You are on page 1of 28




Dyslexia is a learning disorder characterized by difficulty reading due to problems

identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words. Also called

specific reading disability, dyslexia is a common learning disability in children. Dyslexia

occurs in children with normal vision and intelligence. Sometimes dyslexia goes

undiagnosed for years and isn't recognized until adulthood.

There's no cure for dyslexia. It's a lifelong condition caused by inherited traits that
affect how your brain works. However, most children with dyslexia can succeed in

school with tutoring or a specialized education program. Emotional support also plays an

important role. Children with dyslexia have problems processing the information they see

when looking at a word. Often a dyslexic child will have trouble connecting the sound

made by a specific letter or deciphering the sounds of all the letters together that form a

word. Given these challenges children with dyslexia often also have trouble with writing,

spelling, speaking, and math.

The writer provided seven major topics. Chapter II tells what are the Symptoms of
Dyslexia; Chapter III is about the Causes of Dyslexia; Chapter IV is the History of
Dyslexia; Chapter V is about Treating Dyslexia; Chapter VI talks about Famous People
with Dyslexia; Chapter VII reveals about the Misconception of Dyslexia; and Chapter
VIII is the Conclusion.




Children with dyslexia can have mild to severe impairment. Signs of the condition

vary widely from person to person. Young children with dyslexia may have the following

signs and symptoms: A late talker Pronunciation problems, Difficulty rhyming words
Impaired ability to learn basics such as the alphabet, colors, and numbers
Problems with handwriting and other fine motor skills, Confusing letters such as "b" and

"d" or the orders of letters within words, and Trouble learning the connection between
letters and their sounds.

Once your child is in school, dyslexia signs and symptoms may become more
apparent, including: Reading well below the expected level for your child's age,
Problems processing and understanding what he or she hears, Difficulty comprehending
rapid instructions, Problems remembering the sequence of things, Difficulty seeing (and
occasionally hearing) similarities and differences in letters and words, Inability to sound
out the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word, Difficulty spelling, and Trouble learning a
foreign language.


Dyslexia symptoms in teens and adults are similar to those in children.

Though early intervention is beneficial for dyslexia treatment, it's never too late to seek
help. Some common dyslexia symptoms in teens and adults include: Difficulty reading,
including reading aloud, Trouble understanding jokes or expressions that have a meaning
not easily understood from the specific words (idioms), such as "piece of cake" meaning
"easy," Difficulty with time management, Difficulty summarizing a story, Trouble
learning a foreign language, Difficulty memorizing and Difficulty doing math problems.

Dyslexia is characterized by a delay in the age at which a child begins to

read. Most children are ready to learn reading by kindergarten or first grade, but children
with dyslexia often can't grasp the basics of reading by that time. Talk with your doctor if
your child's reading level is below what's expected for his or her age or if you notice
other signs or symptoms of dyslexia. When dyslexia goes undiagnosed and untreated,
childhood reading difficulties continue into adulthood.



Researchers have found that dyslexia is caused by a difference in the way the
dyslexic brain processes information. Experts do not know precisely what causes
dyslexia, but several recent studies now indicate that genetics plays a major role. If you
or your partner has dyslexia, you are more likely to have children with dyslexia. Over the

next few decades, we are likely to learn much more about dyslexia and how to treat it.
Dyslexia has been linked to certain genes that control how the brain develops. It appears
to be an inherited condition it tends to run in families. These inherited traits appear to
affect parts of the brain concerned with language, interfering with the ability to convert
written letters and words into speech.

But according to The Center For Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), most of the
studies which show no relationship between diet and Dyslexia/ ADHD food color,
especially Yellow #5 (Tartrazine) that is added in a candy, can cause a person to be



It was 1878 when German neurologist, Adolph Kussmaul, coined the phrase
"word blindness" describing what we know as dyslexia today. He had a special interest in

adults with reading problems who also had neurological impairment. He noticed that
several of his patients could not read properly and regularly used words in the wrong
order. He introduced the term word blindness to describe their difficulties. The phrase,
word blindness, then began to be used regularly in the medical journals to describe adults
and children who had difficulty learning to read. This phrase also conveyed the fact that
these patients were neurologically impaired.

The history of dyslexia in 1887, a German opthalmologist, Rudolf Berlin, was the
first to use the word dyslexia but it wasn't widely used or accepted to replace the "word
blindness" as of yet. It's like Manic Depressive Disorder perfectly describes the
condition, whereas Bipolar Disorder took a while to catch on. Seems the same was true
for "word blindness" that perfectly describes dyslexia, where we skipped words, suffixes
and endings.

"Dyslexia appeared in 1891 with a report in The Lancet medical journal by Dr Dejerne."

Dr James Hinshelwood, a Scottish eye surgeon, published an account of a patient

who had reading difficulties and also a congenital defect in the brain related to eyesight.
From this evidence, he concluded that the cause of reading difficulties was a malfunction

of eyesight as a result of a brain defect. Dr Hinshelwoods work reinforced the use of the
term word blindness and this phrase persisted throughout the early twentieth century.

The biggest breakthrough came in 1925 by Dr. Samuel Torrey Orton (October
15, 1879November 17, 1948) who pioneered the study of learning disabilities. Dr Orton,
an American neurologist of some significance. He was probably the first to recognize that
children with reading difficulties often reversed letters. This phenomenon he called

Since then there have been increased levels of study into and understanding of
dyslexia. Dyslexia is now understood to be a wide range of learning difficulties which
affects different people in different ways.



There's no known way to correct the underlying brain abnormality that causes
dyslexia, dyslexia is a lifelong problem. However, early detection and evaluation to
determine specific needs and appropriate treatment can improve success.

Dyslexia is treated using specific educational approaches and techniques, and the
sooner the intervention begins, the better. Psychological testing will help your child's
teachers develop a suitable teaching program. Teachers may use techniques involving
hearing, vision and touch to improve reading skills. Helping a child use several senses to

learn. For example, listening to a taped lesson and tracing with a finger the shape of the
letters used and the words spoken can help him or her process the information.
If available, tutoring sessions with a reading specialist can be very helpful for many
children with dyslexia. A reading specialist will focus on helping your child:

Learn to recognize the smallest sounds that make up words (phonemes)

Understand that letters and strings of letters represent these sounds

Comprehend what he or she is reading

Read aloud

Build a vocabulary

If your child has a severe reading disability, tutoring may need to occur more frequently,
and progress may be slower.

Schools have a legal obligation to take steps to help children diagnosed with
dyslexia with their learning problems. Talk to your child's teacher about setting up a
meeting to create a plan that outlines your child's needs and how the school will help him
or her succeed. This is called an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). To receive help,
your child may need a structured, written plan. Children with dyslexia who get extra help
in kindergarten or first grade often improve their reading skills enough to succeed in
elementary school and high school.Children who don't get help until later grades may
have more difficulty learning the skills needed to read well. They're likely to lag behind

academically and may never be able to catch up. A child with severe dyslexia may never
have an easy time reading, but he or she can learn skills that improve reading. Academic
problems don't necessarily mean a person with dyslexia can't succeed. Students with
dyslexia can be highly capable, given the right resources. Many people with dyslexia are
creative and bright, and may be gifted in math, science or the arts. Some even have
successful writing careers.

You play a key role in helping your child succeed. Take these steps:

Address the problem early

If you suspect your child has dyslexia, talk to your child's doctor. Early intervention can
improve success.

Read aloud to your child

It's best if you start when your child is 6 months old or even younger. Try listening to
recorded books with your child. When your child is old enough, read the stories together
after your child hears them.

Work with your child's school

Talk to your child's teacher about how the school will help him or her succeed. You are

your child's best advocate.

Encourage reading time

To improve reading skills, a child must practice reading. Encourage reading of print

Set an example for reading

Designate a time each day to read something of your own while your child reads this
sets an example and supports your child. Show your child that reading can provide
Success in employment can be difficult for adults struggling with dyslexia. To help
achieve your goals:

Seek evaluation and instructional help with reading and writing, regardless of

Ask about additional training and reasonable accommodations from your

or academic institution under the Americans with Disabilities Act
There is no cure for dyslexia. But early intervention can give children with dyslexia

the encouragement and tools they need to manage in school and compensate for their

disability. If you suspect that your child has dyslexia or another learning disability, talk
with your pediatrician as soon as possible.

Adjustments at work

Let your employer know that you have dyslexia, as they are required by law to make

reasonable adjustments to the workplace to assist you. Examples of reasonable

adjustments may include:

providing you with assistance technology, such as voice-recognition software

allowing you extra time for tasks you find particularly difficult

providing you with information in formats you find accessible



Dyslexia and intelligence are not connected. Many dyslexic individuals are very
bright and creative who will accomplish amazing things as adults. Here are the names
of some of the many talented and accomplished individuals who are
dyslexic, or historic figures who had the pattern of talents and learning
difficulties associated with dyslexia or related learning styles:
Leonardo DaVinci

Leonardo DaVinci was a great painter, designer, scientist, futurist and

thinker. He also had the gift of dyslexia. One remarkable indication that
Leonardo was dyslexic is in his handwriting. Leonardo was constantly
sketching out his ideas for inventions. Most of the time, he wrote his
notes backwards. Most of the time, dyslexic writers are not even
consciously aware that they are writing this way.Leonardo's spelling is also
considered erratic and quite strange. He also started many more projects

then he ever finished - a characteristic now often considered to be 'A.D.D.'

However, when it came to drawing illustrations, Leonardo's work is
detailed and precise. His extraordinary art work and inventive genius are
proof that he truly possessed the gift of dyslexia.

Jim Carrey

In his early years at school, Carrey was very quiet and didnt have many friends. He was
an undiagnosed dyslexic, and often struggled in school. He began compensating with
humor, causing many teachers to label him as disruptive, but also causing him to realize
that he could connect with people by making them laugh. This spurred his creativity and
humorous side, which has propelled his acting career. His other main tactic was to
develop a phenomenal memory in order to overcome his reading hurdles.

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso became a famous, trendsetting art icon despite, and no doubt because of,

his apparent dyslexia. He was born in Malag Spain in 1881. Reported to have failed

parochial school education because of reading and related academic difficulties, he was

eventually encouraged by his father, an art teacher, to further develop his obvious innate

artistic talent. Over the course of his career he developed a unique sense of beauty and

style. Pablo painted things as he saw or really felt them out of order, deformed or

tilted. His paintings demonstrated the power of dyslexic imagination as well as raw or

primary emotion and creativity within the human psyche. Some of his famous works

include: The Young Ladies of Avigon, Old Man with Guitar, and Guernica.

Tom Cruise

Tom Cruise grew up and succeeded despite poverty, frequent relocations,

inadequate schooling and dyslexia. No doubt he was saved by his gifted
acting ability as well as his dogged determination to overcome and thrive,

come what may.

Jamie Oliver
Celebrity chef Jamie Oliver has built an empire with his best-selling
cookbooks, primetime TV shows, restaurants and cookware. He also has dyslexia and
said he didnt finish
reading his first book until he was 38. I get bored easily, he said. But
the sci-fi sequel
to The Hunger Games managed to keep him engaged. I read Catching
Fire. I loved
disappearing into a story.



There are many signs or clues to dyslexia which are discussed in depth on this
website; however it is also important to be aware of the misconceptions and myths
surrounding the disorder. There are several myths regarding dyslexia. We have
highlighted some of the more common ones.

Myth: Smart people cannot be dyslexic or have a learning disability.

Fact: Dyslexia and intelligence are NOT connected. Many dyslexic individuals are very
bright and creative who will accomplish amazing things as adults.

Myth: Dyslexia does not exist.

Fact: There has been 30 years of documented, scientific evidence and research proving
the existence of dyslexia. It is one of the most common learning disabilities to affect
Myth: Dyslexia is rare.
Fact: In the United States, NIH research has shown that dyslexia affects 20%, or 1 in
every 5 people. Some people may have more mild forms, while others may experience it
more severely. Dyslexia is one of the most common cause of reading difficulties in
elementary school children because only 1 in 10 dyslexics will qualify for an IEP and
special education that will allow them to get the help in reading that they need.

Myth: Dyslexia is very uncommon.

Fact: The International Dyslexia Foundation states that between 15% and 20% of the
population have a language based learning disability, dyslexia being the most common of
these. The United States Department of Health and Human Services estimates that 15%
of the U.S. population has dyslexia.

Myth: Dyslexia is innate, incurable, and permanent.

Fact: While dyslexia is a lifelong learning disability, early, intensive, and effective
intervention can help a student keep up and retain his grade level in school, as well as
minimize the negative effects dyslexia can have such as low self-esteem.

Myth: There is no way to diagnose dyslexia.

Fact: Professionals such as speech-language pathologists who have in-depth training in
literacy can accurately identify those who are at-risk for dyslexia as early as age 5.

Myth: People with dyslexia cannot read.

Fact: Incorrect. Most children and adults with dyslexia are able to read, even if it is at a
basic level. Children with dyslexia are likely to reach a certain point in reading ability
with the inability to move beyond a 3rd-grade reading level. Despite being taught
phonics, they will have extreme difficulty sounding out an unknown word. Spelling is
one of the classic red flags alerting parents and teachers of a serious underlying problem.
The children are unable to understand the basic code of the English language and cannot
break down or reconstruct (with spelling) words using codes (letters).

Myth: Every child who struggles with reading is dyslexic.

Fact: Dyslexia is the most common cause of difficulties with reading, but it is by no
means the only cause. Dyslexia does not only cause difficulties in reading but also in
spelling, speech, and memorization. If a child is dyslexic, he will show other warning
signs besides having trouble with reading.

Myth: People with dyslexia see things backwards.

Fact: Dyslexics do not see things backwards because dyslexia is not a problem with the
eyes. Dyslexia may cause people to reverse certain words because of their confusion
when discerning between left and right and their difficulties comprehending their reading.

Myth: Gifted children cannot be dyslexic or have a learning disability.

Fact: Many dyslexics have very high IQs and have gone on to accomplish outstanding
things in their lives. Many famous authors, researchers, actors and actresses, politicians,
athletes, and others from all different professions are dyslexic.



Therefore, the writer conclude that if a child or an adult who has a problem
reading well below the expected level of an adult/child's age, Problems processing and
understanding what he or she hears, Difficulty comprehending rapid instructions,
Problems remembering the sequence of things, Difficulty seeing (and occasionally
hearing) similarities and differences in letters and words, Inability to sound out the
pronunciation of an unfamiliar word, Difficulty spelling, and Trouble learning a foreign
language, he or she is dyslexic. Researchers have found that dyslexia is caused by
genetics, it is possible to be dyslexic if some of your relatives have Dyslexia.

The word dyslexia comes from two Greek words: dys, which means abnormal or
impaired, and lexis, which refers to language or words. Dyslexia is not a disease. It's a
condition that you are born with, and it often runs in families. People with dyslexia are
not stupid or lazy. Most have average or above-average intelligence, and they work very
hard to overcome their learning problems.
People with dyslexia shouldn't feel limited in their academic or career choices. Just
like Jim Carrey, Tom Cruise, Jamie Oliver, Regine Velasquez and even Pablo Picasso
proved that intelligence and dyslexia doesnt connect at all.