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Mirza Softi*, Amir Toki**, Ivo Uglei***

*Kreka - Dubrave Mine, Dubrave, Bosnia and Herzegovina

(e-mail: softic_mirza@yahoo.com).

** Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

(e-mail: amir.tokic@untz.ba)

*** Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

(e-mail: ivo.uglesic@fer.hr)

Abstract: This paper presents the results of experimental and simulated investigations of electromagnetic

transient phenomena during energizing of industry capacitor banks. Experimental and simulated

investigations based on the electrical network model having the nominal voltage of 6 kV are carried out.

In addition, sensitive analyses of characteristic impact factors are performed. It is shown how capacitor

banks switching transients influence a degradation of the power quality in electrical distribution system.

Keywords: Power quality, capacitor banks, switching transients, overcurrents, overvoltages.

Ls inductance of system

1. INTRODUCTION

Power quality is a topic of constant study as problem inherent

to it can lead to economical losses, mainly in industrial

processes. Although many factors influence the power

quality, the paper presented here focuses on electromagnetic

switching transients originating from capacitor bank

switching in typical mining distribution systems, Adams et al.

(1998), Bollen et al. (2006), Grebe (1996), McCoy et al.

(1994). Two main advantages of capacitor banks connecting

are: improvement of the networks voltage profile and

reducing the networks losses. In general, these capacitors are

not connected all of the time, since the network loads are

changing with time according to certain load curves. Hence,

they may be switched on and off several times during a

typical day. These switching actions will be accompanied by

low or medium frequency of electromagnetic transient

voltages and currents which may have an influence on

sensitive electrical equipment connected in local networks.

The capacitor banks switching provokes transient

overvoltages that theoretically can reach peak phase-to-phase

values of 2.0 p.u., Saided (2004). Generally, the frequency of

capacitor banks switching transients is below 2 kHz. Other

factors that affect amplification of the transient voltages

during the banks switching should also be mentioned: size of

the capacitor banks switched, short circuit capacity at the

capacitor banks location, rated power of the distribution

transformer and characteristics of the connected loads.

Frequency of transient during energizing of industry

capacitor banks is calculated by the equation ( LS >> L) :

f =

(L

where are:

+ L )C

1

2 LS C

L inductance of capacitor banks.

2. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS

Characteristics of electromagnetic transients originating from

industry capacitor banks switching are studied in this paper.

Moreover, factors that influence the intensity of such

transients are investigated in order to identify the conditions

in which these effects can be undermined. It should be

pointed out that the electrical network which represents a

real-life feeder of the typical 6 kV mining distribution system

is investigated in this paper. The feeder supplies mining loads

(total power is approximately 2.5 MVA) with installed three

phase, star connected, capacitor banks (rated power 500

kVAr), Fig. 1.

The results of experimental investigations of capacitor banks

switching transients are presented in this chapter. Current

waveforms and phase to phase voltage waveforms are

measured during energizing of three phase capacitor banks.

(1)

waveforms during energizing of 500 kVAr capacitor banks at

the 6 kV electrical network with isolated neutral point are

presented in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3.

Simulations of electromagnetic transient phenomena during

energizing of capacitor banks are carried out in electrical

networks of 6 kV. An equivalent three phase electrical model

is implemented within the MATLAB/Simulink software.

Here are being modelled: power system equivalent, industrial

loads, distribution transformer, breaker, supply cable,

capacitor banks equivalent and protection inductors.

A stiff differential equation system, describing the behaviour

of three phase capacitor banks switching transient, is solved

by using the numerical method of L stable backward

differentiation formulas (BDFs), Toki et al. (2005).

The results of simulating phase current waveforms and phase

to phase voltage waveforms during energizing of three phase

500 kVAr capacitor banks in electrical networks of 6 kV with

isolated neutral point are presented in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5.

Currents [simulation]

1000

capacitor banks

I1

I2

I3

800

600

400

Current [A]

200

0

-200

-400

-600

-800

-1000

0.005

0.01

Time [sec]

0.03

0.035

0.04

capacitor banks

1.5

of capacitor banks

x 10

Voltages [simulation]

U12

U23

U31

currents and phase to phase transient voltage waveforms

(amplitude, duration and frequency) obtained as a result of

experimental measurements during energizing of a 500 kVAr

three phase capacitor banks at the 6 kV mining electrical

network with isolated neutral point are presented in Table 1.

Voltage [V]

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

500 kVAr three phase capacitor banks (measurements)

Max/ Min

current I1 (A)

266/122

Max

voltage U12 (V)

8000

Steady state

currents Is (A)

53

Max/ Min

current I2 (A)

544/444

Max

voltage U23 (V)

11333

Duration of

transient T (ms)

7.87

Max/ Min

current I3 (A)

522/800

Min

voltage U31 (V)

9000

Frequency of

transient f (Hz)

1124

0.005

0.01

Time [sec]

0.03

0.035

0.04

of capacitor banks

Values of characteristic parameters of phase transient

currents and phase to phase transient voltage waveforms

(amplitude, duration and frequency) resulting from the

simulation during switching/energizing of a 500 kVAr three

phase capacitor banks at the typical 6 kV mining electrical

network with isolated neutral point are presented in Table 2.

500 kVAr three phase capacitor banks (simulations)

Max/ Min

current I1 (A)

285/125

Max

voltage U12 (V)

8000

Steady state

currents Is (A)

53

Max/ Min

current I2 (A)

580/500

Max

voltage U23 (V)

12000

Duration of

transient T (ms)

8.25

Max/ Min

current I3 (A)

630/860

Min

voltage U31 (V)

9000

Frequency of

transient f (Hz)

1124

obtained as a result of experimental measurements and

simulations during energizing of a 500 kVAr capacitor banks

at the 6 kV network are in very good agreement. It should be

noted there are no many papers that show both measured and

simulated three phase currents and voltages during industry

capacitor banks energizing.

capacitor banks

PARAMETERS

Based on an implemented equivalent model, different

simulation scenarios of system parameters are investigated.

This chapter focuses on the sensitive analysis of influential

parameters within a three phase system by observing

characteristic parameters of phase transient currents and

phase to phase transient voltage waveforms (amplitude,

duration, frequency).

Influential parameters on a three-phase system are: initial

conditions, impedance of system, consumers characteristics,

capacity of capacitor banks and moment of circuit breaker

switching.

of capacitor banks

following values:

currents and phase to phase transient voltages are presented

in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9.

the moment of circuit breaker switching): Ures = 1 kV

equivalent three-phase electrical simulation model.

equivalent three-phase electrical simulation model.

The results of simulating the waveforms of phase transient

currents and phase to phase transient voltages are presented

in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.

capacitor bank

currents and phase to phase transient voltages are presented

in Fig. 12 and Fig. 13.

of capacitor banks

Third case: Increasing the industrial load twice in the

equivalent three-phase electrical simulation model.

The results of simulating the waveforms of phase transient

currents and phase to phase transient voltages are presented

in Fig. 10 and Fig. 11.

capacitor banks

of capacitor banks

Fig. 10. Simulated phase currents during energizing of

capacitor banks

in phase 2 for 0.1 ms (pole asynchronism of circuit breaker

switching) in the equivalent three-phase simulation model.

The results of simulating the waveforms of phase transient

currents and phase to phase transient voltages are presented

in Fig. 14 and Fig. 15.

of capacitor bank

Fourth case: Increasing the capacity of capacitor bank twice

in the equivalent three-phase electrical simulation model.

capacitor banks

(d) S = 2S

Max/ Min

current I1 (A)

260/70

Max

voltage U12 (V)

8000

Steady state

currents Is (A)

53

Max/ Min

current I2 (A)

560/375

Max

voltage U23 (V)

11150

Duration of

transient T (ms)

3.25

Max/ Min

current I3 (A)

445/820

Min

voltage U31 (V)

8150

Frequency of

transient f (Hz)

1124

(e) C = 2C

of capacitor banks

The results of investigation change the initial conditions

(residual voltage), serial system impedance, consumers

characteristics, capacity of capacitor banks and pole moments

of circuit breaker switching into the values of characteristic

parameters of phase transient currents and phase to phase

transient voltage waveforms, as presented in Table 3.

Table 3. The results of investigation change the system

parameters: different scenarios

(a) S = 500 kVAr

Max/ Min

current I1 (A)

285/125

Max

voltage U12 (V)

8000

Steady state

currents Is (A)

53

Max/ Min

current I2 (A)

580/500

Max

voltage U23 (V)

12000

Duration of

transient T (ms)

8.25

Max/ Min

current I3 (A)

630/860

Min

voltage U31 (V)

9000

Frequency of

transient f (Hz)

1124

(b) Ures = 0 V

Max/ Min

current I1 (A)

185/50

Max

voltage U12 (V)

8000

Steady state

currents Is (A)

53

Max/ Min

current I2 (A)

740/620

Max

voltage U23 (V)

12700

Duration of

transient T (ms)

8.25

Max/ Min

current I3 (A)

670/910

Min

voltage U31 (V)

8920

Frequency of

transient f (Hz)

1124

(c) z = z/2 V

Max/ Min

current I1 (A)

383/235

Max

voltage U12 (V)

8100

Steady state

currents Is (A)

53

Max/ Min

current I2 (A)

795/750

Max

voltage U23 (V)

11950

Duration of

transient T (ms)

12.25

Max/ Min

current I3 (A)

980/1175

Min

voltage U31 (V)

9350

Frequency of

transient f (Hz)

1589

Max/ Min

current I1 (A)

450/190

Max

voltage U12 (V)

8150

Steady state

currents Is (A)

106

Max/ Min

current I2 (A)

820/815

Max

voltage U23 (V)

12200

Duration of

transient T (ms)

16.75

Max/ Min

current I3 (A)

1260/1000

Min

voltage U31 (V)

10000

Frequency of

transient f (Hz)

1589

Max/ Min

current I1 (A)

2060/1110

Max

voltage U12 (V)

8000

Steady state

currents Is (A)

53

Max/ Min

current I2 (A)

565/490

Max

voltage U23 (V)

13150

Duration of

transient T (ms)

8.25

Max/ Min

current I3 (A)

1170/2060

Min

voltage U31 (V)

14550

Frequency of

transient f (Hz)

1124

system scenarios, are shown in Table 3. It can be concluded

that the last case represents the most critical case where the

worst-case transient phenomena in terms of amplitude

overvoltages and overcurrents transients occur.

High values of amplitude overvoltages and overcurrents

transients result from induced waveforms of voltages in

phase 1 and phase 3, generated by the waveform of voltage in

phase 2 at the moment of three phase circuit breaker

switching.

In order to reduce overvoltages and overcurrent transient

peak values in three phase system, the following measures

can be applied: preresistors/inductors adding, fixed inductors

(reactors) and applying of controlled (intelligent) switching.

A fixed inductor (reactor) of rated inductance 125 H can be

applied in real life to reduce the overvoltages and overcurrent

transients during energizing of a 500 kVAr three phase

capacitor banks. Practical experience have showed to be very

effective in case of electromagnetic transients mitigation

generated by energizing of a 500 kVAr three phase capacitor

banks at the typical 6 kV mining electrical network.

5. CONCLUSIONS

Based on the results of experimental measurements and

simulations of electromagnetic transient phenomena during

energizing of three phase industry capacitor banks, the

amplitude of overvoltages occurs in phase to phase voltage

U23 and approaches the value 2Umax, whereas the amplitude

of overcurrents occurs in phase current I3, that is 1520 times

greater than the current amplitude of a capacitor banks in the

steady state Is. Duration of electromagnetic transient

phenomena during energizing of three phase industry

capacitor banks is approximately 8 ms, that is less than one

time period of the system. Frequency of electromagnetic

transient phenomena during energizing of three phase

industry capacitor banks is 1124 Hz.

On the basis of characteristic parameters values of phase

transient currents and phase to phase transient voltage

waveforms (amplitude, duration and frequency) obtained as a

result of experimental measurements and simulations during

energizing of a 500 kVAr three phase capacitor banks at the

typical 6 kV mining electrical network with isolated neutral

point, it can be concluded that the transient phenomena are

classified as medium frequency electromagnetic transients.

REFERENCES

Adams, R.A. and Middlekauff, S.W. (1998). Solving

customer power quality problems due to voltage

magifications. IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery,

volume 13 (number 4), 1515-1520.

Bollen, M.H. and Gu, I. Y. (2006). Signal processing of

power quality disturbances, IEEE Press, Wiley, New

York.

Grebe, T.E. (1996). Application of distribution system

capacitor banks and their impact on power quality. IEEE

Transaction on Industry Applications, volume 32

(number 3), 714-719.

McCoy, C.E. and Floryancic B.L. (1994). Characteristics and

measurements of capacitor switching at medium voltage

distribution level. IEEE Transaction on Industry

Applications, volume 30 (number 6), 1480-1489.

Saided, M.M. (2004). Capacitor switching transients: analysis

and proposed technique for identifying capacitor size and

location. IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, volume

19 (number 2), 759-765.

Toki, A., Madarevi V. And Uglei I. (2005). Numerical

calculations of three-phase transformer transients. IEEE

Transaction on Power Delivery, volume 20 (number 4),

2493-2500.

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