutting process

Extreme conditions in the cutting process


Source: Jaspers
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 4

Outline
1

Introduction

Requirements of the FE cutting simulation

CAD modelling for the FE cutting simulation

Constitutive material laws for the FE cutting simulation

Damage models for the FE cutting simulation and multiphase simulation

Friction and wear models for the FE cutting simulation

Criteria for the evaluation of FE software

Applications of the FE cutting simulation at the WZL

Summary and Outlook

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 5

Requirements to the FE cutting simulation


Reproduction of the macro/ micro geometry of the tools and kinematic of the cutting

process
Modelling of the thermo mechanical material behavior for the entire temperature and

strain rate range


Implementation of damage approaches, texture microstructure and phase transformation
Simulation of chip form (remeshing routine, material separation, etc.)
Consideration of friction, wear and coating
Modelling of heat generation and transfer (conduction, convection, radiation)
Consideration of the influence of cooling lubricant
Utilization of the Lagrangian solving method (instationary cutting processes)
Generation of a finely structured FE mesh and adaptive remeshing (very high element

deformation because of higher gradients of deformation, temperature and tension)


Appropriate computation time (explicit time integration, parallelization, etc.)
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 6

Cutting simulation: Input- und output parameters


Chip formation
Temperature
Tension
Deformation
Rate of deformation
Chip type
Chip flow
Chip crack

Component / tool
Geometry
Material data
Contact conditions
Boundary conditions
Cutting conditions
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Tool
Strain
Tension
Temperature
Cutting forces
Wear
Component
Strain
Temperatures
Deformation
Burr formation
Distortion
Future:
Residual stresses
Surface quality, e.g.: roughness,
changes in shape,
Measurement and position
Seite 7

Outline
1

Introduction

Requirements of the FE cutting simulation

CAD modelling for the FE cutting simulation

Constitutive material laws for the FE cutting simulation

Damage models for the FE cutting simulation and multiphase simulation

Friction and wear models for the FE cutting simulation

Criteria for the evaluation of FE software

Applications of the FE cutting simulation at the WZL

Summary and Outlook

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 8

Macro- und micro tool geometry

major
Hauptschneide
cutting edge

Querschneide
chisel edge
flank
Freiflface
che

Construction dimensions DIN 6539


Type:
N
Diameter:
d = 1 mm
Drill-point angle: s = 118
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Major clearance angle:


Twist angle:
Cutting material:
Grain size:

a = 10
d = 35
HW-K20
DK = 0.5 0.7 m
Seite 9

Definition of element type

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 10

Creation of tool models close to reality


Drilling tool

Determination of the tool geometry


Real tool

FEM-model

CAD-model

Macro
geometry

4 mm

Micro
geometry

6 m
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

6 m
Seite 11

Outline
1

Introduction

Requirements of the FE cutting simulation

CAD modelling for the FE cutting simulation

Constitutive material laws for the FE cutting simulation

Damage models for the FE cutting simulation and multiphase simulation

Friction and wear models for the FE cutting simulation

Criteria for the evaluation of FE software

Applications of the FE cutting simulation at the WZL

Summary
Zusammenfassung
and Outlook
und
Zusammenfassung
und Ausblick
Ausblick

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 12

Thermo-mechanical behavior of material

Bi u i

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 13

Thermo-mechanical behavior of material

s s ( , , T )

Strain Hardening

Strain Rate Hardening

450

Thermal Softening
450

450
-3 -1

d/dt=10 s & T=20C

=0.1 & T=20C

=0.1 & d/dt=1s

s , MPa

400
400

300

350

150

-1

350

300

250

AA6063-T6
200

0.1

Source: Diss- Abouridouane

Quelle: Diss-Abouridoaune
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

0.2

, -

AA6063-T6
0.3

0.4

300
-3
10

AA6063-T6
0

-1

10

10

d/dt , s

10
-1

100

200

300

400

500

T , C
Seite 14

Constitutive material modelling for the FE cutting simulation


m

T Tr
s (A B ) (1 C ln( / 0 )) (1
)
Tm Tr Thermal softening

Empirical models: e.g. Johnson-Cook-Modell

Strain hardening

Strain rate sensitivity

Micro mechanical models: e.g. enhanced Macherauch-Vhringer-Kocks-model


1/ q 1/ p

kT
0

s sa s 1
ln
G 0

*
0

Athermal processes

Damping process

Thermal activated processes


Semi-empirical models: e.g. Zerilli-Armstrong-model for bcc-materials

= G + C1 exp -C2T + C3T ln() + C4 n + C5 L-1/2

Initial density
of dislocations
Source: Diss-Abouridouane
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Influence of temperature
and strain rate

Dislocation jam

Influence of grain size


Seite 15

Determination of High speed flow curves


Split-Hopkinson-Pressure-Bar
Projectile
Projektil

TemperierTemperature
chamber
kammer

Eingangsstab
Input rod

Output
rod
Ausgangsstab

Tube
Rohr
Bearing
Lager

Air cylinder
Preluftbehlter
Joke
Joch

Rohr
Tube

Sample
Probe

Projectile
Projektil

Deckel mit
Cover with air
Luftanschluss

Eingangsstab
Input rod
Tensile
specimen
Zugprobe

Geweda
Prof. El-Magd
Ausgangsstab
Output
rod

Lager

Bearing

Pressluftbehlter
Air cylinder with mit
Schnellffnungsventil
quick release valve
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Auffangbehlter
Collection
bag

Split-Hopkinson-Tension-Bar

connection

Source: LFW

Bearing
Lager

Bearing
Lager
Strain rate:

500 s-1 10000 s-1

Temperature range:

93 K 1273 K

Projectile speed:

2,5 m/s 50 m/s

Projectile mass:

m = 3,15 kg
Seite 16

Material law for high strain rate deformation

K B

1 a K ( B )n dt
n

ad

800

True
w
SpannungMPA
, MPa
ahreStress,

kf

AA7075 T7351
DPressure
ruckversutests
che

K = 960 MPa
B = 0.031
n = 0.182
-6
/ K = 6.2510 s

700
d / dt =-1
5010 s-1
4889 s-1
4350 s-1
4294 s-1
3450 s-1
3439 s-1
2558 s-1
2529 s -1
0.001 s

600
500
400

0.2

Lines: Calculation
Symbols:
o experiments
:
r

0.4

0.6

0.8

True plastic strain, -

Source: Diss-Brodmann
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 17

Outline
1

Introduction

Requirements of the FE cutting simulation

CAD modelling for the FE cutting simulation

Constitutive material laws for the FE cutting simulation

Damage models for the FE cutting simulation and multiphase simulation

Friction and wear models for the FE cutting simulation

Criteria for the evaluation of FE software

Applications of the FE cutting simulation at the WZL

Summary and Outlook

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 18

Failure mechanisms
Loading type
Tensile stress

Shear stress

TiAl6V4

20 m

Shear lokalisation model


(Imperfections theory)

20 m

Pore growth model


(Hancock-Mackenzie)

Source: Diss-Abouridouane
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 19

Damage modelling for the FE cutting simulation (ductile fracture)


s

Macro mechanical failure models


Equivalent stress/ strain model:
Gosh-Model:
Ayada-Model:

dD

D = v,f / D = v,f
DGosh = (1+2/1) 12
= (m/v) dv

s0
E

Micro mechanical failure models (Pore growth models)


Hancock-Mackenzie-Modell

3 m
f = n + exp
2 v

Gurson-Tveergard-Needleman-Model

Johnson-Cook-Model
Source: Diss-Abouridouane
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

V
3 m
2

0=
+
2fq
cosh
1+
q
f

1
1

2

V,M
V,M


m
T
f = D1 + D2exp -D3
1+ D4ln 1+ D5

v
m

0
Seite 20

Failure limit at tensile stress (r: Notch radius)


lokale
plastische
Bruch-Vergleichsdehnung
Local
plastic
failure-equivalent
stress f f

1.0

1.0

f = 0.05+2.89*exp(-2.35*sm/sv)

f = 0.05+2.33*exp(-2.49*sm/sv)

0.8

0.8
glatt
r = 1.2 mm
r = 0.8 mm
r = 0.4 mm
r = 0.02 mm

0.6
0.4

0.6
0.4

0.2

TiAl6V4, = 20C
quasistatisch
0 quasi-static
0
0.5
1.5

0.2

1.5

TiAl6V4, = 200C
quasistatisch
0 quasi-static
0
0.5
1.0

2.0

2.5

f = 0.09+5.2*exp(-2.35*sm/sv)

1.5

2.0

1.0

1.5

1.0

2.0

2.5

glatt
r = 1.2 mm
r = 0.8 mm
r = 0.4 mm
r = 0.02 mm

0.5
TiAl6V4, = 200C
dynamisch
dynamic

0
1.5

0.5

f = 0.09+3.54*exp(-2.61*sm/sv)

glatt
r = 1.2 mm
r = 0.8 mm
r = 0.4 mm
r = 0.02 mm

0.5

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

TiAl6V4, = 20C
dynamisch
dynamic

0
1.0

1.0

Source: Diss-Abouridouane

glatt
r = 1.2 mm
r = 0.8 mm
r = 0.4 mm
r = 0.02 mm

2.5

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Mehrachsigkeit
Multiaxiality sm/sv
Seite 21

Criteria for chip formation


Physical separation criterion

Geometrical separation

Geometrischen Trennkriterium
Physikalisches Trennkriterium
criterion
Geometrischen Trennkriterium
Physikalisches Trennkriterium
As
Span

Chip

X
Hs,w

Bs
Span
Cs
vc

As
Bs

As
Trenn-I
Trennkriterium Separation
Bs
kriterium
criterion

dcr
d

separation criterion

As

Bs
v
c
Cs
Cs
vc IKR
vc
IKR D
Ds
s
Werkzeug
Werkzeug
Tool
Ds
Ds
Es
Werkzeug
Werkzeug
Tool
Es
Fs
E
s
Es
X X
X
Fs
XGX F
D
GX
F
E
C
B
D
H
E
C
B
w
s,w
s,w
w
w
w
w
w
w
Dw Cw Bw s,w s,w wHs,w G
H
Ew wDw Cw Bw
s,w Gs,w Fs,w Ew
s,w Fw
Cs

plane
Schnittebene
dcr Sectional
Schnittebene
d

Without a specific
Distorted grid
topology

New networked
grid topology

Tool

Tool

Schnittebene
Schnittebene

Separation while exceeding


Separation when

the cutting edge falls below a


critical distance dcr to the
next workpiece node

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

an defined, maximum
equivalent stress or at
predefined maximum
tensions

Separation through

continuous remeshing for


ductile material behavior

Seite 22

Chip separation - without chip separation criterion by remeshing


Old Mesh

New Mesh

Elements are highly distorted

Remeshing leads to better mesh

a)

Span
Chip

Werkzeug
Tool

b)

New Mesh

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 23

Microstructure-based 3D modeling for micro cutting AISI 1045


Concept of the Representative Volume Element (RVE)
Capture of all significant microstructural
inhomogeneities

Representativeness check of the RVE


1200
Tension stress

Tension

Compression

Microstructure

Macrostructure
RVE

True stress MPa

900

Two-phase 3D FE model
Cross section

(0.1 x 0.1 x 0.1 mm)

0.1x0.1 mm

Compression stress

FE model

600

Shear

Shear stress
Experiment

300

Longitudinal section
Quasi-static

0.1x0.1x0.1 mm

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

True plastic strain , , -

Pearlite
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Ferrite
Seite 24

Microstructure-based 3D FE model: Validation

20

Ferrite
Pearlite

10

3%

20
Nmm
16

Test 7% 19% 12
Isotropic model

30

Torque

Mixture model

Chip

50 Feed force
N
40 22% Test
Mixture model

Drill

Isotropic model

Two-phase FE model for


micro drilling in
ferritic-pearlitic carbon steel C45N

Microstructure

0
0
d = 1 mm, vc = 35 m/min, f = 12 m

Drill
Workpiece

Holes

Workpiece

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Chip form

Seite 25

Influence on the formation of residual stresses

Thermal
state

Thermally-induced phase
transformation

Metallurgical
state

Heat gain

Residual stresses

Mechanical
State

The complete coupling of the various parameters influencing the formation of residual

stresses has not been done


Source: Preckel
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 26

Input parameters for thermo-mechanical-metallurgic simulation


(residual stresses)
Microstructure, initial state of texture
Time dependent thermo-mechanical state of stress
Mathematical approach for the diffusion controlled transformation kinetics:

Advanced Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogrow-model, 1940


Mathematical approach for the phase transformation without diffusion

Koistenen-Marburger-relation, 1959
TTT/TTA-diagram for not isotherm conditions (high strain rate)
Thermal material properties, depending on temperature (cp, l r )

Mechanical material properties, depending on temperature (E, u a ...)


Elasto-viscoplastic material law
Consideration of grain orientation, texture, micro damages, inclusions, etc.

Description of the damage behavior on high strain rates


Tool wear model
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 27

Outline
1

Introduction

Requirements of the FE cutting simulation

CAD modelling for the FE cutting simulation

Constitutive material laws for the FE cutting simulation

Damage models for the FE cutting simulation and multiphase simulation

Friction and wear models for the FE cutting simulation

Criteria for the evaluation of FE software

Applications of the FE-cutting-simulation at the WZL

Summary and Outlook

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 28

Friction model for FE cutting simulation


Thermal load at the workpiece and tool contact zone
Structure in the workpiece
Shear edge

vc

Distribution of temperature in the contact


zone
(according to Kronenberg)
Workpiece
300

Structure in the chip


5
1
3
4

380 C
130
80
500
30

600
650

Tool flank
Cutting surface

600
Cutting edge
1
2
3
4
5

Tool
Primary shear zone
Secondary shear zone at rake face
Jam and separation zone
Secondary shear zone at flank face
Run-up deformation zone

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Material:
Elastic limit:
Cutting material:
Cutting velocity:
Chip thickness:
Rake angle:

310

chip
400
450
500

700
tool
steel
kf = 850 N/mm2
HW-P20
vc = 60 m/min
h = 0,32 mm
o = 10
Seite 29

Friction model for FE cutting simulation


Deformation at the workpiece and tool contact zone
Structure in the workpiece

Shear edge

vc

Structure in
the chip

Shear zone

5
0,1 mm

1
3
4

Tool flank
Cutting surface
Cutting edge
1
2
3
4
5

Tool
Primary shear zone
Secondary shear zone at rake face
Jam and separation zone
Secondary shear zone at flank face
Run-up deformation zone

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Turning tool
Cutting edge
Material:
Cutting material:
Cutting velocity.:
Chip section:

C53E
HW-P30
vc = 100 m/min
ap x f = 2 x 0,315 mm2
Seite 30

Friction model for FE cutting simulation


Mechanical stress at the workpiece and tool contact zone
Structure in the workpiece
Shear edge

vc

Structure
in the chip

5
3

Cutting edge
Tool
Primary shear zone
Secondary shear zone at rake face
Jam and separation zone
Secondary shear zone at the flank face
Run-up deformation zone

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Shear stress:

Tool flank
Cutting surface

1
2
3
4
5

Normal stress:

Contact zone

Tool

According to Oxley and Hatton

Seite 31

Friction model for FE cutting simulation


R
Coulomb friction model :
Coulomb friction
R s N
Shear friction

Shear friction model:

reality

R m k

with

kf
3

Continuous passover from dynamic friction

Dynamic friction

Static friction

sN

Usiu
Shaw /
Wanheim and Bay

sN
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Z.B.: Usui-model

= 1 exp( )

Orowan / zel
reality

(Coulomb) to static friction (shear):

shear stress from friction

sN

normal stress

yield stress in shear according to Mises

kf

yield stress according to Mises

, m

friction coefficients
Seite 32

Wear model for FE cutting simulation


Different types of wear at the cutting blade and wear mechanisms
Cuttingsurface

Chip

Tool
Crater wear

Edge chippage
Cutting
edge

Crater wear

Flank
Flank abrasion

Built-up edge
Flank wear
Workpiece

Oxidation notch

Sliding mechanisms
Abrasion
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Adhesion

Delamination

Not-gliding mechanisms
Diffusion

electrochemical

Oxidation
Seite 33

Wear model for FE cutting simulation


Tool wear modelling

Differential
wear models

Tool life equations


Tool life acc. to Taylor:

Tool life acc. to Hasting:

T v ck Cv
T = tool life
u = temperature

k, A, B = constant
Cv = T fr vc = 1 m/min

Empirical tool wear


models

Physical tool wear


models

Adhesion

Abrasion + Diffusion

Model acc. to Archard: Model acc. to Usui:

Model acc. to Takeyama:

Adhesion / dV
F S

K
Abrasion
dt
3H
dV/dt:
H:
F:
S:
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

( 2 )
dV
n v ch C1 e T
dt

wear-volume-rate
hardness
mechanical load
cutting length

E
dV
G v c D e R
dt

K, C1, C2, G, D:
constant
sn:
normal stress
Vch:
chip sliding speed
u:
temperature
Seite 34

Object boundary conditions


Boundary Conditions
Object Conditions

Inter Object Conditions

Environment Object Conditions

Tool

Workpiece
2D FEM Cutting Model
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 35

Object boundary conditions


Boundary Conditions
Object Conditions

Friction

Inter Object Conditions

Environment Object Conditions

Heat Transfer
Tool

Movement

=
Object 1

Workpiece = Object 2
2D FEM Cutting Model
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 36

Boundary conditions
Boundary Conditions
Self Contact (Chip vs. Workpiece Surface)

Object Conditions

Friction

Heat Transfer
FN

Movement
FR

FR: Friction Force


Workpiece = Object 2

FN: Normal Force

2D FEM Cutting Model


WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 37

Object boundary conditions


Boundary Conditions

The workpiece is moving in


x-direction with the prescribed
velocity vc. It is fixed in y-direction

Object Conditions
Tool is fixed in x- and y-direction!

Friction

Heat Transfer

Tool

Movement

Cutting
speed vc in
x-direction

Workpiece

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 38

Object boundary conditions


Boundary Conditions
Tool

Object Conditions

Heat Transfer

Friction

Heat Transfer

Movement

Workpiece
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 39

Object boundary conditions


Boundary Conditions

Object Conditions

Inter Object Conditions

Friction

Environment Object Conditions

Heat Transfer
Tool

FN
FN
Heat Transfer

FR
FN
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 40

Object boundary conditions


Boundary Conditions
Object Conditions

Inter Object Conditions

Environment Object Conditions

Heat Transfer
Tool
Heat Convection

Heat Emissivity

Heat Radiation
Heat Convection

Heat exchange with


environment
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 41

Outline
1

Introduction

Requirements of the FE cutting simulation

CAD modelling for the FE cutting simulation

Constitutive material laws for the FE cutting simulation

Damage models for the FE cutting simulation and multiphase simulation

Friction and wear models for the FE cutting simulation

Criteria for the evaluation of FE software

Applications of the FE-cutting-simulation at the WZL

Summary and Outlook

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 42

FEM software solution for FEM simulation of the cutting process

MSC.Marc
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 43

Criteria for the evaluation of FE software


Programm

ABAQUS

ANSYS/ LS-DYNA

AdvantEdge

DEFORM

COMSOL

Criteria
Creation of geometries

Creation of geometries
and import of CAD data

Import of CAD data

Creation of simple
geometries and
import of CAD data

Creation of simple
geometries and
import of CAD data

Creation of simple
geometries and import
of CAD data

Material catalogue

No, has to be defined

Yes, expandable

Yes, wide

Yes, new catalogue


importable

yes

Element type

Every type

Every type

tetrahedron,
rectangle

tetrahedron, rectangle

Every type

Time integration

Implicit / Explicit

Implicit / Explicit

Explicit

Implicit

Implicit

Remeshing routine

none

none

yes

yes

yes

use

general

general

cuttingprocess

Deforming process

general

Influence on simulation
computation

High, by Python

Possible, by Fortran

no

High, by Fortran

High, by Matlab

parallelisation

possible

possible

possible

possible

possible

Usage at the WZL

Eigenfrequency analysis,
elast. Tool behavior,
elasto-plastic component
behavior

no

no

Cutting simulation

Thermo-elastic
deformation

Source: SIMULIA, ANSYS, LSTC, TWS, SFTC, COMSOL


WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 44

Outline
1

Introduction

Requirements of the FE cutting simulation

CAD modelling for the FE cutting simulation

Constitutive material laws for the FE cutting simulation

Damage models for the FE cutting simulation and multiphase simulation

Friction and wear models for the FE cutting simulation

Criteria for the evaluation of FE software

Applications of the FE cutting simulation at the WZL

Summary and Outlook

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 45

Applications of the FE cutting simulation at WZL


2D, e.g. Planing
Drilling

Milling

Turning

Research focus at the WZL:


Process optimization
Material modelling

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 46

Simulation of the high speed cutting process

Cutting speed: vc = 3000 m/min


Feed:
f = 0.25 mm

vc

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 47

Simulation of the high speed cutting process

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 48

Simulation of the high speed cutting process

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 49

Simulation of the high speed cutting process

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 50

Simulation of the high speed cutting process

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 51

Simulation of the high speed cutting process

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 52

Simulation of the high speed cutting process

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 53

Comparison of different thermal properties of the tools


Orthogonal turning 2D (vc = 300 m/min, f = 0,1 mm, C45E)

Ceramic-Insert
Thermal conductivity l = 35 W/mK

Tmax = 650C
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

WC-Insert
Thermal conductivity l = 105 W/mK

Tmax = 550C
Seite 54

Temperature distribution in dependency of the coating and


its thickness
TiN

Tsp

TiN

570

6 m
Calculated temperature at the
chip bottom side TSp / C

3 m

6 m

557

560
550
539

540

539

533
530
520
509

510

Al2O3

0
Coating
Thickness

TiN
3 m

TiN
6 m

Heat conductivity:
HW:
100 W/(mK)
TiN:
26,7 W/(mK)
Al2O3: 7,5 W/(mK)

HW

TiN
6 m

Al2O3
6 m

Heat capacity:
HW:
3,5 J/(cmK)
TiN:
3,2 J/(cmK)
Al2O3: 3,5 J/(cmK)

Material: C45E+N
Cutting Material: HW-K10/20
Tensile strength: Rm = 610 N/mm
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 55

FE-Based calibration process for tool wear model


Modeling

Verschleimarkenbreite ber die Schnittzeit


16MnCr5 (einsatzgehrtet), Stegbreite = 1 mm, cBN bestckte Einstechplatte der Sorte N151.2-600-50E-G
Schnittgeschwindigkeit vc = 150, 200, 300 m/min und Vorschub f = 0,06 mm

Wear curve

Machining experiments
120

vc = 200 m/min

vc = 150 m/min

Verschleimarkenbreite VB [m]

Tool-wear VB

vc = 250 m/min
100

80

t = 10 min
t = 6 min
t = 4 min
t = 1 min

60

40

20

0
0

10

15

20

25

Cutting time t

30

35

40

Schnittzeit t [min]

dW
n v ch C1 e
dt

C
( 2 )
T

lg C1
lg {w /( sn VS)}

Determination of the
specific material
parameters C1 and C2

dW/dt
Regression analysis

FE-analysis
Temperature
Normal-

C2

tension
Sliding speed

1/T

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 56

Verschlei VB [mm]

2D FE model for tool wear simulation

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Tool life

Seite 57

Phase 3: Methodology for moving the nodes at the rake face


Tool
node

square element
Tool

Workpiece

vc

Rake
Chip
vc

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 58

Phase 3: Methodology for moving the nodes at the flank face

node

square element

5 m

nB

nA
A
Workpiece

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Tool

nC
C

nD

Flank

D
nA = nB = nC = nD

Seite 59

Verification of the tool wear simulation for the flank wear


vc = 150 m/min, f = 0.06 mm, ap = 1 mm, dry
eff = -26
Tool

[mm]
Flank
wear
VB [mm]
Width VB/
Wearwidth
Flank

Time:
5 min

a0 = 7

Time:
15 min

Time:
25 min

Time:
35 min

93 m

0,1

Experiment

0,08
0,06

Simulation

0,04
0,02
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Cutting
time t [min]
Time [min]
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 60

Setup of a 3D FE model
15

15

7,5
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 61

Setup of a 3D FE model - specification of the tool holder


Tool holder:
RotZ=6

Kennametal
ID: PCLNL252M12 F4 NG27

Rake angle 0 = -6
Relief angle a0 = 6
Tool inclination angle ls = -6
Rotx=-6

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Tool cutting edge angle r = 95

Seite 62

Setup of a 3D FE model - Tool position

tool

ap
r

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

tool

=r

workpiece

workpiece

Seite 63

Setup of a 3D FE model - Mesh of the workpiece

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 64

3D simulation
Workpiece: AISI 1045
Tool: K10
vc = 300 m/min
f = 0,1 mm

Temperature

Cutting Force Fc

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 65

3D FE model - Post processing


Temperature (C)
For better visualization
the tool is hidden

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 66

3D FE model - Post processing


Temperature (C)
For better visualization
the tool is hidden

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 67

3D FE model - Post processing


Strain distribution
Strain

For better visualization


the tool is cut

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 68

3D FE model - Post processing

Strain Rate

Strain Rate
distribution
For better visualization

the tool is cut

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 69

Models of cutting inserts

Roughing geometry

CNMG120408RN

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Finishing geometry

CNMG120408FN

Seite 70

Simulation of the chip flow


Chip breaker FN

Chip breaker RN
Material:
C45E+N
Cutting material:
HC P25
Insert:
CNMG120408

Insert geometry:

a0 0

lS

6 -6 -6 95 90

Cutting velocity.:
vc = 300 m/min
Feed:
f = 0,1 mm
Depth of cut:
ap = 1 mm

Dry cutting

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 71

Simulation of the chip flow


Chip breaker FN

Chip breaker RN
Material:
C45E+N
Cutting material:
HC P25
Insert:
CNMG120408

Insert geometry:

a0 0

lS

6 -6 -6 95 90

Cutting velocity.:
vc = 300 m/min
Feed:
f = 0,1 mm
Depth of cut:
ap = 1 mm

Dry cutting

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 72

Comparison of simulation and real chip flow


CNMG120408
Chip breaker NF
HC-P15
r = 95
n = -6
ls = -6
C45E+N

ap = 1,9 mm
f = 0,25 mm
vc = 200 m/min
dry

vf

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

vc
Seite 73

Drilling: Modelling of size effects


Task:
Development of a consistent 3D computation model based on the FE method
for scaling the drilling process in consideration of size effects
n

drill
f Bohrwerkzeug
Friction
Reibung

Reibung
Friction

Workpiece
Werkstck

Plastic
Plastische
Verformung
deformation
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Stofftrennungof material
Separation
Seite 74

Previous results: 3D FE computation model for d = 1 10 mm


Material modeling

s s(, , T)

Measuring the drill geometry


Tool

FE boundary conditions

FEM-Model

Strain hardening

Cutting parameters

Plasticity

Tool: rigid / elastic

Damping mechanism

Friction law

Relaxation

Heat transfer

Dynamic strain ageing

Element size

Temperature influence

Number of elements

Loss of cohesion

Remeshing strategy

Failure mechanism

Degree of freedom

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 75

FE-Simulation of the drilling process with d = 1 mm (DEFORM 3D)


Machining conditions
Workpiece material:
Tool material:
Cutting speed:
Feed:
Feed velocity:
Cooling lubricant:

C45E+N
HW-K20
35 m/min
0.012 mm/U
133 mm/min
none

Boundary Conditions
Tool:
rigid
number of elements: 90 000
Workpiece:
visco-plastic (LFW-material law),
temperatur fixed at boundary nodes
number of elements: 100 000
Contact:
coulomb friction ( =0,2)
heat transfer (conduction & convection)
Computing time and drilling depth:
2000 h; 0.18 mm (70% of the major cutting edge)
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 76

Verification of the chip formation


Chip formation in the simulation

Experimental chip formation

Workpiece material:

C45E+N

Cutting speed: vc = 35 m/min

Cutting tool material:

HW K20

Feed:

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

f = 0.012 mm
Seite 77

Model validation: Scaling effect of the chisel edge length


6
Verhltnis (dQ / d) [%]

2]
spezifische
kf,max [kN/mm
]
force kf,max [kN/mm
feedVorschubkraft
Specific

32

Workpiece:
C45E+N

30
28
26

Cutting speed:
vc = 35 m/min

24
22
20

9 10

Durchmesser d [mm]

Diameter d [mm]

Feed:
f = 0,012 * d
Cutting tool material:
HW-K20

2
Experiment

Simulation

kf,max = 2 * Fz,max / (d * f)
0

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

4
5
6
7
DrillBohrerdurchmesser
diameter d [mm] d [mm]

10

Corner radius:
rn = 4 m
Cooling:
None

Seite 78

Model validation: Temperature at the main cutting edge (center)

Temperature at the
major cutting edge T [C]

400
Experiment
Simulation

d = 3 mm

300

200

100

0
1

10

Diameter d [mm]

Cutting speed:
Feed:
Coolant:
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

vc = 35 m/min
f = 0,012 * d
None

Workpiece:
C45E+N
Cutting tool material:HW-K20
Rounding:
rn = 4 m
Seite 79

Modelling of the face milling process


Materials and cutting parameters:
Work material:

Quenched and tempered AISI 1045 (normalized)

Tool material:

Coated WC

Cutting parameters:

No. of teeth:

z=4

Diameter:

D = 32 mm

Engagement angle:

A E = 180

Feed:

f = 0.5 mm

Feed per tooth:

fZ = 0.125 mm

Depth of cut:

ap = 0.8 mm

Tool leading angle:

r = 90

Tool inclination angle:

= -5

No. of rev.:

n = 2250 min-1

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Tool

r
ap
Workpiece

Seite 80

Modelling of the face milling process


Axial and radial rake angle:
Axial rake angle

axial = 9

Radial rake angle

radial = 5

axial

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 81

Modelling of the face milling process


Depth of cut ap
r

Feed f
Workpiece geometry

tool

= r Workpiece

r Tool
View

ap
r Workpiece

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 82

Finding the best workpiece geometry


1. Simplified
workpiece
geometry

2. Simplified workpiece geometry


1

3. Simplified workpiece geometry

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 83

Simulation results for the 1. simplified workpiece model


Rough elements within the

work piece
Simulation of chip formation

not accurate enough

back

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 84

Simulation results for the 3. simplified workpiece model


Final workpiece geometry
Left

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Right

Seite 85

Results for the face milling operation


Chip formation for the left
side of the work piece:
at the beginning very thin

chips are produced


chip curling starts for higher

undeformed chip thickness

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 86

Verification of the FE model


Experiment

Simulation

Full agreement
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 87

FE based sensitivity analysis


Varied input
parameters:

Goal output
parameters:

Heat capacity
Thermal conductivity

Cutting force Fc
Passive force Fp

Flow stress

Feed force Ff

Friction coefficient

Temperature T

Tool micro-geometry

Legend
Influence

Heat
capacity

Thermal
conductivity

Flow
stress

Tool
micro-geometry

Friction

Cutting force

low
Feed force

medium
Passive force
high

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Temperature
Seite 88

Outline
1

Introduction

Requirements of the FE cutting simulation

CAD modelling for the FE cutting simulation

Constitutive material laws for the FE cutting simulation

Damage models for the FE cutting simulation and multiphase simulation

Friction and wear models for the FE cutting simulation

Criteria for the evaluation of FE software

Applications of the FE cutting simulation at the WZL

Summary and Outlook

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 89

Outlook:
Benchmark-Analysis to choose the best tool geometry
Fixed input
parameter
material parameter,
friction coefficients

Cutting parameter 2

vc2, ap1, f1

+
Tool
B

Determination of the
thermomechanical
loadspectrum, chip
flow, chip form

Temp

+
Coating
TiN TiAlN AlO2
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Flank wear VB

Q,
T,
Fi,

Cutting parameter
1
2

Cutting parameter 1

vc1, ap1, f1

Benchmark-Analysis

Cutting
simulation

Wear

B
Tool

Stress

Chip
flow

Tool A

++

Tool B

--

Tool C

++

++

Optimised
tooland
tool carriergeometry
Seite 90

Summary
Machining process: System of complex physically coherent operations

A holistic and comprehensive simulation of the machining has not been achieved with

conventional empirical or analytical approaches

FEM is a promising method for the holistic simulation of machining


High flexibility
Implementation of various models that describe the aspects of machining
Complete reproduction of the machining process
The FE cutting Simulation gives good results under the following boundary conditions:
Realistic reproduction of the tools macro/ micro geometry
Adequate modeling of the thermo mechanical material behavior
Exact capturing of the boundary conditions (friction, heat transfer, wear , cooling lubricant, damage,
micro structure, etc.)
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 91

Questions
What are the ranges of temperature, strain and strain rate in cutting operations?

What is the range of strain rate, that can be realized by the Split-Hopkinson-Bar-Test?
Name two friction models. What are the advantages and the disadvantgeas of these

models?
How is the strain rate effecting the flow stress curve of a material?
What are the demands on a temperature measurement setup which allows the evaluation

of simulation results?
Explain the difference between the orthogonal cutting process and the longitudinal cutting

process!
Explain the difference between a plastic and an elastic-plastic flow stress curve!

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Seite 92