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Werner Raab

Professor, Dr. phil., retired member of the

Mathematical Institute of the University of Bonn, Germany

Residence: Anton-Klieber-Str. 14, 6410 Telfs, Austria

E-mail: werner.raab@hotmail.com

Abstract

It is shown that the Mellin transform

v(s) =

=

sin(s)(1/2 s)(3/2 s)

ts1 w(t) dt

of the function

2

()

w(t) =

arctan

t =1

t

2

()

=

arctan

t =1

strip 0 < s < 1 , since w(t) = O(1) when t 0 and w(t) = O(1/t)

when t .

Mathematics Subject Classification: 11M26

2

()

w(t) =

arctan

t =1

(1)

for positive values of the real variable t. The Mobius numbers () may be

dened by the Dirichlet series

()

1

=

(s) =1 s

(2)

for the reciprocal of the Riemann zeta-function (s). This series converges

absolutely in the complex half-plane s > 1 and vanishes at s = 1:

()

=1

The identity

= 0.

(3)

arctan

= arctan

2

t

and the vanishing of the series (3) lead us to the expression

()

2

w(t) =

arctan

t =1

(4)

for the function (1). Now we can conclude by Abels test of convergence that

both the series (1) and (4) converge for each positive real

number t, since

the series (3) converges and since the numbers arctan t/ as well as the

n

()

1

(5)

=1

for the partial sums of the series (3), that is to say from their boundedness,

that the series (1)

converges for each positive real number t, since the positive

numbers arctan t/ decrease monotonically to the limit zero.

Dirichlets test is not t for a proof of the convergence of the series (4).

For more information about the Mobius function we refer to Landaus

die Summen, welche

(n) enthalten. There a proof of the estimate (5) is given.

2

Mellin transformations

t/

t

dx

s3/2

s3/2

t

arctan

dt =

t

dt

1 + x2

0

0

0

dx

ts1

1 s1 1

1 1

t

=

dt

=

dt dx

0

0 0 1 + x2 t/

0 1 + x2 t/

ts1

dt =

1+t

sin(s)(1 2s) 1/2s

0

0

for each positive real number . Therefore the partial sums

=

s1/2

2s

dx

n

2

()

wn (t) =

arctan

t =1

vn (s) =

s1

wn (t) dt = 2

()

=1

s3/2

arctan

t

dt

()

sin(s)(1/2 s) =1 3/2s

of the function

v(s) =

.

sin(s)(1/2 s)(3/2 s)

(6)

/t

dx

s3/2

s3/2

t

arctan

dt =

t

dt

t

1 + x2

0

0

0

=

s2

1

dx

ts2

dt

=

dt dx

1 + x2 /t

1 + x2 /t

0

0

ts1

dt =

.

1+t

sin(s)(2s 1) 1/2s

0

0

These results can also easily be derived from formulas that are contained

in the chapter XI, Integral transforms, of the reference work Formulas and

Theorems [3] as examples for the Mellin transformations of the functions

arctan x and arccot x.

= s1/2

x2s2 dx

Dominated convergence

v(s) =

ts1 w(t) dt

(7)

of the function (1) at least within the complex strip 0 < = s < 1/2 , we

can also use the estimate (5) and Abels inequality

()

n ()

t

max

arctan

arctan t arctan t

1n =1

=1

for each positive integer n and for each positive real number t. Hence we

obtain the estimate

s1

|t wn (t)| dt 2

t3/2 arctan t dt =

.

sin()(1/2 )

0

0

This shows that the proposition (7) is true according to Lebesgues principle

of dominated convergence.

The series

arctan

t

(1)k

=

k=0 1 + 2k

( )1/2+k

()

2

(1)k

w(t) =

t =1 k=0 1 + 2k

(t)k

()

k=0

1/2 + k

=1

3/2+k

( )1/2+k

(t)k

.

k=0 (1/2 + k)(3/2 + k)

u(s) =

in order to write

w(t) =

1

(s 1)(s)

u(3/2 + k)(t)k .

(8)

(9)

k=0

This power series has the initial value w(0) = u(3/2). Thus we have shown

that w(t) = O(1) when t 0. This concludes the trivial part of our proof.

4

Mellin inversion

We remark at this place that the series (9) may be considered as a sum of

residues that emerges from the Mellin inversion formula

1 1/2+i s

t v(s) ds

2i 1/2i

w(t) =

(10)

1

1

tiy

=

dy .

t 0 cosh(y)y (1 + iy)

We dispense with a justication of this formula.

A monotony

[t]

ts+1

dt =

(

=1

+1

dt

ts+1

1

1

1

=

s

s =1

( + 1)s

( 1)

1

1+

=

s

s

=2

1

(s)

1

=

s

s =1

s

and

+1

[t]2

1

1

1

dt

2

dt =

=

2

s+2

s+2

s+1

t

t

s + 1 =1

( + 1)s+1

=1

(

1

2 ( 1)2

=

1+

s+1

s+1

=2

1

2 1

2(s) (s + 1)

=

=

s+1

s + 1 =1

s+1

Combining these equations we obtain the relation

(s + 1)s (s)(s 1) = s(s + 1)

t [t]

[t] dt

ts+2

(11)

between (s) and (s + 1), which is now valid in the half-plane s > 0 and

shows that the dierence

u(s) = u(s) u(s + 1) = u(s)u(s + 1)((s + 1)s (s)(s 1))

takes on only positive values for positive real values of s, since u(s) is a

positve function of the positive real variable s.

5

We need an estimate of the function w(t) when the positive real variable t

tends to inniity.

To this purpose we consider the generalization

f (s, t) =

u(s + k)(t)k

(12)

k=0

of the function w(t) = f (3/2, t) for positive values of the real variable s. Now

we replace each power tk in the series (12) by the series

(

1

m

tk =

1 + t m=k k

)(

t

1+t

)m

(13)

m=k

m m zk

z =

k!

k

d

dz

)k

1

1

=

1z

1z

z

1z

)k

with

z

t

or t =

.

1+t

1z

We suppose that |t| < 1 and t > 1/2, which means that |t| < |1 + t|.

Hence we obtain the absolutely convergent double series

z=

1

m

f (s, t) =

u(s + k)(1)k

1 + t k=0

k

m=k

1

t

=

1 + t m=0 1 + t

)(

t

1+t

)m

( )

)m

m

m

k=0

u(s + k)(1)k .

m

u(s) =

k=0

m

u(s + k)(1)k

k

(14)

(

f (s, t) =

1

t

m u(s)

1 + t m=0

1+t

)m

(15)

A boarderline case

power series (12) from the unit disk |t| < 1 into the half-plane t > 1/2.

Now we shall prove the very important fact that the series (15) converges

still at the point t = 1/2.

We consider the entire function

g(s, t) =

u(s + k)

k!

k=0

tk

(16)

of the variable t for any xed positive real number s. The Cauchy product

u(s + k)

g(s, t)et =

k!

k=0

m!

m=0

(t)m

m!

m=0

m

m u(s)

u(s + k)(1)k =

(t)m

m!

k

m=0

(t)m

tk

k=0

u(s + k)

k!

k=0

tk e2t dt =

0

T

=

0

T

u(s + k) k 2t

t e dt =

g(s, t)e2t dt

k!

0

k=0

m u(s)

m!

m=0

(t)m et dt =

m u(s)

m!

m=0

(t)m et dt ,

k 2t

t e

T /2

dt < e

k 3t/2

t e

T /2

dt = e

( )k+1

2

3

tk et dt

3T /2

u(s + k)

k=0

k!

tk e2t dt < eT /2

( )k+1

u(s + k)

k=0

2

3

u(s + k)

k=0

2k+1

u(s + k)

k=0

k!

tk e2t dt =

m=0

m u(s)(1)m .

(17)

10

lim n u(s) = 0

(18)

m+1 u(s) = m u(s) m u(s + 1)

(19)

n1

m u(s + 1) =

m=0

n1

m=0

n

m=0

u(1/2) =

u(3/2) =

m=0

(

m

u(3/2) lim

m=0

t

= lim

u(3/2)

t

1+t

m=0

t

1+t

)m+1

)m+1

t

Thus we have derived the estimate

w(t) = O(1/t) when t ,

(20)

which completes our proof of the Riemann hypothesis, because it shows that

the function (6), the Mellin transform (7) of w(t), is holomorphic within the

complex strip 0 < s < 1 , as Riemann had conjectured in 1859.

For more details concerning series transformations we refer to Hardys

great book Divergent Series [1], especially to the sections on Eulers and

Borels methods of summation.

Although we took into account that there are always billions of rational

reasons not to look at a problem which has been unsuccessfully looked at by

generations of mathematicians (Alain Connes), we ventured on the dicult

task.

A.M.D.G.

8

References

[1] G. H. Hardy, Divergent Series. Oxford University Press, 1949.

[2] E. Landau, Handbuch der Lehre von der Verteilung der Primzahlen.

Third (corrected) edition, two volumes in one, Chelsea Publishing, New

York, 1974. (First edition, in two volumes, by Teubner, Leipzig, 1909.)

[3] W. Magnus, F. Oberhettinger, R. P. Soni, Formulas and Theorems for

the Special Functions of Mathematical Physics. Third enlarged edition,

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1966.

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