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# 5 Analog/Digital-Conversion

5.1 Components of A/D-Converters
Sample and hold circuit, Quantisation

5.2 Flash A/D-Converter
5.3 Iterative A/D-Converter
5.4 A/D-Converter with an Intermediate Quantity
5.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter

5.6 Errors by A/D-Converters

Prof. Dr.-Ing. O. Kanoun
Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology

P. 5-1

5.1 Components of A/D-Converters

Analog
Multiplexer
(MUX)
Analog
Inputs

Pre
filtering
Keeps the
Sampling
Theorem

Selects an
Input Channel

fSampl  2 fg

Sample
& Hold
(S&H)

Analog
Digital
Converter

Holds the
Analog
Value
Constant
during the
Conversion
Time

Quantisation
Coding

0100

SOC

....

MUXAddress

f0

S&H

DigitalValue

EOC

start end
of conversion

Control

Prof. Dr.-Ing. O. Kanoun
Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology

P. 5-2

5.1 Components of A/D-Converters
Sampling
Signal Frequency
“Apparent”
Frequency

Sampling pulses

Autliers

Autliers
Earlier or later sampling gives a
different result

Prof. Dr.-Ing. O. Kanoun
Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology

P. 5-3

5.1 Components of A/D-Converters
Sampling
xa t   xe t 



  t  kT0 

Sampling Periode T0 

k  

1
fSampl

Fourier Transformation

xe t 

X e   

 jt
x
(
t
)
e
dt
e



Inverse Fourier Transformation

1
xe t  
2

X

e

( ) e jt dt



Multiplication in Time Domain  Convolution in Frequency Domain

x t  u(t )

X    U ( ) 

 X ( ' ) U (   ' ) d '



Prof. Dr.-Ing. O. Kanoun
Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology

P. 5-4

1 Components of A/D-Converters Sampling xe t     t  kT0  k   xa t   xe t     t  kT0  k   X e   1   n     f    T0 n    T0  T0 : Sampling Periode  1  n X a f   X e f    f     T0 n    T0     n   1      u    X e f  u du  T0 n    T0      (Changing Summation and Integral) (Dirac-Function)  1  n   u     X e f  u du  T0 n   T0     1  n     X f   e T0 n    T0  Prof. Dr.5. O.-Ing. 5-5 . Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.

1 Components of A/D-Converters Sampling Example Convolution X    U ( )    X ( ' ) U (   ' ) d '  U ( ' ) X ( ' ) ' ' U ( ' ) Mirroring ' U(   ' )  Translation Prof.-Ing. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology ' P.5. Dr. 5-6 . O.

Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.1 Components of A/D-Converters Sampling Example Convolution Translation X    U ( )    X ( ' ) U (   ' ) d '  X ( ' ) 1 ' X ( ' ) Multiplication  X    U( ) ' Integration  Prof. O.5. 5-7 . Dr.-Ing.

5. Dr.-Ing. O.1 Components of A/D-Converters Sampling Example Convolution with a Dirac Pulse X t    (t  t0 )     (t  t0 )  X (t   ) d  X (t  t0 )   (t  t 0 ) t0 X(t) t t X(-)   (t  t 0 ) t0 x(t )   (t  t0 ) t Prof. 5-8 . Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology t0 t P.

O.-Ing. Dr. 5-9 .5. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.1 Components of A/D-Converters Sampling Example Convolution with a Dirac Pulse  (t  ti ) X(t) t1 t t2 t x(t )   (t  ti ) t2 t1 t Prof.

1 Components of A/D-Converters Sampling Time Domain Multication Prof.5. O. Dr. 5-10 . Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology Frequency Domain Convolution P.-Ing.

Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology fSampl  2 (fmax  fmin ) P. O. Dr. 5-11 .1 Components of A/D-Converters Sampling X e (f ) fg Sampled Signal f fSampl fAbt  fg ffSampl fAbt  fg Abt fSampl fg fSampl f Abt 22 ffSampl Abt 22  fg 22ffSampl Abt Overlapping 3 f3Sampl fAbt f Signal can not be reconstructed Sampling theorem by Shannon or Nyquist-Criterion fSampl  2 fg or more general Prof.-Ing.5.

Dr.3 fg Prof.-Ing.5. 5-12 .1 Components of A/D-Converters Anti-aliasing-Filter f  fSampl 2 Pre-filtering no overlapping! The slow rate of the Filter should be considered! fg fSampl  2 fg fSampl  3. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P. O.

Dr.1 Components of A/D-Converters Sample & Hold Circuit  Signal amplitude is hold constant during A/D-Conversion S1 S2 Step 1: Sample closed opened Step 2: Hold opened closed Save Sampling S1 Forward S2 Voltage Follower + ue C uC ue' - ua No galvanic Connection to the input Prof. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology ue P. O. 5-13 .5.-Ing.

O. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.1 Components of A/D-Converters Sample & Hold Circuit Droop (Regeldifferenz): Discharge of the Capacitance because of leakage currents in Q1 und IC2 (~1mV/ms) Opening the relais Response time and charging the Capacitance (low pass from Q1 and C) C should habe a high value so that the „Droop“ is minimized C should have a low value. 5-14 . so that fast changing signals can be followed Prof. Dr.-Ing.5.

max   Uq    Uq 2 22  1 Uq  Ue.max 1 Ue.5.max   Uq    Uq 2 2N  1 1 Ue.1 Components of A/D-Converters N-Digits digital number 2-digits number N-digits number zN 1  z1z0 z1z0 Number of Digits 2 N Number of Output Stages 4=22 n= 2N Number of counting steps 3 = 22-1 2N-1 Ue.max   2 6 2 2 1 1 Ue.max 2N  1 UUm  1 Ue. 5-15 .max 22  1 Quantisation step Uq  Shift Thresholds at UUm  Quantisation noise Ue.max  2 2N  1 P.

5.1 Components of A/D-Converters Quantisierungsfehler X LSB 1 X max  X min   2 2 Output Steps errorquantisierung  1 X max  X min 2 2N  1  X max  X min : Analog values sector N : Number of Digits Signal-Noise-ratio U S dB  20 lg  signal.-Ing. O.eff U noise. Dr.eff N  Unoise.eff 1  T T 2     2 ULSB t  U dt    T  LSB T  12  2 Prof. 5-16 . Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.

Dr. O.de/cc/arbeitsgebiete/messtech/simulationen/ad/index.5.2 Components of A/D-Converters Classification of Analog/Digital-Converters Higher Resolution Faster High Resolution Fast Direct Comparing A/D-Converter Parallel-A/D-Converter Iterative A/D-Converter A/D-Converter with an intermediate Quantity Delta-Sigma Converter Successive Approximation Counting Procedures Voltage/Time Converter Voltage/Frequency Converter Single-slope ADC Dual-slope ADC ramp-compare ADC Nyquist-Criterion Oversampling See: http://groups.-Ing.html Prof.uni-paderborn. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P. 5-17 .

Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.2 Flash A/D-Converter Principle Comparison of the voltage to be converted with well known graduated reference voltages Properties  Resolution 4 to 12 Bit  Suitable for a high signal dynamic Stufe1 Stufe2 Binary Outputs Stufe3 Comparators Stufe4 Prof. Dr.-Ing.5. 5-18 . O.

25 1 1 0 0 010 0.5.2 Flash A/D-Converter Example:Parallel-A/D-Converter with 4-Comparators U0 3 U0 4 2 U0 4 1 U0 4 K4 K3 K2 K1 Voltage Comparator Signals Digital Output Number K1 K 2 K3 K 4 z2 z1z0 UE Uref 1 U0 4 1 2 U0  UE  U0 4 4 2 3 U0  UE  U0 4 4 0 0 0 0 000 0 1 0 0 0 001 0.5 3 4 U0  UE  U0 4 4 1 1 1 0 011 0. 8-Bit ADU necessitates 28 – 1 comparators! P. 5-19 .75 UE  U0 1 1 1 1 100 1 0  UE  Decoder Conversion Time dependent on switching speed of the comparators and the coder – 108 Values/sec – high expenditure.

Dr.-Ing. 2n steps) – Clock Frequency f Stop Clock Generator Clock count-up counter Erase – Count increases by 1 UV increases by Q=U – Reference voltage UV at the output of the DAU – Compare with Ue – Equality  stop counting – otherwise the counter increased (at clock) – new counter signal is D/A-converted – Procedure is repeated until UV > Ue Prof.5. O.3 Iterative AD-Converter Counting Procedure Use of D/A-Converter Advantage: better resolution through more adjustable steps Input Comparator Convesion time is dependent on : – Transient behavior of D/A-Converter – Switching speed of comparators – Input value – Number of digits n of output(max. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology Stop P. 5-20 .

3 Iterative AD-Converter Incremental Follow-Up-Converter Forward  forward and reverse counter  By a new conversion Uv is not reset to „0“  Saves time in comparison with the incremental converter Set Count-up Counter Reverse Digital-Analog Converter The conversion is terminated. O. 5-21 .5.-Ing. when Uv is alternating increased and decreased by U Prof. Dr. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.

5. O. Dr.Analog-Converter by Pulse Wide Modulation Basic Coponents  Digital stream  RC-low pass filter digital Pulse Stream analog Output Signal Function  The digital pulses have the same frequency  The pulse wide („High“-Duration) is proportional to the output voltage  The digital pulse stream is low pass filtered  The analog output voltage of the low pass filter is proportional to the mean duration of the „High“-level Prof. 5-22 .-Ing. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.3 Iterative AD-Converter Digital.

O. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P. 5-23 .5.-Ing. Dr.4 A/D-Converter with an Intermediate Quantity u/f-Converter ux u & f VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) Nx = f TTor= k ux TTor |||| TTor u/t-Converter ux Nx = t f0= k‘ ux f0 u & t |||| Clock Signal f0 Prof.

4 A/D-Converter with an Intermediate Quantity Periode Duration Measurement ux & f0 Counter Frequency Measurement ux Nx & T0 given Counter Nx given Tx ux Tx=1/fx ux t T0=1/f0 S0 t T0 S0 t t ux&S0 ux&S0 t Tx  Nx f0 Nx  Tx  f0  Tx T0 f Tx N x 1   0  Tx Nx f0 Nx t fx  Nx T0 T N x  0  fx  T0 Tx T0 fx N x 1    fx Nx T0 Nx P. 5-24 .5.

5-25 .4 A/D-Converter with an Intermediate Quantity u/f.Sawtooth-Converter If Ua reaches Ur  the relais is closed during Ta entladen des Kondensators Impulsformer The capacitance is discharged during the constant time Ta The frequency of occurence of the pulses is dependent on the Integration time (tx-t1) • Relative slow. sampling time can be until 2n / fref long • Sensitive to noise-peaks 25 P.5.

Dr.4 A/D-Converter with an Intermediate Quantity u/f.-Ing. O. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.Converter by the charge balancing method I0: Constant current source t  t0 t  t0 ux is integrated Integration time is dependent on ux Ua  Ur mono-stable trigger circuit changes ist input duringTa Integration during Ta (constant time intervall) Tg and fg are the maesure for the voltage Ux Discharging during current source is connected  Faster conversion Prof.5. 5-26 .

5.4 A/D-Converter with an Intermediate Quantity u/t.max  U0  dt  Ua.max  0  RC 0 RC t Ua (t3 )  0 Ua (t x )  Ux  Ua.Pulse Wide Converter 1 U t Ua  Ua.max  U0  t x U0 t3  t x   RC RC t3  t x   Ux  RC  Nx U0 Ux  f U0 Nx RC f 27 .

5. the counting is stopped • The time intervall T1 is well known but independent on Ue • The time intervall T2 of the desintegration is proportional to Ue Prof. Dr. than Ua is desintgrated through Integration of –Uref by 0 • Is Ua=0 reached. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.4 A/D-Converter with an Intermediate Quantity Dual Slope Voltage-Time -Converter Integrator Ue s1 Control+ Clock s R - s2 -Uref Ua & + Dual-Slope-Converter + Counter Z 000000 Comparator • First.-Ing. 5-28 . Ue is integrated during the given Time intervall T1. O.

Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P. (counter N2) t Prof.-Ing. Dr. 5-29 . O.5.4 A/D-Converter with an Intermediate Quantity Dual Slope Voltage-Time -Converter Typisch: Conversion Time 10 ms Resolution: >14 bit Integrator Ue -Uref s1 Control+ Clock s R - s2 Ua & + + Dual-Slope-Converter counterZ 000000 Comparator s 1 0 -U t a für Ue2>Ue1 T1 T2 T1(given): Integrator charges the capacitance (counter N1) T2(whilst Ua>0) : Integrator discharges capacitance.

RC..5.4 A/D-Converter with an Intermediate Quantity Dual Slope Voltage Time Converter - • Very high resolution • Slow (typ.. fTast a few10 Hz) • Not sensitive to drift (clock.) and to noise (because of integration) ~ N1 1 U a (t3 )   RC ~ N2 t3 t 2    u x dt   U ref dt   0  t1  t2  u x (t2  t1 )  U ref (t3  t2 )  0  u x N1  U ref N 2  0 Prof. 5-30 . Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology u x  U ref N2 N1 The precision is only dependent on Uref! P.. Dr. O.-Ing.

5. Dr.-Ing. 5-31 . O. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter 1 Bit-Delta-Modulator Input signal t Error Value 1 Bit-A/D-Converter constant value more swiches „1“ Analog signal Bit Stream y(t) „0“ Rising more „1“ t Decay  More „0“ Prediction Integrator 1 Bit-Sigma-Delta-Modulator (Smoothed Version of the Delta-Modulator) Prof.

100 kHz +Uref -Uref t   Oversampling: fa >> fsmax Typ.5.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter Components „Delta“ Difference „Sigma“ integrator comparator 1 Bit store Bit stream output Analog Input „1“ „0“ t „1“-Density ≈ Information Clock Mean value (Bit stream) = Mean Value (Signal) = Mean Value (Feed Back) 2Uref  Bitstream  Uref Properties  Sampling frequency typ. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P. 10-24 Bit resolution Application in audio technology Prof. O. Dr.-Ing. 5-32 .

O.8 V N2 5 Typical: Conversion Time 1 ms Resolution: >16 bit 1 Word Prof.5. Dr.-Ing.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter Possible Realisation Ua  0 K  1 Ir  I0 Ua  0 K  1 Ir  I0 Ua   Ux  1 i x  i r  T0 C N1 4 UM   1V  0. 5-33 . Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology [Schrüfer] P.

Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology Clock rate = Sampling rate (64-times higher than signal frequency P. O.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter Difference Integration Compare with 0V Fit to the clock edge Eingangsspannung bei Uref  Less Switching Pulse proportion Modulated Signal Prof. Dr. 5-34 .-Ing.5.

5 Sigma-Delta-Converter Difference Integration Compare with 0V Fit to the clock edge Pulse proportion Modulated Signal Clock rate = Sampling rate (64-times higher than signal frequency http://www.de/Elektronik/DeltaSigma/DeltaSigma_D.5.beis.html P. 5-35 .

Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.5. O. reducing the number of samples in a discrete-time signal) Reducing the sampling points  increasing resolution 16:1 7 decimation 16  0. Dr.-Ing.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter Digital Decimation from Bit Stream (Down Sampling. 5-36 .4375  0111 Mean value Output : 4Bit-Value Input:16 1Bit-Values Mean Value of the bit stream corresponds to: Input signal overlapped with disturbing signals The more bit stream pulses are used the more precise is the mean value  Oversampling is necessary Prof.

5 Sigma-Delta-Converter Input Signal Input Signal – Feedback Signal Feedback Signal Integrator Output Signal P.5. 5-37 .

5.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter Comparator Bit Stream Low Pass Filtered Signal F ( s)  g s  g Digital Low Pass Filter: U (t )  U ref  N1 N gesamt P. 5-38 .

5 0 0 1 0.5 0.5 Zeit ins [s] Digital zurückgerechnetes Signal mit Fenster=500 (eine Periode) 1 1.5 0 0 0.5 3 -3 x 10 1 1.5 2 Zeit ins [s] Digital zurückgerechnetes Signal mit Fenster=50 1 1.Example.5 3 -3 x 10 2. Window 1 0.5 0 0 1 0.5 Zeit in [s] 2 3 -3 x 10 2.5 2 Zeit ins [s] Digital zurückgerechnetes Signal mit Fenster=10 1 1.5 3 -3 x 10 2. the smaller the limit frequency of the digital Low Pass  Mean Value  Phase Shift Amplitude in [V]Amplitude in [V]Amplitude in [V]Amplitude in [V]Amplitude in [V] 5.5 1 1.75  1 125 The bigger the window is.5 2 2.5 0.5 0 0 1 0.96  1 120 125 Example.5 0 0 1 0.5 3 -3 x 10 39 .5 0.5 0.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter Digital zurückgerechnetes Signal mit Fenster=1 1 0. Window 2 94 0.5 2 Zeit ins [s] Digital zurückgerechnetes Signal mit Fenstergrösse= 125 2.

5-40 .High Signal Value Frequency of the disturbing signals in the neighborhood of the signal frequency P.

Ordnung Sigma-Delta-Converter 2. 5-41 . O.beis.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter 1.-Ing.de/Elektronik/DeltaSigma/DeltaSigma_D.5. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P. Dr. Order  Reducing disturbing signals Not one after the other!  Signal band width can be higher  Clock rate kann be smaller  Accuracy of the output signal can be higher (less conversion noise) http://www.html Prof.

Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P. O.-Ing.Order of the Sigma-Delta-Converter .5. Dr.Oversampling rate Prof. 5-42 .5 Sigma-Delta-Converter Structure Two Disturbations • Quantisation noise (Digitalisation) • Conversion Noise (within the Bitstream) dependent on: .

-Ing. 5-43 .5. Dr. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter Conversion Noise SNR [dB] Modulator Order Oversampling Rate Typical: 24 Bit. Modulator third order with 64-Times Oversampling (-160 dB Conversion Noise and -147 dB Quantisation Noise) Prof. O.

5-44 .5.5 Sigma-Delta-Converter First Order Störsignal Signal (Komparator und Speicher) Disturbing Usefull Signal Nutzsignal Second Order Zweite Ordnung Disturbing Störsignal Signal (Komparator und Speicher) Nutzsignal Usefull Signal Lower Frequency Band  Desired input signals are transmitted  Disturbing signals are significantly reduced  For Modulators of a higher order disturbing signals are even better supressed ("Noise Shaping") High Frequency  Signal is supressed  Distrubing Effects are amplified („Alias-Effekt“) Prof. O.-Ing. Dr. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.

6 errors by A/D-Converter Offset-Error Integral Nonlinearity Deviation between converted value and the right value Amplification Error Differential Nonlinearity Absolute Deviation of the width of the Quantisation Steps from Ideal Value 1 ULSB Prof. Dr. O. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology P.-Ing. 5-45 .5.

Overview A/D-Converter Main Advantages Flash Converter Successive Dual Slope Approximation Sigma Delta Ultra-High Speed when power consumption not primary concern Medium to high resolution (8 to 16bit). High precision external components necessary Higher order (4th order or higher) multibit ADC and multibit feedback DAC. 5-46 . low power consumption. Ca. expensive. large size. low power. 10 ns-100ns Does not change with increased resolution. power consumption. Kanoun Chair for Measurement and Sensor Technology 12 bit 22 bit 16 bit 24 bit More bits? P. Speed limited to ~5Msps. May require antialiasing filter. high Conversion Time Typ. digital filter reduces anti-aliasing requirements. good noise performance High resolution. 1 µs-100µs Ca. high resolution. resolution. 5Msps and under. low to medium speed. 200 µs-2ms Tradeoff between data output rate and noise free resolution. x ms Increases linearly Increases linearly with increased with increased resolution. O. Resolution 4 bit 8 bit 8 bit 18 bit Prof. Slow Conversion rate. Ca. Disadvantages Metastability. Ca.-Ing. small size. Dr.