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PROCEEDINGS OF THE

XIV th INTERNATIONAL NUMISMATIC CONGRESS


GLASGOW 2009
Edited by
Nicholas Holmes

GLASGOW 2011

International Numismatic Council

British Academy

All rights reserved by


The International Numismatic Council
ISBN 978-1-907427-17-6
Distributed by Spink & Son Ltd, 69 Southampton Row, London WC1B 4ET
Printed and bound in Malta by Gutenberg Press Ltd.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE
XIV th INTERNATIONAL NUMISMATIC CONGRESS
GLASGOW 2009
I

CONTENTS
Preface
Editors note

18
19

Inaugural lecture
A foreigners view of the coinage of Scotland, by Nicholas MAYHEW

23

Antiquity: Greek
I Delfini (distribuzione, associazioni, valenza simbolica), by Pasquale APOLITO

35

Lessons from a (bronze) die study, by Donald T. ARIEL

42

Le monete incuse a leggenda Pal-Mol: una verifica della documentazione


disponibile, by Marta BARBATO

48

Up-to-date survey of the silver coinage of the Nabatean king Aretas IV, by Rachel
BARKAY

52

Remarks on monetary circulation in the chora of Olbia Pontica the case of


Koshary, by Jarosaw BODZEK

58

The colts of Corinth revisited: a note on Corinthian drachms from Ravels


Period V, by Lee L. BRICE

67

Not only art! The period of the signing masters and historical iconography,
by Maria CACCAMO CALTABIANO

73

Les monnaies prromaines de BBT-BAB(B)A de Mauretanie, by Laurent


CALLEGARIN & Abdelaziz EL KHAYARI

81

Mode iconografiche e determinazioni delle cronologie nelloccidente ellenistico,


by Benedetto CARROCCIO

89

La phase postarchaque du monnayage de Massalia, by Jean-Albert


CHEVILLON

97

A new thesis for Siglos and Dareikos, by Nicolas A. CORF

105

Heroic cults in northern Sicily between numismatics and archaeology, by


Antonio CRIS

114

La politica estera tolemaica e larea del Mar Nero: liconografia numismatica


come fonte storica, by Angela DARRIGO

123

CONTENTS

New light on the Larnaca hoard IGCH 1272, by Anne DESTROOPERGEORGIADES

131

The coinage of the Scythian kings in the West Pontic area: iconography, by
Dimitar DRAGANOV

140

The royal archer and Apollo in the East: Greco-Persian iconography in the
Seleukid Empire, by Kyle ERICKSON & Nicholas L. WRIGHT

163

. Retour sur les critres qui


dfinissent habituellement les imitations Athniennes, by Chr. FLAMENT

170

On the gold coinage of ancient Chersonese (46-133 AD), by N.A. FROLOVA

178

Propaganda on coins of Ptolemaic queens, by Agnieszka FULISKA

184

Osservazioni sui rinvenimenti di monete dagli scavi archeologici dellantica


Caulonia, by Giorgia GARGANO

189

La circulation montaire Argos daprs les monnaies de fouille de lFA


(cole franaise dAthnes), by Catherine GRANDJEAN

199

Silver denominations and standards of the Bosporan cities, by Jean


HOURMOUZIADIS

203

Seleucid eagles from Tyre and Sidon: preliminary results of a die-study, by


Panagiotis P. IOSSIF

213

Archaic Greek coins east of the Tigris: evidence for circulation?, by J. KAGAN

230

Parion history from coins, by Vedat KELE

237

Regional mythology: the meanings of satyrs on Greek coins, by Ann-Marie


KNOBLAUCH

246

The chronology of the Hellenistic coins of Thessaloniki, Pella and Amphipolis,


by Theodoros KOUREMPANAS

251

The coinage of Chios during the Hellenistic and early Roman periods, by
Constantine LAGOS

259

vidence numismatique de lexistence dAntioche en Troade, by Dincer Savas


LENGER

265

CONTENTS

Hallazgo de un conjunto monetal de Gadir en la necrpolis Feno-Pnica de


los cuarteles de Varela, Cdiz, Espaa, by Urbano LPEZ RUIZ & Ana Mara
RUIZ TINOCO

269

Gold and silver weight standards in fourth-century Cyprus: a resume, by


Evangeline MARKOU

280

Gttliche Herrscherin herrschende Gttin? Frauenbildnisse auf hellenistischen


Mnzen, by Katharina MARTIN

285

Melkart-Herakles y sus distintas advocaciones en la Btica costera, by Elena


MORENO PULIDO

293

Some remarks concerning the gold coins with the legend , by Lucian
MUNTEANU

304

Une monnaie grecque indite: un triobole dArgos en Argolide, by Eleni


PAPAEFTHYMIOU

310

The coinage of the Paeonian kings Leon and Dropion, by Eftimija PAVLOVSKA

319

Le trsor des monnaies perses dor trouv Argamum / Orgam (Jurilovca, dp.
de Tulcea, Roumanie), by E. PETAC, G. TALMACHI & V. IONI

331

The imitations of late Thasian tetradrachms: chronology, classification and


dating, by Ilya S. PROKOPOV

337

Moneta e discorso politico: emissioni monetarie in Cirenaica tra il 321 e il 258


a.C., by Daniela Bessa PUCCINI

350

Tesoros sertorianos en Espaa: problemas y nuevas perspectivas, by Isabel


RODRGUEZ CASANOVA

357

Ninfa eponima grande dea? Caratteri e funzioni delle personificazioni cittadine,


by Grazia SALAMONE

365

The coin finds from Hellenistic and Roman Berytas (fourth century BC third
century AD, by Ziad SAWAYA

376

Monetazione incusa magnogreca: destinazione e funzioni, by Rosa SCAVINO

382

Uso della moneta presso gli indigeni della Sicilia centro-meridionale, by Lavinia
SOLE

393

La moneta di Sibari: struttura e metrologia, by Emanuela SPAGNOLI

405

CONTENTS

Le stephanophoroi prima delle stephanophoroi, by Marianna SPINELLI

417

Weight adjustment al marco in antiquity, and the Athenian decadrachm, by Clive


STANNARD

427

The Magnesian hoard: a preliminary report, by Ouz TEKIN

436

Zur Datierung und Deutung der Beizeichen auf Stateren von Grtyn, by
Burkhard TRAEGER

441

Aspetti della circolazione monetaria in area basso adriatica, by Adriana


TRAVAGLINI & Valeria Giulia CAMILLERI

447

La polisemia di Apollo attraverso il documento monetale, by Maria Daniela


TRIFIR

461

Thraco-Macedonian coins: the evidence from the hoards, by Alexandros R.A.


TZAMALIS

473

The pattern of findspots of coins of Damastion: a clue to its location, by


Dubravka UJES MORGAN

487

The civic bronze coins of the Eleans: some preliminary remarks, by Franck
WOJAN

497

The hoard of Cyzicenes from the settlement of Patraeus (Taman peninsula), by


E.V. ZAKHAROV

500

Antiquity: Roman
The coinage of Diva Faustina I, by Martin BECKMANN

509

Coin finds from the Dutch province of North-Holland (Noord-Holland).


Chronological and geographical distribution and function of Roman coins from
the Dutch part of Barbaricum, by Paul BELIN

514

The key to the Varus defeat: the Roman coin finds from Kalkriese, by Frank
BERGER

527

Monetary circulation in the Bosporan Kingdom in the Roman period c. first fourth century AD, by Line BJERG

533

The Roman coin hoards of the second century AD found on the territory of
present-day Serbia: the reasons for their burial, by Bojana BORI-BREKOVI

538

CONTENTS

Die Mnzprgung des Thessalischen Bundes von Marcus Aurelius bis Gallienus
(161-268 n. Chr.), by Friedrich BURRER

545

The denarius in the first century, by K. BUTCHER & M. PONTING

557

Coinage and coin circulation in Nicopolis of Epirus: a preliminary report, by


Dario CALOMINO

569

La piazza porticata di Egnazia: la documentazione numismatica, by Raffaella


CASSANO, Adriana TRAVAGLINI & Alessandro CRISPINO

576

Dallo scavo al museo: un ripostiglio monetale di et antonina del IV municipio


di Roma (Italia), by Francesca CECI

580

I rinvenimenti dal Tevere: la monetazione della Diva Faustina, by Alessia


CHIAPPINI

592

Analytical evidence for the organization of the Alexandrian mint during the
Tetrarchy (III-IV centuries AD), by J.M.COMPANA, L. LEN-REINA, F.J.
FORTES, L.M. CABALN, J.J. LASERNA, & M.A.G. ARANDA

595

LOriente Ligoriano: fonti, luoghi, mirabilia, by Arianna DOTTONE

605

Le emissioni isiache: quale rapporto con il navigium Isidis?, by Sabrina DE


PACE

613

A centre of aes rude production in southern Etruria : La Castellina


(Civitavecchia, Roma), by Almudena DOMNGUEZ-ARRANZ & Jean GRANAYMERICH

621

Perseus and Andromeda in Alexandria: explaining the popularity of the myth in


the culture of the Roman Empire, by Melissa Barden DOWLING

629

Les fractions du nummus frappes Rome et Ostie sous le rgne de Maxence


(306-312 ap. J.C.), by V. DROST

635

Monuments on the move: architectural coin types and audience targeting in the
Flavian and Trajanic periods, by Nathan T. ELKINS

645

The restoration of memory: Minucius and his monument by Jane DeRose


EVANS

657

La circulation montaire Lyon de la fondation de la colonie la mort de


Septime Svre (43 av. 211 apr. J.C.): premiers rsultats, by Jonas FLUCK

662

CONTENTS

Le monnayage en orichalque romain: apport des exprimentations aux


tudes numismatiques, by Arwen GAFFIERO, Arnaud SUSPNE, Florian
TREYGEOL & Bernard GRATUZE

668

New coins of pre- and denarial system minted outside Italy, by Paz GARCABELLIDO

676

Les bronzes dOctave la proue et la tte de blier (RPC 533) attribus


Toulouse-Tolosa: nouvelles dcouvertes, by Vincent GENEVIVE

686

Crustumerium, Cisterna Grande (Rome, Italy): textile traces from a Roman


coins hoard, by Maria Rita GIULIANI, Ida Anna RAPINESI, Francesco DI
GENNARO, Daniela FERRO, Heli ARIMA, Ulla RAJANA & Francesca CECI

696

Deux mdaillons dAntonin le Pieux du territoire de Pautalia (Thrace), by


Valentina GRIGOROVA-GENCHEVA

709

Mars and Venus on Roman imperial coinage in the time of Marcus Aurelius:
iconological considerations with special reference to the emperors
correspondence with Marcus Cornelius Fronto, by Jrgen HAMER

715

The silver coins of Aegeae in the light of Hadrians eastern silver coinages, by F.
HAYMANN

720

The coin-images of the later soldier-emperors and the creation of a Roman


empire of late antiquity, by Ragnar HEDLUND

726

Coinage and currency in ancient Pompeii, by Richard HOBBS

732

Imitations in gold, by Helle W. HORSNS

742

Un geste de Caracalla sur une monnaie frappe Pergame, by Antony HOSTEIN

749

New data on monetary circulation in northern Illyricum in the fifth century, by


Vujadin IVANIEVI & Sonja STAMENKOVI

757

Die augusteischen Mnzmeisterprgungen: IIIviri monetales im Spannungsfeld


zwischen Republik und Kaiserzeit, by Alexa KTER

765

Imperial representation during the reign of Valentinian III, by Aldar KUUN

772

The Nome coins: some remarks on the state of research, by Katarzyna LACH

780

Le monnayage de Brutus et Cassius aprs la mort de Csar, by Raphalle


LAIGNOUX

785

CONTENTS

Lultima emissione di Cesare Ottaviano: alcune considerazioni sulle recenti


proposte cronologiche, by Fabiana LANNA

794

Claudiuss issue of silver drachmas in Alexandria: Serapis Anastole, by Barbara


LICHOCKA

800

La chronologie des missions montaires de Claude II: ateliers de Milan et


Siscia, by Jrme MAIRAT

809

La circulation montaire Strasbourg (France) et sur le Rhin suprieur au


premier sicle aprs J.-C., by Stphane MARTIN

816

The double solidus of Magnentius, by Alenka MIKEC

822

A hoard of bronze coins of the third century BC found at Pratica di Mare


(Rome), by Maria Cristina MOLINARI

828

Un conjunto de plomos monetiformes de procendencia hispana de la coleccin


antigua del Museo Arqueolgico Nacional (Madrid), by Bartolom MORA
SERRANO

839

Monete e ritualit funeraria in epoca romana imperiale: il sepolcreto dei Fadieni


(Ferrara Italia), by Anna Lina MORELLI

846

Il database Monete al femminile, by Anna Lina MORELLI & Erica FILIPPINI

856

La trouvaille montaire de Bex-Sous-Vent (VD, Suisse): une nouvelle analyse,


by Yves MUHLEMANN

864

Die Sammlung von Lokalmythen griechischer Stdte des Ostens: ein Projekt der
Kommission fr alte Geschichte und Epigraphik, by Johannes NOLL

872

Plomos monetiformes con leyenda ibrica Baitolo, hallados en la ciudad romana


de Baetulo (Hispania Tarraconensis), by Pepita PADRS MART, Daniel
VZQUEZ & Francesc ANTEQUERA

878

I denari serrati della repubblica romana: alcune considerazioni, by Andrea


PANCOTTI & Patrizia CALABRIA

888

Monetary circulation in late antique Rome: a fifth-century context coming from


the N.E. slope of the Palatine Hill. A preliminary report, by Giacomo PARDINI

893

Securitas e suoi attributi: lo sviluppo di una iconografia, by Rossella PERA

901

Could the unofficial mint called Atelier II be identified with the officinae of
Chteaubleau (France)?, by Fabien PILON

906

CONTENTS

Coin finds from Elaiussa Sebaste (Cilicia Tracheia), by Annalisa POLOSA

911

El poblamiento romano en el rea del Mar Menor (Ager Carthaginensis): una


aproximacin a partir de los recientes hallazgos numismticos, by Alfredo
PORRA MARTNEZ & Elvira NAVARRO SANTA-CRUZ

916

The presence of local deities on Roman Palestinian coins: reflections on


cultural and religious interaction between Romans and local elites, by Vagner
Carvalheiro PORTO

926

The male couple: iconography and semantics, by Mariangela PUGLISI

933

Countermarks on the Republican and Augustan brass coins in the south-eastern


Alps, by Andrej RANT

941

A stone thesaurus with a votive coin deposit found in the sanctuary of Campo
della Fiera, Orvieto (Volsinii), by Samuele RANUCCI

954

Limage du pouvoir impriale de Trajan et son volution idologique: tude des


frappes montaires aux types dHercule, Jupiter et Soleil, by Laurent RICCARDI

964

The inflow of Roman coins to the east-of-the-Vistula Mazovia (Mazowsze) and


Podlachia (Podlasie), by Andrzej ROMANOWSKI

973

Numismatics and archaeology in Rome: the finds from the Basilica Hilariana,
by Alessia ROVELLI

983

Communicating a consecratio: the deification coinage of Faustina I, by Clare


ROWAN

991

An alleged hoard of third-century Alexandrian tetradrachms, by Adriano SAVIO


& Alessandro CAVAGNA

999

Some notes on religious embodiments in the coinage of Roman Syria and


Mesopotamia, by Philipp SCHWINGHAMMER

1004

Roman provincial coins in the money circulation of the south-eastern Alpine


area and western Pannonia, by Andrej EMROV

1013

Recenti rinvenimenti dal Tevere (1): introduzione, by Patrizia SERAFIN

1019

Recenti rinvenimenti dal Tevere (2): la moneta di Vespasiano tra tradizione ed


innovazione, by Alessandra SERRA

1020

A hoard of denarii and early Roman Messene, by Kleanthis SIDIROPOULOS

1025

CONTENTS

La corona radiata sui ritratti dei bronzi imperiali alessandrini, by Giovanni


Maria STAFFIERI

1037

The iconography of two groups of struck lead from Central Italy and Baetica in
the second and first centuries BC, by Clive STANNARD

1045

Monete della zecca di Frentrum, Larinum e Pallanum, by Napoleone STELLUTI

1056

Personalized victory on coins: the Year of the Four Emperors Greek imperial
issues, by Yannis STOYAS

1067

Les monnaies dor dAuguste: lapport des analyses lmentaires et le problme


de latelier de Nmes, by Arnaud SUSPNE, Maryse BLET-LEMARQUAND &
Michel AMANDRY

1073

The popularity of the enthroned type of Asclepius on Peloponnesian coins of


imperial times, by Christina TSAGKALIA

1082

Gold and silver first tetrarchic issues from the mint of Alexandria, by D. Scott
VANHORN

1092

Note sulla circolazione monetaria in Etruria meridionale nel III secolo a.C., by
Daniela WILLIAMS

1103

Roman coins from the western part of West Balt territory, by Anna ZAPOLSKA

1115

Antiquity: Celtic
La moneda ibrica del nordeste de la Hispania Citerior: consideraciones sobre
su cronologa y funcin, by Marta CAMPO

1135

Les bronzes la gueule de loup du Berry: essai de typochronologie, by Philippe


CHARNOTET

1142

Les imitations de lobole de Marseille de LTD1/LTD2A (IIe s. / Ier s. av. J.C.)


entre les massifs des Alpes et du Jura, by Anne GEISER

1148

Le monnayage la lgende TOGIRIX: une nouvelle approche, by Anne GEISER


& Julia GENECHESI

1155

Trading with silver bullion during the third century BC: the hoard of Armua de
Tajua, by Manuel GOZALBES, Gonzalo CORES & Pere Pau RIPOLLS

1165

Donnes exprimentales sur la fabrication de quinaires gaulois fourrs, by


Katherine GRUEL, Dominique LACOSTE, Carole FRARESSO, Michel
PERNOT & Franois ALLIER

1173

10

CONTENTS

Pre-Roman coins from Sotin, by Mato ILKI

1182

Les monnaies gauloises trouves Paris, by Stphane MARTIN

1191

Die keltischen Mnzen vom Oberleiserberg (Niedersterreich), by Jii MILITK

1198

New coin finds from the two late Iron Age settlements of Altenburg (Germany)
and Rheinau (Switzerland) a military coin series on the German-Swiss border?,
by Michael NICK

1207

Le dpt montaire gaulois de Laniscat (Ctes-dArmor): 547 monnaies de bas


titre. tude prliminaire, by Sylvia NIETO-PELLETIER, Bernard GRATUZE &
Grard AUBIN

1218

Antiquity: general
La moneda en el mundo funerario-ritual de Gadir-Gades, by A. ARVALO
GONZLEZ

1231

Neues Licht auf eine alte Frage? Die Verwandschaft von Mnzen und Gemmen,
by Angela BERTHOLD

1240

Tipi del cane e del lupo sulle monete del Mediterraneo antico, by Alessandra
BOTTARI

1247

Not all these things are easy to read, much less to understand: new approaches to
reading images on ancient coins, by Geraldine CHIMIRRI-RUSSELL

1254

The collection of ancient coins in the Ossoliski National Institute in Lvov


(1828-1944), by Adam DEGLER

1261

Preliminary notes on Phoenician and Punic coins kept in the Pushkin Museum,
by S. KOVALENKO & L.I. MANFREDI

1266

Greek coins from the National Historical Museum of Rio de Janeiro: SNG
project, by Marici Martins MAGALHES

1278

La catalogazione delle emissioni di Commodo nel Codice Ligoriano, by Rosa


Maria NICOLAI

1292

The sacred life of coins: cult fees, sacred law and numismatic evidence, by
Isabelle A. PAFFORD

1303

Anton Prokesch-Osten and the Greek coins of the coin collection at the
Universalmuseum Joanneum in Graz, Austria, by Karl PEITLER

1310

CONTENTS

11

Monete ed anelli: cronologia, tipologie, fruitori, by Claudia PERASSI

1323

Il volume 21 delle Antichit Romane di Pirro Ligorio Libri delle Medaglie da


Cesare a Marco Aurelio Commodo, by Patrizia SERAFIN

1334

Greek and Roman coins in the collection of the orum Museum, by D. zlem
YALCIN

1344

Mediaeval and modern western (mediaeval)


The exchanges in the city of London, 1344-1358, by Martin ALLEN

1355

Fribourg en Nuithonie: facis montaire dune petite ville au centre de lEurope,


by Anne-Francine AUBERSON

1360

Die Pegauer Brakteatenprgung Abt Siegfrieds von Rekkin (1185-1223):


Kriterien zu deren chronologischer Einordnung, by Jan-Erik BECKER

1372

Die recutting in the eleventh-century Polish coinage, by Mateusz BOGUCKI

1382

Le retour lor au treizime sicle: le cas de Montpellier (...1244-1246...), by


Marc BOMPAIRE & Pierre-Joan BERNARD

1392

Le monete a leggenda AN e le emissioni arabo-bizantine. I dati dello scavo di


Antinoupolis / El Sheikh Abada, by Daniele CASTRIZIO

1401

Scavi di Privernum e Fossanova (Latina, Italia): monete tardoantiche,


medioevale e moderne, by Francesca CECI & Margherita CANCELLIERI

1408

La aportacin de los hallazgos monetarios a la crisis del siglo XIV en Catalua,


by Maria CLUA I MERCADAL

1411

Norwegian bracteates during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, by Linn EIKJE

1418

Donative pennies in Viking-age Scandinavia?, by Frdric ELFVER

1426

Carolingian capitularies as a source for the monetary history of the Frankish


empire, by Hubert EMMERIG

1431

Ulf Candidatus, by G. EMSY

1436

Mnzen des Moskauer Grossfrstentums. Das Geld von Dmitrij Ivanowitsch


Donskoj (1359-1389) (ber die Verffentlichung der ersten Ausgabe des Korpus
der russischen Mnzen des 14-15. Jhs.), by P. GAIDUKOV & I. GRISHIN

1441

12

CONTENTS

Brakteatenprgungen in Mhren in der zweiten Hlfte des dreizehnten


Jahrhunderts, by Dagmar GROSSMANNOV

1452

Monetisation in medieval Scandinavia, by Svein H. GULLBEKK

1458

A mancus apparently marked on behalf of King Offa: genuine or fake?, by


Wolfgang HAHN

1464

Among farmers and city people: coin use in early medieval Denmark, c. 10001250, by Gitte Tarnow INGVARDSON

1470

Was pseudo-Byzantine coinage primarily of municipal origin?, by Charlie


KARUKSTIS

1477

Interpreting single finds in medieval England the secondary lives of coins, by


Richard KELLEHER

1492

Byzantine coins from the area of Belarus, by Krystyna LAVYSH & Marcin
WOOSZYN

1500

Die frheste Darstellung des Richters auf einer mittelalterlicher Mnze?, by Ivar
LEIMUS

1509

Coinage and money in the years of insecurity: the case of late Byzantine
Chalkidiki (thirteenth - fourteenth century), by Vangelis MALADAKIS

1517

Nota sulla circolazione monetaria tardoantica nel Lazio meridionale: i reperti di


S. Ilario ad bivium, by Flavia MARANI

1535

The money of the First Crusade: the evidence of a new parcel and its
implications, by Michael MATZKE

1542

berlegungen zum Habsburger Urbar als Quelle fr Whrungsgeschichte, by


Samuel NUSSBAUM

1552

Schilling Kennisbergisch slages of Grand Master Louis of Ehrlichshausen, by


Borys PASZKIEWICZ

1557

Un diner de Jaime I el conquistador en el Mar Menor: evidencias de presencia


aragonesa en el Campo de Cartagena durante la Baja Edad Media, by Alfredo
PORRA MARTNEZ & Alfonso ROBLES FERNNDEZ

1564

Latelier de faux-monnayeur de Rovray (VD, Suisse), by Carine RAEMY


TOURNELLE

1570

CONTENTS

13

La ubicacin de las casas de moneda en le Europa medieval. El caso del reino de


Len, by Antonio ROMA VALDS

1580

New perspectives on Norwegian Viking-age hoards c. 1000: the Bore hoard


revisited, by Elina SCREEN

1591

The discovery of a hoard of coins dated to the fifth and sixth centuries in
Klapavice in the hinterland of ancient Salona, by Tomislav EPAROVI

1597

A model for the analysis of coins lost in Norwegian churches, by Christian J.


SIMENSEN

1605

A clippe from Femern, by Jrgen SMOD

1614

The convergence of coinages in the late medieval Low Countries, by Peter


SPUFFORD

1620

A perplexing hoard of Lusignan coins from Polis, Cyprus, by Alan M. STAHL,


Gerald POIRIER & Nan YAO

1625

OTTO / ODDO and ADELHEIDA / ATHALHET - onomatological aspects


of German coin types of the tenth and eleventh centuries, by Sebastian
STEINBACH

1633

Bulles de plomb et les monnaies en Pologne au XIIe sicle, by Stanislaw


SUCHODOLSKI

1640

Palaeologian coin findings of Kusadasi, Kadikalesi/Anaia and their reflections.


by Ceren NAL

1649

The hoard of Tetn (Czech Republic) in the light of currency conditions in


thirteenth-century Bohemia, by Roman ZAORAL & Jii MILITK

1664

The circulation of foreign coins in Poland in the fifteenth century, by Michal


ZAWADZKI

1671

Mediaeval and modern Western (modern)


Die neuzeitliche Mnzsttte im Schloss Haldenstein bei Chur Gr, Schweiz, by
Rahel C. ACKERMANN

1679

The money box system for savings in Amsterdam, 1907-1935, by G.N. BORST

1687

Four ducats coins of Franz Joseph I (1848-1916) of Austria: their use in


jewellery and some hitherto unpublished imitations, by Aleksandar N. BRZIC

1693

14

CONTENTS

A king as Hercules in the modern Polish coinage, by Witold GARBAZCEWSKI

1704

The monetary areas in Piedmont during the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries: a


starting point for new investigations, by Luca GIANAZZA

1713

Coin hoards in the United States, by John M. KLEEBERG

1719

The transfer of minting techniques to Denmark in the nineteenth century, by


Michael MRCHER

1725

Patrimonio Numismtico Iberoamericano: un proyecto del Museo Arqueolgico


Nacional, by Carmen MARCOS ALONSO & Paloma OTERO MORN

1734

Moneda local durante la guerra civil espaola: billete emitido por el


ayuntamiento de San Pedro del Pinatar, Murcia, by Federico MARTNEZ
PASTOR & Alfredo PORRA MARTNEZ

1744

Coins and monetary circulation in the Legnica-Brzeg duchy: rudimentary


problems, by Robert PIEKOWSKI

1748

Representaciones del caf en el acervo de numismtica del Museu Paulista USP, by Angela Maria Gianeze RIBEIRO

1752

Freiburg im echtland und die Mnzreformen der franzsischen Knige (16891726), by Nicole SCHACHER

1758

La aparicin de la marca de valor en la moneda valenciana, 1618 o 1640? Una


nueva hiptesis de trabajo, by Juan Antonio SENDRA IBEZ

1765

Devotion and coin-relics in early modern Italy, by Lucia TRAVAINI

1774

The political context of the origin and the exportation of thaler-coins from
Jchymov (Joachimsthal) in the first half of the sixteenth century, by Petr
VOREL

1778

The late sixteenth-century Russian forged kopecks, which were ascribed to the
English Muscovy Company, by Serguei ZVEREV

1783

Oriental and African coinages


The meaning of the character bao in the legends of Chinese cash coins, by
Vladimir A. BELYAEV & Sergey V. SIDOROVICH

1789

Three unpublished Indo-Sasanian coin hoards, Government Museum, Mathura,


by Pratipal BHATIA

1796

CONTENTS

15

Oriental coins in the Capitoline Museums (Rome): further researches on


Stanzani Collection history, by Arianna DOTTONE

1807

The king, the princes and the Raj, by Sanjay GARG

1813

The first evidence of a mint at Miknsa: two unpublished Almoravid coins, a


dirham and a dinar, of the year 494H/1100, by Tawfiq IBRAHIM

1821

Lge dor de la numismatique en Chine: lexemple du Catalogue des Monnaies


Anciennes de Li Zuoxian, by Lyce JANKOWSKI

1826

Numismatic research in Japan today: coins, paper monies and patterns of usage.
Paper money in early modern Japan: economic and folkloristic aspects, by
Keiichiro KATO

1832

The gold reform of Ghazan Khan, by Judith KOLBAS

1841

A study of medieval Chinese coins from Karur and Madurai in Tamil Nadu, by
KRISHNAMURTHY RAMASUBBAIYER

1847

Latest contributions to the numismatic history of Central Asia (late eighteenth


nineteenth century), by Vladimir NASTICH

1852

Silver fragments of unique Byid and amdnid coins and their role in the Kel
hoard (Czech Republic), by Vlastimil NOVK

1862

Numismatic evidence for the location of Saray, the capital of the Golden Horde,
by A.V. PACHKALOV

1869

Le regard des voyageurs sur les monnaies africaines du XVIe au XIXe sicles, by
Josette RIVALLAIN

1874

Les imitations des dirhems carrs almohades: apport des analyses lmentaires,
by A. TEBOULBI, M. BOMPAIRE & M. BLET-LEMARQUAND

1884

propos du monnayage de Kin Phc (1883-1884), by Franois THIERRY

1890

Glass jetons from Sicily: new find evidence from the excavations at Monte Iato,
by Christian WEISS

1897

Medals
Joseph Kowarzik (1860-1911): ein Medailleur der Jahrhundertwende, by
Kathleen ADLER

1907

16

CONTENTS

Numismatic memorials of breeding trotting horses (based on the collection of


the numismatic department of the Hermitage), by L.I. DOBROVOLSKAYA

1920

De retrato a arquetipo: anotaciones sobre la difusin de la efigie de Juan VIII


Palelogo en la peninsula Ibrica, by Albert ESTRADA-RIUS

1931

Titon du Tillet e le medaglie del Parnasse Franois, by Paola GIOVETTI

1937

Bedrohung und Schutz der Erde: Positionen zur Umweltproblematik in der


deutschen Medaillenkunst der Gegenwart, by Rainer GRUND

1945

The rediscovery of the oldest private medal collection of the Netherlands, by Jan
PELSDONK

1959

Twentieth-century British campaign medals: a continuation of the nineteenth


century?, by Phyllis STODDART and Keith SUGDEN

1965

Shines with unblemished honour: some thoughts on an early nineteenthcentury medal, by Tuukka TALVIO

1978

General numismatics
Dalliconografia delle monete antiche allideologia della nazione future.
Proiezioni della numismatica grecista di DAnnunzio sulla nuova monetazione
Sabauda, by Giuseppe ALONZO

1985

Didaktisch-methodische Aspekte der Numismatik in der Schule, by Szymon


BERESKA

1993

The Count of Caylus (1692-1765) and the study of ancient coins, by Franois de
CALLATA

1999

Le monete di Lorenzo il Magnifico in un manoscritto di Angelo Poliziano, by


Fiorenzo CATALLI

2004

Coinage and mapping, by Thomas FAUCHER

2012

Classicism and coin collections in Brazil, by Maria Beatriz Borba


FLORENZANO

2017

A prosopography of the mint officials: the Eligivs database and its evolution, by
Luca GIANAZZA

2022

Elementary statistical methods in numismatic metrology, by Dagmar


GROSSMANNOV & Jan T. STEFAN

2027

CONTENTS

17

Les collections numismatiques du Muse archologique de Dijon (France), by


Jacques MEISSONNIER

2036

Bank of Greece: the numismatic collections, by Eleni PAPAEFTHYMIOU

2044

Foundation of the Hellenic World. A new private collection open to the public,
by Eleni PAPAEFTHYMIOU

2046

Re-discovering coins: publication of the numismatic collections in Bulgarian


museums a new project, by Evgeni PAUNOV, Ilya PROKOPOV & Svetoslava
FILIPOVA

2047

Census of Ancient Coins Known in the Renaissance, by Ulrike PETER

2058

Le sel a servi de moyen dchange, by J.A. SCHOONHEYT

2072

The international numismatic library situation and the foundation of the


International Numismatic Libraries Network (INLN), by Ans TER WOERDS

2082

The Golden Fleece in Britain, by R.H. THOMPSON

2089

Das Museum August Kestner in Hannover: Neues aus der Mnzsammlung, by


Simone VOGT

2100

From the electrum to the Euro: a journey into the history of coins. A multimedia
presentation by the Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation, by Eleni ZAPITI

2102

Highlights from the Museum of the George and Nefeli Giabra Pierides
Collection, donated by Clio and Solon Triantafyllides: coins and artefacts, by
Eleni ZAPITI & Evangeline MARKOU

2112

Index of Contributors

2118

COMMUNICATING A CONSECRATIO:
THE DEIFICATION COINAGE OF FAUSTINA I *
CLARE ROWAN
Faustina the Elder, wife of Antoninus Pius, died early in her husbands reign and was consecrated
by decree of the senate. The Historia Augusta records that Faustina was awarded games, a temple
and priestesses, statues of silver and gold, that her statue was erected in all the circuses and an
alimentary scheme for young girls was founded in her name.1 A temple to the divine Faustina was
erected in the Roman forum, meaning she became the first empress to have a permanent presence
in this traditional seat of Roman power. The unusual location of Faustinas temple is mirrored in
her deification coinage: both reflect an unheralded presence by the empress.
Harold Mattingly realised the unusual nature of Faustinas deification coinage, noting that it
survived in unusually large numbers and encompassed an extraordinary variety of reverse types.2
Strack had also noticed these peculiarities, observing that Faustinas deification coinage was struck
at least until Piuss death in AD 161.3 Earlier consecration series had only been minted for a short
period of time, as would future issues. Faustinas series was remarkable.
Quantifying Prominence: A Hoard Analysis of Faustinas Deification Coinage
Mattinglys conclusions about the large size of Faustinas diva coinage were based on two hoards:
the Valeni hoard in Romania (still largely unpublished) and the Reka-Devnia hoard, also from
Romania, which consists of 81,096 coins.4 Each hoard gives a strikingly different picture. In the
Valeni hoard the coins of Faustina outnumber those of her husband, while in the Reka-Devnia
hoard Pius portrait types outnumber those of his wife. Given these divergences this study gathered
a much larger sample, consisting of twelve gold hoards (containing 563 coins from the reign of
Pius), 54 silver hoards (comprising 22,112 coins from the reign of Pius) and 22 aes hoards (totalling 2,974 coins from Piuss principate). A full list of the hoards is provided in the appendix.
It is clear from the hoard evidence that Pius struck more coinage in the name of his wife than
Hadrian had for Sabina (Table 1). The portrait of Faustina I graced approximately 22.5% of Pius
aurei, 30% of his denarii and 22% of his aes issues, significantly more than Sabina (who constitutes less than 10% of Hadrians coinage), and slightly more than Faustina the Younger (though
not on aes coinage). The quantity is even more impressive when we consider that the majority of
Faustinas types were diva issues; by comparison the deification coinages of Trajan, Matidia and
Hadrian were almost invisible in the hoard sample.

*
This paper is based on postgraduate work done at Cambridge. For
advice and guidance on earlier drafts I am greatly indebted to Mr. T. Volk
and Professor M. Beard. Any mistakes remain my own.
1
SHA Ant. Pius VI.7, VIII.1-2.

2
3
4

Mattingly 1948, pp. 147-51.


Strack 1937, pp. 10-11.
Mattingly 1948, p. 148.

992

CLARE ROWAN
TABLE 1. Comparison of Portrait Types between the Reigns of Hadrian,
Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius (to the nearest 0.5%). Percentages for
each member of the imperial family express the amount of coinage bearing their
portrait in relation to the total amount of coinage struck over the entire reign.
Obverse Portrait
Reign of Hadrian
Hadrian
Sabina
Aelius
Antoninus Pius
Divus Traianus
Diva Matidia
Reign of Antoninus Pius
Antoninus Pius
Faustina I
Marcus Aurelius
Faustina II
Divus Hadrianus
Reign of Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Faustina II
Verus
Lucilla
Commodus
Divus Pius

Gold

Silver

Aes

89%
4%
4.5%
1.5%
<1%
0%

88.5%
8%
2%
<1%
0%
<1%

94%
3.5%
2%
<1%
0%
0%

54.5%
22.5%
15.5%
7.5%
0%

50.5%
30%
12.5%
7%
<1%

61%
22%
10%
6.5%
0%

42%
15%
30%
5.5%
2%
4.5%

58.5%
23%
3.5%
5%
<1%
9%

49.5%
29%
5.5%
11.5%
3%
1.5%

Gold Types of Faustina I (n=127)


Other
3%
Peacock
2%
Temple
2%
Pietas
14%

Providentia
2%

Ceres
51%

Fortuna
20%

Aeternitas
3%
Venus
3%

Fig. 1

COMMUNICATING A CONSECRATIO:
THE DEIFICATION COINAGE OF FAUSTINA I

993

A breakdown of the reverse types of the coins found for Faustina I in the hoard sample reveals
a heavy emphasis on Ceres (Figs. 1-3), a theme that matches the emphasis Pius gave to the corn
supply of Italy.5 Pius renovated the pharos at Alexandria and the wharves at Puteoli, and himself
had numerous coin types communicating the idea of Annona.6 Already connected to the grain supply through the alimentary scheme in her name, the imagery of Ceres on Faustinas coinage meant
that the empress, though now divine, remained connected to the emperors imperial programme.
Silver Types of Faustina I (n=6594)

Peacock
4%
Temple
2%

Throne Other
3%
<1%

Concordia
2%
Ceres
32%

Pietas
10%

Providentia
18%

Juno
12%

Fortuna
3%
Aeternitas
3%

Venus
3%

Vesta
8%

Fig. 2
Aes Types of Faustina I (n=676)

Temple
2%

Other
4%
Ceres
24%

Pietas
13%

Providentia
4%

Juno
16%

Aeternitas
21%

Vesta
16%

Fig. 3
5
The analysis of reverse types is based upon Mattinglys identification
of the figures that grace the reverse of Faustinas coinage.
6
SHA Ant. Pius VIII.3, VIII.11; Segenni 2001, p. 356.

994

CLARE ROWAN

Closer analysis of the hoard sample is illuminating (Table 2). In gold issues, Faustinas lifetime coinage made up approximately 11% of all the coinage of Piuss reign until her death in AD
140, but her deification coinage constituted approximately 22.5% of the coinage of Piuss reign
from AD 141. It appears that the mint increased the amount of coins being struck for Faustina after
she died. Similar increases can be seen for silver and aes types (Table 2).
This increase, however, is only apparent in hoards that date to after Piuss reign. In hoards
with a terminus ante quem of AD 161 (the year Pius died), Diva Faustina types constitute a smaller
proportion of Piuss coinage than her lifetime issues (Table 2). This is the case for all three metals.
In hoards with a terminus post quem of AD 161, Faustinas diva types constitute a larger percentage of coin in circulation than her lifetime issues.
TABLE 2. Faustinas Coinage. Proportion of Faustinas lifetime coinage (expressed as a
percentage of all coinage from Piuss reign struck before AD 141 found in the hoard evidence) and
deified coinage (expressed as a percentage of all coinage from Piuss reign struck from AD 141).
Obverse Portrait

Gold

Silver

Aes

Hoards Dated 161 and Earlier


Faustina Living (pre 141)
Faustina Deified (post 141)

25%
18%

32%
24%

22.5%
20%

Hoards Dated 162-180


Faustina Living (pre 141)
Faustina Deified (post 141)

9%
30%

16%
28%

0%
23.5%

Hoards Dated after 180


Faustina Living (pre 141)
Faustina Deified (post 141)

14%
21.5%

19%
29%

16%
20.5%

Total (all hoards)


Faustina Living (pre 141)
Faustina Deified (post 141)

11%
22.5%

19%
28.5%

17%
20.5%

We might be tempted to ascribe the discrepancy to the fact that Faustinas diva coinage, struck
later, may have taken longer to enter into circulation. However, Faustinas coinage is only considered in relation to other coins struck in the same period (her lifetime coinage is only considered in
relation to the rest of Piuss coinage struck before AD 141, and her diva coinage is only considered
in relation to coinage struck from AD 141 and after). The change in proportion thus cannot be related to rates of circulation and attrition (coins issued at the same time would enter into circulation
and undergo attrition at approximately the same rate).
Since Faustinas diva coinage increases in proportion only in hoards dated after AD 161, it
is possible that Marcus Aurelius continued to strike coinage for the deceased empress. The diva
coinage by itself does not provide any secure mechanisms for dating, so it has all been ascribed to
the reign of Pius. This may not have been the case.
Particular types of Diva Faustina coinage only occur in hoards dated to the reign of Aurelius.
Coins bearing the legends CONSECRATIO, AVGVSTA and AETERNITAS all occur in hoards

COMMUNICATING A CONSECRATIO:
THE DEIFICATION COINAGE OF FAUSTINA I

995

from Piuss reign. Other types, with the legends CERES, VESTA and IVNO only occur in hoards
dated after Piuss death.7 The change in legends may reflect a change in the ruling emperor. That
these coins were struck under Aurelius is also suggested by their style. Strack observed that from
AD 160-163 an idiosyncratic style appears at the Roman mint: the lettering of the legend becomes
larger and the obverse portrait smaller, resulting in a continuous legend with no breaks.8 Strack
noted that this style was present on some examples of Diva Faustina coinage (with the legends
CERES and VESTA), and believed these types were struck right until Piuss death in AD 161.9
Equally, it may be that Aurelius continued the Diva Faustina types, striking them in conjunction
with Divus Pius types, some of which are also characterised by larger lettering on the legends.
Marcus Aurelius struck deification coinage for Pius in fairly substantial numbers: Divus Pius
types constitute 4.5% of all Aureliuss aurei, 9% of his denarii and 1.5% of his aes types (Table
1). These figures are for the coin output of Aureliuss entire reign, so the divus types were probably
even more prominent in the early years of Aureliuss principate. Striking for both Divus Pius and
Diva Faustina fits well with the prominence Aurelius gave to the divine couple and their reunion
in the afterlife. Faustinas temple in the forum was rededicated to include Antoninus, a column
was set up at Piuss villa in Lorium with images of the divine couple, and the Antonine column
was erected showing Pius and Faustina ascending to heaven together on a winged male, a piece
of imperial funerary art so unusual that it had to borrow from the mortuary motifs of freedmen.10
Coins in the name of both Diva Faustina and Divus Pius may also have formed part of the monuments emphasising the divine couple. In this context it is important to observe that Aurelius struck
what Mattingly labelled Memorial Coins, giving Piuss titles in the nominative case (Divus Pius,
not Dio Pio). It is thus plausible that coins also continued to be struck for Diva Faustina giving her
titulature in the nominative.
Contextualising Prominence: a Reaction to Hadrian?
If this hypothesis is correct, Aurelius would only have been continuing the unusual emphasis given
to Faustina during Piuss reign. Piuss motivations in granting his wife such honours are difficult
to uncover, but it is tempting to see it as a reaction to the reign of Hadrian. Hadrians reign had
been marked by his love for Antinoos; Dios remark that the emperor set up statues of his lover
all over the known world is reflected in the copious amount of Antinoos statuary surviving to the
modern day.11 Hadrian was unpopular with the Senate and was only deified upon the insistence of
Antoninus, an uncomfortable beginning for the new emperor.12 The prominence given to Faustina
may have been a visual reaction against Hadrians passion for Antinoos. In his Meditations Marcus Aurelius records that Pius taught him to suppress all passion for boys, perhaps reflecting the
careful contrast Pius created with Hadrian.13
Mattingly suggested that Piuss motivations may have been more personal, that grief at his
wifes death was reflected in the official media.14 This may have been a contributing cause (Pius never remarried, though he may have taken a mistress).15 However, the unpopularity of Hadrian and the
decidedly unpopular nature of the decision to deify him meant that Antoninus was unable publicly to
emphasise a divine adopted father in the way Hadrian had claimed for Divus Traianus. A divine wife
provided an excellent alternative, particularly given the contrast it provided with Hadrians reign.
RIC 378-379, 391, 400. The die study by Beckmann (in this volume)
also places the CERES legend type towards the end of the die sequence.
8
Strack 1937, p. 11
9
Strack 1937, plate VI no. 456 and plate VII no. 463.
10
Kleiner / Kleiner 1978-80, pp. 389-94.
7

Dio LXIX.11.4.
Dio LXIX.23.3, LXX 1.1-3 and SHA Hadrian XXVII.1-4.
13
Marcus Aurelius Meditations 1.16.
14
Mattingly 1948, p. 150.
15
Birley 1966, pp. 97-98.
11

12

996

CLARE ROWAN

Interpreting Prominence: Diva Faustina in the Provinces


Provincial evidence reflects the imperial emphasis on the new diva. Statues from Timghad and
Campana show Faustina in the guise of Ceres, as does a provincial coin of Apameia.16 A temple to
Faustina as the new Demeter was built at Eleusis, and Herodes Atticus constructed a temple to
Demeter and Faustina just outside Rome.17 Though it was common for empresses to be associated
with Ceres, the evidence here recalls the emphasis on the goddess on Faustinas coinage (Figs. 1-3).
In Alexandria, where provincial coins can be accurately dated, news of Faustinas death and
deification reached the city soon after the event. In AD 140/1 coins were struck at Alexandria showing Pius on the obverse and Faustina on the reverse, with the legend FAUSTINA SEBASTH.18 The
following year (AD 141/2), a similar coin was released, but with the legend FAUSTINA THEA.
News of Faustinas consecration had reached Egypt.19
Antioch in Pisidia also struck coinage in the name of DIVA FAUSTINA.20 Three more uncertain cases are Flaviopolis (Cilicia), Bostra (Arabia) and Sardis (Lydia).21 These cities released
two different coin types of Faustina, one naming her as SEBASTH, the other giving her the title
THEA. Though the coins of these particular cities cannot be dated, it is tempting to see here, as at
Alexandria, news of Faustinas consecration. In the case of Sardis, granted a neokorate at the beginning of Piuss reign, Faustinas image graces coinage showing the temple of the imperial cult,
and a colossal statue of the veiled Faustina joined that of her husband in the temple of Artemis.22
Coins in the name of thea Faustina were also struck at Adana, Delphi, Myndus, Nicopolis, Perinthus, the koinon of Ionia and in an uncertain province.23 In these instances there was no change in
the titulature of Faustina (she is always thea), but this may have been because these cities did not
strike coinage until after her death; Faustina died relatively early in Piuss reign and provincial minting practices were intermittent. The fact that many of these same cities struck coinage in the name of
Faustina the Younger without granting her the title thea suggests that it did communicate a diva status. This is not to suggest that empresses could not be granted the title thea while living, but to allow
for the fact that the title could also function as an expression of the Latin diva, particularly on coinage.
Conclusions
The transformation of Faustinas titulature on provincial coinage and her continued presence on
provincial issues reflected a wider recognition of the importance of the empresss consecration
and her continued visual presence in Antonine rule. Faustinas death and deification allowed Pius
to dissociate himself from Hadrians unpopular regime and connect his rule with the divine. The
coinage was probably only one part of a wider visual programme that may have continued under
Marcus Aurelius. Faustinas role after death was not, as Mattingly believed, one of a revered lady
in a new sphere of eternity, but one concretely bound to the policies and problems of the Roman
Empire in the second century.

16

IV.temp. 10281, 5803, 3573; Sardis: RPC IV.temp. 1427, 1426.

17

Burrell 2004, pp. 103-109.


Adana: RPC IV.temp. 5371; Delphi: RPC IV.temp. 4601-4, 7853-4,
5056, 7855, 8202; Koinon of Ionia: RPC IV.temp. 7773, 952; Myndus:
RPC IV.temp. 921; Nicopolis: RPC IV.temp. 4184-7; Perinthus: RPC
IV.temp. 8656, 8347; Uncertain: RPC IV.temp. 8345-6, 3006.

Keltanen 2002, p. 127; RPC IV temp. 3350.


Spaeth 1996, pp. 179-80; IG XIV 1389; Pomeroy 2007, p. 158.
18
RPC IV.temp.16033.
19
RPC IV. temp. 14240; Geissen 1991, p. 195.
20
RPC IV.temp.7336-7.
21
Bostra: RPC IV.temp. 6699, 6365, 6700-2, 6704-6; Flaviopolis: RPC

22
23

COMMUNICATING A CONSECRATIO:
THE DEIFICATION COINAGE OF FAUSTINA I

997

APPENDIX: HOARDS USED IN THE ANALYSIS24


Gold
Britain: Corbridge (NC 12 (1912), pp.265-312); Didcot (CHRB X (1997), pp.91-100); Plantation
Place (CHRB XI (2002), pp.111-114). Belgium: Liberchies (Thirion 1972). France: Corn (RN
24 (1982), pp.72-91); Le Cannet (RN 7 (1943), pp.149-159); Troyes (RN 31 (1989), pp.113-137);
Saint-Nom-la-Bretche (TM 15 (1995), pp.19-21). Spain: Italica (NZ 34 (1902), pp.29-48). Portuga: Braga (Nummus 1 (1978), pp.37-98). Italy: Via Po (Bull.Com 57 (1930), pp.5-119). Germany: Trier (ZfN 38 (1928), pp.68-72).
Silver
Britain: Allerton Bywater (NC 5 (1925), pp.400-402); Barway (NC 20 (1960), pp.237-239),
Bletchley (NC 9 (1969), pp.113-128, CHRB IX (1992), pp.60-64); Briglands (P.S.A.S. 90 (1956-7),
pp.241-246); Bristol (NC 18 (1938), pp.85-98); Castle Bromwich (NC 12 (1910), pp.149-178); Darfield II (NC 8 (1948), pp.78-80); Edwinstowe (CHRB IX (1992), pp.46-49), NC 12 (1912), pp.149178); East England (NC 18 (1898), pp.126-184); East Stoke (CHRB X (1997), pp.88-90); Falkirk
(NC 14 (1934), pp.1-30); Handley (NC 10 (1950), pp.311-315); Lawrence Weston (CHRB VIII
(1988), pp.23-31); Londonthorpe (CHRB I (1979, pp.9-24); Muswell Hill (NC 9 (1929), pp.315319); Shapwick Villa (CHRB 11 (2002), pp.169-233). Germany: Fickmhlen (FMRD VII.4-9,
no.8056); Flonheim (FMRD IV.1, no.1023); Frndenberg (ZfN 29 (1912), pp.189-253); Herren
(FMRD X-XIII, no.1103, pp.82-86); Lengerich I (FMRD VII.1-3: 68-87, no.1033); Middels Osterloog (ZfN 29 (1912), pp.189-253); Neuenkirchen (NZ 101 (1990), pp.17-28); Stockstadt III (FMRD
I.6, no. 6020). Austria: Apetlon II (Gbl 1967, FMR I.2, pp. 293-302); Carnuntum II (FMR
3.1, pp.200-201); Carnuntum III (FMR 3.1, pp.201-203); Ostriach (FMR II/3, no.1/6) Wallern,
Scharding (FMR 1.2, pp.413-416). Slovakia: Vyskovce (Ondrouch 1934). Romania: Brguani
(Depeyrot & Moisil 2008: no.51); Butoisti (SCN 9 (1989), pp.37-42); Cislu (Depeyrot & Moisil
2008: no.61); Covasin (Depeyrot & Moisil 2008: no.26); Dimbau (SCN 1 (1957), pp.113-31);
Drghiceni (Depeyrot & Moisil 2008: no.64); Gostav (Depeyrot & Moisil 2008: no.65); Lespezi
(Depeyrot & Moisil 2008: no.37); Mgireti (Depeyrot & Moisil 2008: no.71); Muncelul de Sus
I (Depeyrot & Moisil 2008: no.73); Puriceni (Memoria Antiquitatis (1972), pp.125-230); Slauri
(Depeyrot & Moisil 2008: no.43); Simionsti (SCN 4 (1968), pp.385-391); Tibru (Depeyrot & Moisil 2008: no.45); Valea (Depeyrot & Moisil 2008: no.47). Bulgaria: Magura (Mihilescu-Brliba
1977); Reka-Devnia (Mouchmov 1934; Depeyrot 2004). Hungary: Kecel (Cumania 9 (1986),
pp.27-74); Kurd-gyulaji (NK 34-35 (1935-1936), pp.77-78); Prelasdorf (JA 3 (1909), pp.247-250,
vol 4 (1910), pp.140-144, vol 5 (1911), pp.211-212, 218); Sotin (Vjesnik Hrvatskoga Arheolokoga
Drutva 2 (1910-1911), pp. 241-277). Ukraine: Tokari (Prace I Materialy 10 (1993), pp. 37-93).
Slovenia: Prelasko (FMRS II: no.353). Cyprus: Larnaka (NC 19 (1979), pp.26-35).
Aes
Britain: Croydon (NC 7 (1907), pp.353-372); Curridge (CHRB XI (2002), pp.147-158); Gare
(NC 11 (1971), pp.181-188); Leysdown (NC 11 (1971), pp.189-202). France: Arnouville (TM 3
(1981), pp.17-31); Garonne (Barrandon 1984); Pcy (TM 15 (1995), pp.23-33); Puy Dieu (TM 7
(1985), pp.33-104); Saint-Lonard (TM 21 (2003-2004), pp.1-137) Seyssel (TM 16 (1997), pp.1524
Bull. Comm. = Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale
di Roma, CHRB = Coin Hoards from Roman Britain, FMRD = Die
Fundmnzen der rmischen Zeit in Deutschland, FMR = Die Fundmnzen
der rmischen Zeit in sterreich, FMRS = Die Fundmnzen der rmischen
Zeit in Slowenien, JA = Jahrbuch fr Altertumskunde, NC = Numismatic

Chronicle, NZ = Numismatische Zeitschrift, P.S.A.S. = Proceedings of the


Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, RMRve = Ritrovamenti Monetali de et
Romana nel Veneto, RN = Revue Numismatique, SCN = Studii i Cercetri de
Numismatic, TM = Trsors Montaires, ZfN = Zeitschrift fr Numismatik.

998

CLARE ROWAN

20). Italy: Bassano (RMRve I, no.2/16(1); Caminada (RMRve II.2, no.13/1(1)); CaNoghera (RMRve VI.2, no.9/9); Mussolente (RMRve I, no.17/6); Paliaghetta (RMRve VI.2, no.9/9). Germany:
Bernbueren (FMRD I.1, no.1250); Faha (FMRD III, no.1029). Austria: Althofen (FMR II/3,
no.4/1); Gummern (FMR II/3, no.6/16(1)); Halbturn (NZ 115 (2007), pp.21-32); Illmitz (FMR
1.2, no.5/9); Kristendorf (FMR II/3, no.7b/3).
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